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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241299/nmr-elucidation-of-monomer-dimer-transition-and-conformational-heterogeneity-in-histone-like-dna-binding-protein-of-helicobacter-pylori-hup
#1
Nancy Jaiswal, Nisha Raikwal, Himanshu Pandey, Nipanshu Agarwal, Ashish Arora, Krishna Mohan Poluri, Dinesh Kumar
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonizes under harsh acidic/oxidative stress conditions of human gastrointestinal tract and can survive there for infinitely longer durations of host life. The bacterium expresses several harbinger proteins to facilitate its persistent colonization under such conditions. One such protein in H. pylori is Histone like DNA binding protein (Hup) which in its homo-dimeric form binds to DNA to perform various DNA dependent cellular activities. Further, it also plays an important role in protecting the genomic DNA from oxidative stress and acidic denaturation...
December 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241220/high-risk-human-papillomavirus-in-oral-cancer-clinical-implications
#2
Subuhi Yete, Wendy D'Souza, Dhananjaya Saranath
Oral cancer is the eleventh most common cancer globally, with well-established major risk factors of tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18. HR-HPV16/18 are the etiologic agents of cervical cancers and a proportion of oropharyngeal cancers. HPV-associated oropharyngeal and oral cancers show better prognosis and response to therapy. However, the picture of HR-HPV16/18 and the clinical implications of oral cancers are not clear with the majority of reports combining oral cancer data with head and neck cancers...
December 15, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241210/combination-cyclophosphamide-glucocorticoids-provide-better-tolerability-and-outcomes-versus-glucocorticoids-alone-in-patients-with-sjogren-s-associated-chronic-interstitial-nephritis
#3
Yuqi Shen, Jingyuan Xie, Li Lin, Xiao Li, Pingyan Shen, Xiaoxia Pan, Hong Ren, Nan Chen
BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy has become an effective option for patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), while the use of cytotoxic agents is still debated. Our study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CTX) combined with glucocorticoids with those of patients treated with glucocorticoids alone. METHODS: All patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome with chronic TIN admitted to the Division of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, from January 1, 2002, to April 30, 2016, and treated with steroids alone or combined with CTX were included...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241197/renoprotective-effects-of-metformin
#4
Marc E De Broe, Farshad Kajbaf, Jean-Daniel Lalau
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It has become clear that metformin exerts pleiotropic actions beyond its glucose-lowering agent effect. In this review, we summarise the state of the art concerning the potential renoprotective effects of metformin in vitro, animal models and clinical nephrology. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PUBMED, ScienceDirect, between January 1957 and March 2017 using the following keywords: "metformin," "nephroprotection," "renoprotection," "survival," "renal failure," "chronic kidney diseases," "fibrosis," "polycystic kidney disease" and "microalbuminuria...
December 14, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241184/peritonitis-in-children-on-chronic-peritoneal-dialysis-the-experience-of-a-large-national-pediatric-cohort
#5
Daniela Ponce, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Ana Elizabeth Figueiredo, Pasqual Barretti
BACKGROUND: We performed this study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, microbiology, treatment, and outcome of peritonitis in pediatric Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients at a nationwide prospective study. METHODOLOGY: Patients younger than 18 years recruited in the BRAZPD II study from 2004 to 2011, who presented their first peritonitis episode, were included in the study. RESULTS: We found 125 first episodes of peritonitis in 491 children PD patients (0...
December 14, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241144/the-diverse-reasons-for-using-novel-psychoactive-substances-a-qualitative-study-of-the-users-own-perspectives
#6
Christophe Soussan, Martin Andersson, Anette Kjellgren
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of legally ambiguous and precarious Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitutes a challenge for policy makers and public health. Scientific and more in-depth knowledge about the motivations for using NPS is scarce and often consist of predetermined, non-systematic, or poorly described reasons deduced from top-down approaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore and characterize the users' self-reported reasons for NPS use inductively and more comprehensively...
