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Computer science

Bo Zhu, Jeremiah Z Liu, Stephen F Cauley, Bruce R Rosen, Matthew S Rosen
Image reconstruction is essential for imaging applications across the physical and life sciences, including optical and radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging, X-ray computed tomography, positron emission tomography, ultrasound imaging and radio astronomy. During image acquisition, the sensor encodes an intermediate representation of an object in the sensor domain, which is subsequently reconstructed into an image by an inversion of the encoding function. Image reconstruction is challenging because analytic knowledge of the exact inverse transform may not exist a priori, especially in the presence of sensor non-idealities and noise...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Gang Mei, Jiayin Zhang, Nengxiong Xu, Kunyang Zhao
The strategy of Divide-and-Conquer (D&C) is one of the frequently used programming patterns to design efficient algorithms in computer science, which has been parallelized on shared memory systems and distributed memory systems. Tzeng and Owens specifically developed a generic paradigm for parallelizing D&C algorithms on modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). In this paper, by following the generic paradigm proposed by Tzeng and Owens, we provide a new and publicly available GPU implementation of the famous D&C algorithm, QuickHull, to give a sample and guide for parallelizing D&C algorithms on the GPU...
January 2018: Heliyon
Shaheen A Abdulkareem, Ellen-Wien Augustijn, Yaseen T Mustafa, Tatiana Filatova
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Heléne F Dorfling, Zarina Lockhat, Samantha Pretorius, Maryna Steyn, Anna C Oettlé
Although guidelines for facial approximations, including those for the eye, are in use in South Africa, limited data on African populations exist to confirm its validity. As precise placement of the eyes in facial approximations is of importance for facial recognition, this study tested established guidelines by measuring specific instrumental dimensions. Forty-nine cadavers from the Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University and the University of Pretoria were dissected to determine the position of the canthi and the size and position of the eyeball in the orbit...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ján Antolík, Andrew P Davison
Two trends have been unfolding in computational neuroscience during the last decade. First, a shift of focus to increasingly complex and heterogeneous neural network models, with a concomitant increase in the level of collaboration within the field (whether direct or in the form of building on top of existing tools and results). Second, a general trend in science toward more open communication, both internally, with other potential scientific collaborators, and externally, with the wider public. This multi-faceted development toward more integrative approaches and more intense communication within and outside of the field poses major new challenges for modelers, as currently there is a severe lack of tools to help with automatic communication and sharing of all aspects of a simulation workflow to the rest of the community...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Ning Guo, Rémi Maurice, David Teze, Jérôme Graton, Julie Champion, Gilles Montavon, Nicolas Galland
The importance of halogen bonds-highly directional interactions between an electron-deficient σ-hole moiety in a halogenated compound and an acceptor such as a Lewis base-is being increasingly recognized in a wide variety of fields from biomedicinal chemistry to materials science. The heaviest halogens are known to form stronger halogen bonds, implying that if this trend continues down the periodic table, astatine should exhibit the highest halogen-bond donating ability. This may be mitigated, however, by the relativistic effects undergone by heavy elements, as illustrated by the metallic character of astatine...
March 19, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Sarina R Isenberg, Norah L Crossnohere, Manali I Patel, Alison Conca-Cheng, John F P Bridges, Sandy M Swoboda, Thomas J Smith, Timothy M Pawlik, Matthew Weiss, Angelo E Volandes, Anne Schuster, Judith A Miller, Carolyn Pastorini, Debra L Roter, Rebecca A Aslakson
OBJECTIVE: Video-based advanc care planning (ACP) tools have been studied in varied medical contexts; however, none have been developed for patients undergoing major surgery. Using a patient- and family-centredness approach, our objective was to implement human-centred design (HCD) to develop an ACP decision support video for patients and their family members when preparing for major surgery. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study investigators partnered with surgical patients and their family members, surgeons and other health professionals to design an ACP decision support video using key HCD principles...
March 18, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Ibrahim O Alanazi, Sami A AlYahya, Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Manijeh Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh
Exponentially growing scientific knowledge in scientific publications has resulted in the emergence of a new interdisciplinary science of literature mining. In text mining, the machine reads the published literature and transfers the discovered knowledge to mathematical-like formulas. In an integrative approach in this study, we used text mining in combination with network discovery, pathway analysis, and enrichment analysis of genomic regions for better understanding of biomarkers in lung cancer. Particular attention was paid to non-coding biomarkers...
