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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746815/higher-order-areas-of-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#1
Lindsey L Glickfeld, Shawn R Olsen
The brain has evolved to transform sensory information in the environment into neural representations that can be used for perception and action. Higher-order sensory cortical areas, with their increasingly complex receptive fields and integrative properties, are thought to be critical nodes for this function. This is especially true in the primate visual cortex, in which functionally specialized areas are engaged in parallel streams to support diverse computations. Recent anatomical and physiological studies of the mouse visual cortex have revealed a similarly complex network of specialized higher-order areas...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746814/probabilistic-computations-for-attention-eye-movements-and-search
#2
Miguel P Eckstein
The term visual attention immediately evokes the idea of limited resources, serial processing, or a zoom metaphor. But evidence has slowly accumulated that computations that take into account probabilistic relationships among visual forms and the target contribute to optimizing decisions in biological and artificial organisms, even without considering these limited-capacity processes in covert attention or even foveation. The benefits from such computations can be formalized within the framework of an ideal Bayesian observer and can be related to the classic theory of sensory cue combination in vision science and context-driven approaches to object detection in computer vision...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746813/binocular-mechanisms-of-3d-motion-processing
#3
Lawrence K Cormack, Thaddeus B Czuba, Jonas Knöll, Alexander C Huk
The visual system must recover important properties of the external environment if its host is to survive. Because the retinae are effectively twodimensional but the world is three-dimensional (3D), the patterns of stimulation both within and across the eyes must be used to infer the distal stimulus-the environment-in all three dimensions. Moreover, animals and elements in the environment move, which means the input contains rich temporal information. Here, in addition to reviewing the literature, we discuss how and why prior work has focused on purported isolated systems (e...
July 26, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745361/in-silico-genotoxicity-of-coumarins-application-of-the-phenol-explorer-food-database-to-functional-food-science
#4
E Guardado Yordi, M J Matos, A Pérez Martínez, A C Tornes, L Santana, E Molina, E Uriarte
Coumarins are a group of phytochemicals that may be beneficial or harmful to health depending on their type and dosage and the matrix that contains them. Some of these compounds have been proven to display pro-oxidant and clastogenic activities. Therefore, in the current work, we have studied the coumarins that are present in food sources extracted from the Phenol-Explorer database in order to predict their clastogenic activity and identify the structure-activity relationships and genotoxic structural alerts using alternative methods in the field of computational toxicology...
July 26, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742097/mrtadfinder-a-network-modularity-based-approach-to-identify-topologically-associating-domains-in-multiple-resolutions
#5
Koon-Kiu Yan, Shaoke Lou, Mark Gerstein
Genome-wide proximity ligation based assays such as Hi-C have revealed that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structural units called topologically associating domains (TADs). From a visual examination of the chromosomal contact map, however, it is clear that the organization of the domains is not simple or obvious. Instead, TADs exhibit various length scales and, in many cases, a nested arrangement. Here, by exploiting the resemblance between TADs in a chromosomal contact map and densely connected modules in a network, we formulate TAD identification as a network optimization problem and propose an algorithm, MrTADFinder, to identify TADs from intra-chromosomal contact maps...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738015/observational-study-to-estimate-the-changes-in-the-effectiveness-of-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-with-time-since-vaccination-for-preventing-tuberculosis-in-the-uk
#6
Punam Mangtani, Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo, Ruth H Keogh, Lucy Trinder, Peter G Smith, Paul Em Fine, Jonathan Sterne, Ibrahim Abubakar, Emilia Vynnycky, John Watson, David Elliman, Marc Lipman, Laura C Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Until recently, evidence that protection from the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination lasted beyond 10 years was limited. In the past few years, studies in Brazil and the USA (in Native Americans) have suggested that protection from BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) in childhood can last for several decades. The UK's universal school-age BCG vaccination programme was stopped in 2005 and the programme of selective vaccination of high-risk (usually ethnic minority) infants was enhanced...
July 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736571/evaluation-of-quality-assessment-protocols-for-high-throughput-genome-resequencing-data
#7
REVIEW
Matteo Chiara, Giulio Pavesi
Large-scale initiatives aiming to recover the complete sequence of thousands of human genomes are currently being undertaken worldwide, concurring to the generation of a comprehensive catalog of human genetic variation. The ultimate and most ambitious goal of human population scale genomics is the characterization of the so-called human "variome," through the identification of causal mutations or haplotypes. Several research institutions worldwide currently use genotyping assays based on Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for diagnostics and clinical screenings, and the widespread application of such technologies promises major revolutions in medical science...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733271/telerehabilitation-review-of-the-state-of-the-art-and-areas-of-application
#8
REVIEW
Alessandro Peretti, Francesco Amenta, Seyed Khosrow Tayebati, Giulio Nittari, Syed Sarosh Mahdi
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine applications have been increasing due to the development of new computer science technologies and of more advanced telemedical devices. Various types of telerehabilitation treatments and their relative intensities and duration have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to provide a detailed overview of the rehabilitation techniques for remote sites (telerehabilitation) and their fields of application, with analysis of the benefits and the drawbacks related to use...