December 11, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241121/nanotitania-crystals-induced-efficient-photocatalytic-color-degradation-antimicrobial-and-larvicidal-activity
#7
Jinu Udayabhanu, Vaitheeswari Kannan, Manish Tiwari, Geetha Natesan, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Microbial strains are also developing resistance to the available antibiotics, this currently represents a major public health challenge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241083/a-review-of-the-value-of-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-her2-targeted-therapies-in-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
N A Nixon, M B Hannouf, S Verma
The cost of cancer drugs continues to escalate with the rapid development and approval of novel therapies, especially over the course of the last decade. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, the survival benefits gained by new treatments have been undeniably substantial. It is important to assess the financial value of these therapies for decision making at both the societal and individual level. This information is key for managing resources in resource-limited health care systems, while at the same time supporting patient decision-making and conversations between patient and physicians on cost versus benefit...
December 10, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241072/combined-efficacy-of-oseltamivir-isoprinosine-and-ellagic-acid-in-influenza-a-h3n2-infected-mice
#9
Elitsa L Pavlova, Lora S Simeonova, Galina A Gegova
Influenza pathogenesis comprises a complex cascade of impaired cellular processes resulting from the viral replication and exaggerated immune response accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and oxidative stress, destructing membranous structures and tissues. By classical virological and biochemical methods we compared and evaluated the therapeutic effects of 2.5mg/kg/day of the antiviral drug - oseltamivir (OS), 500mg/kg/day of the immune modulator - isoprinosine (IP) and 500mg/kg/day of the antioxidant agent ellagic acid (EA) with a focus on their combined activities in influenza H3N2 virus-infected mice...
December 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241070/protocatechuic-acid-ameliorates-high-glucose-induced-extracellular-matrix-accumulation-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#10
Yali Ma, Fang Chen, Suxia Yang, Baoping Chen, Jun Shi
Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound of anthocyanins, was reported to possess various pharmacologic properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptosis, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activities. However, the role of PCA in diabetic nephropathy remains elusive. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PCA on extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in high glucose (HG)-induced human mesangial cells (MCs) and explore the possible mechanism. Our results demonstrated that PCA obviously inhibited HG-induced proliferation of MCs in a dose-dependent manner...
December 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241065/associations-between-maternal-triclosan-concentrations-in-early-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-impaired-glucose-tolerance-gestational-weight-gain-and-fetal-markers-of-metabolic-function
#11
Gabriel D Shapiro, Tye E Arbuckle, Jillian Ashley-Martin, William D Fraser, Mandy Fisher, Maryse F Bouchard, Patricia Monnier, Anne-Sophie Morisset, Adrienne S Ettinger, Linda Dodds
BACKGROUND: Triclosan is a phenolic biocide used in a multitude of consumer products and in health care settings. It is widely detected in the American and Canadian populations and has been shown in animal models to act as an endocrine disrupting agent. However, there has been little examination to date of the effects of triclosan exposure in pregnancy on perinatal metabolic outcomes in human populations. METHODS: Using data from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a Canadian pregnancy cohort, we measured associations of first-trimester urinary triclosan concentrations with total gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in pregnancy, and fetal markers of metabolic function...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241038/through-the-scope-darkly-the-gut-mycobiome-comes-into-focus
#12
Nydiaris Hernández-Santos, Bruce S Klein
The gut microbiome is comprised of microbes from multiple kingdoms, including bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, and perhaps other agents. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Jiang et al. (2017) reveal that fungal monocolonization after antibiotic-mediated depletion of intestinal bacteria prevents colitis and influenza, thus highlighting beneficial roles of fungi.