March 16, 2018: Gene
Barnaby J Proctor, Nima Moghaddam, William Vogt, Roshan das Nair
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to review the evidence for the effectiveness of telephone psychotherapy on psychological outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD: We conducted a systematic search of EMBASE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and hand-searched relevant journals to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of telephone psychotherapy on psychological outcomes in people with MS (last search completed on October 1, 2015)...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Hamad S AlRumaih, Abdulaziz AlHelal, Nadim Z Baba, Charles J Goodacre, Ali Al-Qahtani
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Clinical studies have identified advantages of digital complete denture technology including patient satisfaction, improved mastication, increased retention, and technique efficiency. However, studies that focusing on the effect of denture adhesive on the retention of milled and heat-activated denture bases are lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of denture adhesive on the retention of milled and heat-activated denture bases...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
A Sozza, F Piazza, M Cencini, F De Lillo, G Boffetta
We present an efficient point-particle approach to simulate reaction-diffusion processes of spherical absorbing particles in the diffusion-limited regime, as simple models of cellular uptake. The exact solution for a single absorber is used to calibrate the method, linking the numerical parameters to the physical particle radius and uptake rate. We study the configurations of multiple absorbers of increasing complexity to examine the performance of the method by comparing our simulations with available exact analytical or numerical results...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Tamar Mendelson, William W Eaton
PURPOSE: Prevention of mental disorders is a rapidly growing area of research with substantial potential benefits for population health. This paper reviews the evidence base for prevention of depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. METHODS: We synthesized evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between 2013 and 2018 on prevention of depression, anxiety, and first-episode psychosis. We included reviews of randomized controlled trials testing psychological, psychosocial, and pharmacological preventive interventions...
March 15, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sami S AlAbdulwahab, Shaji John Kachanathu, Abdullah Saad AlSaeed
[Purpose] Academic performance of college students can be impacted by the efficacy of students' ability and teaching methods. It is important to assess the progression of college students' cognitive abilities among different college majors and as they move from junior to senior levels. However, dearth of studies have been examined the role of cognitive ability tests as a tool to determine the aptitude of the perspective students. Therefore, this study assessed cognitive abilities of computer science and ART students...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Shuai Zhang, Burkhard Militzer, Lorin X Benedict, François Soubiran, Philip A Sterne, Kevin P Driver
Carbon-hydrogen plasmas and hydrocarbon materials are of broad interest to laser shock experimentalists, high energy density physicists, and astrophysicists. Accurate equations of state (EOSs) of hydrocarbons are valuable for various studies from inertial confinement fusion to planetary science. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics results at lower temperatures, we compute the EOSs for hydrocarbons from simulations performed at 1473 separate (ρ, T)-points distributed over a range of compositions...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alberto Gómez, Manuel Nieto-Díaz, Ángela Del Águila, Enrique Arias
Transparency in science is increasingly a hot topic. Scientists are required to show not only results but also evidence of how they have achieved these results. In experimental studies of spinal cord injury, there are a number of standardized tests, such as the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for rats and Basso Mouse Scale for mice, which researchers use to study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effects of experimental therapies. Although the standardized data from the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale are particularly suited for storage and sharing in databases, systems of data acquisition and repositories are still lacking...
March 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Brian D Segal, Thomas Braun, Michael R Elliott, Hui Jiang
Researchers in genetics and other life sciences commonly use permutation tests to evaluate differences between groups. Permutation tests have desirable properties, including exactness if data are exchangeable, and are applicable even when the distribution of the test statistic is analytically intractable. However, permutation tests can be computationally intensive. We propose both an asymptotic approximation and a resampling algorithm for quickly estimating small permutation p-values (e.g., <10-6) for the difference and ratio of means in two-sample tests...
March 2018: Biometrics
Saeedullah Jan, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Ibrahim, Sarah Saeed
This study was planned to examine the hard and soft form of learning resources available on the internet accessed by the teaching faculty. This study was conducted at the Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan from January 2to April 2017. As the target population was not too large, no sampling technique was employed and census-based approach was adopted. For data collection, the pre-tested questionnaire was distributed among 115 faculty members of both basic and clinical sciences groups with a response rate of 66(57...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Yu Moriguchi, Dae-Sung Lee, Ryota Chijimatsu, Khair Thamina, Kazuto Masuda, Dai Itsuki, Hideki Yoshikawa, Satoshi Hamaguchi, Akira Myoui
In the physiochemical sciences, plasma is used to describe an ionized gas. Previous studies have implicated plasma surface treatment in the enhancement of hydrophilicity of implanted musculoskeletal reconstructive materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics, widely used in bone tissue regeneration, have made great advancements to skeletal surgery. In the present study, we investigate the impact of low-pressure plasma on the interconnected porous calcium hydroxyapatite (IP-CHA) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma, when used with oxygen, can augment the hydrophilicity of non-porous HA surfaces and the osteoconductivity of the IP-CHA disc via increased water penetration of inner porous structures, as demonstrated through microfocus computed tomography (μCT) assay...
2018: PloS One
Sagaren Govender, Cecile N Gerwel Proches, Abdulla Kader
Background: Four public hospitals in South Africa, which render both specialized and nonspecialized services to thousands of patients, were examined to determine the impact of leadership on health care service delivery. These hospitals were inundated by various problems that were impacting negatively on health care service delivery. Purpose: This research study aimed to gain a comprehensive understanding of the challenges, complexities and constraints facing public health care in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and to examine leadership as a strategy to enhance healthcare service delivery with a particular focus on four regional hospitals in the KZN Province...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Hermann Blessberger, Juergen Kammler, Hans Domanovits, Oliver Schlager, Brigitte Wildner, Danyel Azar, Martin Schillinger, Franz Wiesbauer, Clemens Steinwender
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of beta-blockers to influence perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus routine prescription of these drugs in unselected patients remains a controversial issue. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to systematically analyse the effects of perioperatively administered beta-blockers for prevention of surgery-related mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing any type of surgery while under general anaesthesia...
March 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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