July 21, 2017: JMIR Rehabil Assist Technol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#9
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727965/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction-yes-no-and-maybe
#10
Carol S Dweck
In this piece, I first celebrate the growing contribution of psychology to the understanding and solution of pressing social issues. Then, despite these exciting developments, I worry about whether we have created a field that our students want to spend their lives in, and I suggest concerns that might fruitfully be addressed. Finally, I worry about the potential fragmentation of psychology and applaud programs of research that have shown the unique and important contributions to be made when the methods and perspectives of neuroscience, cognitive science, and computational modeling are integrated with those of social, personality, and developmental psychology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727962/a-website-system-for-communicating-psychological-science
#11
Ed Diener
The peer review and journal system have shortcomings, and both computers and the Internet have made complementary or alternative systems attractive. In this article, I recommend that we implement a new platform for open communication of psychological science on a dedicated website to complement the current review and journal system, with reader reviews of the articles and with all behavioral scientists being eligible to publish and review articles. The judged merit of articles would be based on the citations and the ratings of the work by the whole scientific community...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726128/on-the-response-of-the-baltic-proper-to-changes-of-the-total-phosphorus-supply
#12
Anders Stigebrandt
Using a time-dependent phosphorus (P) budget model for the Baltic proper, describing sources and sinks at the external borders of the water column, one may compute the e-folding time T of the adjustment of the winter surface water P concentration c 1 to abruptly changed total P supply. The restoration time TR = 3T is introduced as a practical measure of the time it takes to achieve 95% of the change of c 1 towards the final, equilibrium, state c 1e. The P budget model, including an internal source emanating from deep anoxic bottoms, also shows that c 1e is proportional to the total P supply to the water column...
July 19, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724937/bootstrap-quantification-of-estimation-uncertainties-in-network-degree-distributions
#13
Yulia R Gel, Vyacheslav Lyubchich, L Leticia Ramirez Ramirez
We propose a new method of nonparametric bootstrap to quantify estimation uncertainties in functions of network degree distribution in large ultra sparse networks. Both network degree distribution and network order are assumed to be unknown. The key idea is based on adaptation of the "blocking" argument, developed for bootstrapping of time series and re-tiling of spatial data, to random networks. We first sample a set of multiple ego networks of varying orders that form a patch, or a network block analogue, and then resample the data within patches...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#14
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722036/quantitative-probing-of-subtle-interactions-among-h-bonds-in-alpha-hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-complexes
#15
Quanli Gu, Peifeng Su, Yong Xia, Zhijun Yang, Carl O Trindle, Joseph L Knee
Hydrogen (H) bonds are of fundamental importance in a wide range of molecular sciences. While the study of two-center H-bonding AH is well advanced, much remains to be learned in a quantitative and definitive manner for complexes with multiple H-bonds. Exemplary cases are in the category of alpha hydroxy carboxylic acids, i.e., the complexes of glycolic acid with water and formic acid. In glycolic acid, an intramolecular H-bond forms between the carboxyl group and the alpha OH group. The alpha OH stretching frequency may be affected upon complexing with water or formic acid...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720283/addressing-the-digital-divide-in-contemporary-biology-lessons-from-teaching-unix
#16
Serghei Mangul, Lana S Martin, Alexander Hoffmann, Matteo Pellegrini, Eleazar Eskin
Life and medical science researchers increasingly rely on applications that lack a graphical interface. Scientists who are not trained in computer science face an enormous challenge analyzing high-throughput data. We present a training model for use of command-line tools when the learner has little to no prior knowledge of UNIX.
July 15, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718273/3d-quantitative-evaluation-of-spine-proprioceptive-perception-motor-control-through-instinctive-self-correction-manoeuvre-in-healthy-young-subjects-posture-an-observational-study
#17
Moreno D'Amico, Edyta Kinel, Piero Roncoletta
BACKGROUND: Conservative treatment in spine deformities and spine related disorders is mainly based on proper individual proprioceptive and motor control training. For these reasons, conservative treatment involves the stimulation of individual capability of perceiving/reducing deformities, blocks and/or improper spine posture by voluntary control. The literature describes that habitually adopted relaxed postures often exacerbate low back pain. Typically, youths can be referred to therapeutic programs aimed at improving the quality of body posture along with fostering the awareness of the importance of correct posture...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716431/freehand-3-d-ultrasound-imaging-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Hamed Mozaffari, Won-Sook Lee
Two-dimensional ultrasound (US) imaging has been successfully used in clinical applications as a low-cost, portable and non-invasive image modality for more than three decades. Recent advances in computer science and technology illustrate the promise of the 3-D US modality as a medical imaging technique that is comparable to other prevalent modalities and that overcomes certain drawbacks of 2-D US. This systematic review covers freehand 3-D US imaging between 1970 and 2017, highlighting the current trends in research fields, the research methods, the main limitations, the leading researchers, standard assessment criteria and clinical applications...
July 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715955/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-human-face-perception
#19
Kalanit Grill-Spector, Kevin S Weiner, Kendrick Kay, Jesse Gomez
Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715407/building-the-biomedical-data-science-workforce
#20
Michelle C Dunn, Philip E Bourne
This article describes efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2013 to 2016 to train a national workforce in biomedical data science. We provide an analysis of the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) training program strengths and weaknesses with an eye toward future directions aimed at any funder and potential funding recipient worldwide. The focus is on extramurally funded programs that have a national or international impact rather than the training of NIH staff, which was addressed by the NIH's internal Data Science Workforce Development Center...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
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