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Master cell disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448237/regulatory-t-cell-therapy-for-uveitis-a-new-promising-challenge
#1
Arnaud Foussat, Sylvie Gregoire, Nathalie Clerget-Chossat, Celine Terrada, Hélène Asnagli, François M Lemoine, David Klatzmann, Phuc LeHoang, Miguel Forte, Bahram Bodaghi
Uveitis is a sight-threatening primary intraocular inflammation of various origins in mainly young and active patients. Due to the absence of biomarkers in most of the cases, the current treatment of noninfectious entities remains nonspecific, using corticosteroids, conventional immunosuppressors, and more recently biological agents. Identification of regulatory T cells in different models of autoimmune uveitis together with the evaluation of this important subpopulation in different entities paved the way for new therapeutic strategies, in addition to exclusive pharmaceutical approaches...
May 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448060/small-rna-transfection-in-primary-human-th17-cells-by-next-generation-electroporation
#2
Misty M Montoya, K Mark Ansel
CD4(+) T cells can differentiate into several subsets of effector T helper cells depending on the surrounding cytokine milieu. Th17 cells can be generated from naïve CD4(+) T cells in vitro by activating them in the presence of the polarizing cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, and TGFβ. Th17 cells orchestrate immunity against extracellular bacteria and fungi, but their aberrant activity has also been associated with several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Th17 cells are identified by the chemokine receptor CCR6 and defined by their master transcription factor, RORγt, and characteristic effector cytokine, IL-17A...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443874/inertial-migration-and-axial-control-of-deformable-capsules
#3
Christian Schaaf, Holger Stark
The mechanical deformability of single cells is an important indicator for various diseases such as cancer, blood diseases and inflammation. Lab-on-a-chip devices allow to separate such cells from healthy cells using hydrodynamic forces. We perform hydrodynamic simulations based on the lattice-Boltzmann method and study the behavior of an elastic capsule in a microfluidic channel flow in the inertial regime. While inertial lift forces drive the capsule away from the channel center, its deformability favors migration in the opposite direction...
April 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441415/pax7-remodels-the-chromatin-landscape-in-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells
#4
Karin C Lilja, Nan Zhang, Alessandro Magli, Volkan Gunduz, Christopher J Bowman, Robert W Arpke, Radbod Darabi, Michael Kyba, Rita Perlingeiro, Brian D Dynlacht
Pluripotent stem cells (PSC) hold great promise for the treatment of human skeletal muscle diseases. However, it remains challenging to convert PSC to skeletal muscle cells, and the mechanisms by which the master regulatory transcription factor, Pax7, promotes muscle stem (satellite) cell identity are not yet understood. We have taken advantage of PSC-derived skeletal muscle precursor cells (iPax7), wherein the induced expression of Pax7 robustly initiates the muscle program and enables the in vitro generation of precursors that seed the satellite cell compartment upon transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435052/neurovascular-neuroenergetic-coupling-axis-in-the-brain-master-regulation-by-nitric-oxide-and-consequences-in-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#5
REVIEW
Cátia F Lourenço, Ana Ledo, Rui M Barbosa, João Laranjinha
The strict energetic demands of the brain require that nutrient supply and usage be fine-tuned in accordance with the specific temporal and spatial patterns of ever-changing levels of neuronal activity. This is achieved by adjusting local cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a function of activity level - neurovascular coupling - and by changing how energy substrates are metabolized and shuttled amongst astrocytes and neurons - neuroenergetic coupling. Both activity-dependent increase of CBF and O2 and glucose utilization by active neural cells are inextricably linked, establishing a functional metabolic axis in the brain, the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis...