December 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241014/an-observational-study-of-the-efficacy-of-cisatracurium-compared-to-vecuronium-in-patients-with-or-at-risk-for-ards
#13
Peter D Sottile, Tyree H Kiser, Ellen L Burnham, P Michael Ho, Richard R Allen, R William Vandivier, Marc Moss
RATIONALE: The neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium may improve mortality for patients with moderate-severe ARDS. Other neuromuscular blocking agents, such as vecuronium, are commonly used and have different mechanisms of action, side effects, cost, and availability in the setting of drug shortages. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cisatracurium is associated with improved outcomes when compared vecuronium in patients at risk for and with ARDS. METHODS: Using a nationally representative database, patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with a diagnosis of ARDS or an ARDS risk factor, received mechanical ventilation, and were treated with a continuous infusion of neuromuscular blocking agent for at least two days within two days of hospital admission were included...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240994/using-mutations-for-pesticide-resistance-to-identify-the-cause-of-toxicity-in-environmental-samples
#14
Donald P Weston, Helen C Poynton, Kaley Major, Gary Wellborn, Michael J Lydy, Christoph Moschet, Richard Edward Connon
Traditional Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIE) are applied to identify causal agents in complex environmental samples showing toxicity, and rely upon physical or chemical manipulation of samples. However, mutations conferring toxicant resistance provide the opportunity for a novel biologically-based TIE. Populations within the Hyalella azteca complex from pesticide-affected waterways were two and three orders of magnitude more resistant to the pyrethroid cyfluthrin and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, respectively, than laboratory-cultured H...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240978/biomimicry-of-volatile-based-microbial-control-for-managing-emerging-fungal-pathogens
#15
REVIEW
Kyle T Gabriel, Joseph D Sexton, Christopher T Cornelison
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by a wide range of microorganisms and for a number of purposes. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well-founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs can elicit significant antimicrobial effects. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapor pressure...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240905/coronary-autoregulation-and-assessment-of-stenosis-severity-without-pharmacological-vasodilation
#16
Guus A de Waard, Christopher M Cook, Niels van Royen, Justin E Davies
For identification of myocardial ischaemia by non-invasive imaging or invasive physiological assessment, administration of a vasodilating or positive inotropic agent is often considered indispensable to exhaust the cardiac compensation mechanisms. Indeed, microcirculatory dilatation is needed for assessment of myocardial perfusion or coronary blood flow. However, three different modalities exist that quantify myocardial ischaemia without recourse to pharmacological stress agents, using either myocardial contrast echocardiography, imaging of myocardial blood volume or invasive coronary pressure measurement with the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR)...
December 11, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240881/nrf2-promotes-mutant-k-ras-p53-driven-pancreatic-carcinogenesis
#17
Shin Hamada, Keiko Taguchi, Atsushi Masamune, Masayuki Yamamoto, Tooru Shimosegawa
The Keap1-Nrf2 system contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating oxidative stress responses in normal tissues and organs, and is exploited in various cancers for proliferation, survival and acquisition of therapy resistance. Pancreatic cancer remains one of the intractable cancers, despite the improved clinical outcomes of other types of cancer, due to its invasive and refractory nature to therapeutic intervention. The current study aimed to clarify the contribution of Nrf2 to pancreatic carcinogenesis using a pancreas-specific mutant K-ras and p53 (KPC) mouse model...
June 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240863/long-term-follow-up-of-onychomycosis-patients-treated-with-efinaconazole
#18
Richard A Pollak, Carla Ilie
Onychomycosis is a common disease that remains difficult to treat despite the introduction of new topical agents. Clinical trials on efinaconazole and tavaborole included 48 weeks' daily treatment regimens with a 4-week follow-up. It has been suggested that either a longer treatment regimen or longer follow-up would lead to even better results, primarily due to the time taken for the diseased nail to grow out, especially in those patients with more severe disease. <p>OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a longer follow-up period on the efficacy of efinaconazole 10% topical solution in patients with moderate-to-severe onychomycosis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240857/the-latest-drugs-and-small-molecule-inhibitors-for-skin-and-hair
#19
Varun Kalhun, Neil Sadick
<p>Biologic drugs, a novel class of agents engineered to target specifc mediators of infammation, and small-molecule inhibitors that pen-etrate the cell membrane to interact with targets inside a cell represent the cutting-edge of pharmacological biomedical therapeutics. Clinical studies have already demonstrated the effectiveness of this new generation of drugs in treating a variety of medical illnesses and conditions that were refractory to traditional treatments. This review aims to describe the latest available or currently in-develop-ment drugs, biologic agents, and small molecule inhibitors for treatment of psoriasis, rosacea, alopecia areata, and atopic dermatitis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240856/combining-topical-psoriasis-treatment-to-enhance-systemic-and-phototherapy-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
Jerry Bagel, Linda Stein Gold
<p>Psoriasis is a chronic infammatory skin disease that affects millions of people in the United States as well as worldwide. While there is cur-rently no cure for psoriasis, many treatment options are available. Topical therapies are the mainstay for the majority of patients who have limited or mild psoriasis. Among these medications, topical vitamin D analogs (eg, calcipotriene) and corticosteroids (eg, betamethasone), and these drugs in combination, are the most widely prescribed psoriasis drugs and are the cornerstone of topical therapies...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
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