April 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424277/janus-kinase-2-regulates-transcription-factor-eb-expression-and-autophagy-completion-in-glomerular-podocytes
#6
Tamadher A Alghamdi, Syamantak Majumder, Karina Thieme, Sri N Batchu, Kathryn E White, Youan Liu, Angela S Brijmohan, Bridgit B Bowskill, Suzanne L Advani, Minna Woo, Andrew Advani
The nonreceptor kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) has garnered attention as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of CKD. However, being ubiquitously expressed in the adult, JAK2 is also likely to be necessary for normal organ function. Here, we investigated the phenotypic effects of JAK2 deficiency. Mice in which JAK2 had been deleted from podocytes exhibited an elevation in urine albumin excretion that was accompanied by increased podocyte autophagosome fractional volume and p62 aggregation, which are indicative of impaired autophagy completion...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420760/novel-lnc-rna-regulated-by-hif-1-inhibits-apoptotic-cell-death-in-the-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-under-hypoxia
#7
Imari Mimura, Yosuke Hirakawa, Yasuharu Kanki, Natsuki Kushida, Ryo Nakaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Hiroyuki Aburatani, Masaomi Nangaku
Chronic tubulointerstitial hypoxia plays an important role as the final common pathway to end-stage renal disease. HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) is a master transcriptional factor under hypoxia, regulating downstream target genes. Genome-wide analysis of HIF-1 binding sites using high-throughput sequencers has clarified various kinds of downstream targets and made it possible to demonstrate the novel roles of HIF-1. Our aim of this study is to identify novel HIF-1 downstream epigenetic targets which may play important roles in the kidney...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417264/branched-chain-amino-acids-and-brain-metabolism
#8
Justin E Sperringer, Adele Addington, Susan M Hutson
This review aims to provide a historical reference of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism and provide a link between peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) metabolism of BCAAs. Leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu, Ile, and Val) are unlike most other essential amino acids (AA), being transaminated initially in extrahepatic tissues, and requiring interorgan or intertissue shuttling for complete catabolism. Within the periphery, BCAAs are essential AAs and are required for protein synthesis, and are key nitrogen donors in the form of Glu, Gln, and Ala...
April 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415801/identification-of-long-non-coding-rnas-that-stimulate-cell-survival-in-bladder-cancer
#9
Aleksandra M Dudek, Sabrina J Boer, Nanda Boon, J Alfred Witjes, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Gerald W Verhaegh
For many years, research on the biology underlying bladder cancer focused on protein-coding genes which cover only about 3% of the human genome. Recently, it was discovered that a large part of the human genome is actively transcribed as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). LncRNAs are master regulators of gene expression and several lncRNAs were shown to play a role in bladder cancer development and progression. Here, we analyzed lncRNA expression in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) using the MiTranscriptome database of cancer lncRNA expression profiles, and we studied their function in bladder cancer-derived tumor cells...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412208/high-expression-of-p2x7r-is-an-independent-postoperative-indicator-of-poor-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Fei Qian, Jianjia Xiao, Baoying Hu, Naizhi Sun, Wei Yin, Jianwei Zhu
The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a master regulator of inflammation and inflammation-related diseases. Recently, P2X7R has been reportedly involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and prognostic merit of P2X7R in human colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression profile of P2X7R in 12 pairs of CRC and non-tumorous specimens was evaluated using western blotting analysis. Additionally, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 116 paraffin-embedded CRC specimens, and evaluated the correlation between P2X7R expression and clinicopathological factors...
April 12, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401957/contemporary-management-of-patients-with-penile-cancer-and-lymph-node-metastasis
#11
REVIEW
Andrew Leone, Gregory J Diorio, Curtis Pettaway, Viraj Master, Philippe E Spiess
Penile cancer is a rare disease that causes considerable physical and psychological patient morbidity, especially at advanced stages. Patients with low-stage nodal metastasis can achieve durable survival with surgery alone, but those with extensive locoregional metastasis have overall low survival. Contemporary management strategies for lymph node involvement in penile cancer aim to minimize the morbidity associated with traditional radical inguinal lymphadenectomy through appropriate risk stratification while optimizing oncological outcomes...
April 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399507/the-emerging-role-of-retromer-in-neuroprotection
#12
REVIEW
Kirsty J McMillan, Hendrick C Korswagen, Peter J Cullen
Efficient sorting and transportation of integral membrane proteins, such as ion channels, nutrient transporters, signalling receptors, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules is essential for the function of cellular organelles and hence organism development and physiology. Retromer is a master controller of integral membrane protein sorting and transport through one of the major sorting station within eukaryotic cells, the endosomal network. Subtle de-regulation of retromer is an emerging theme in the pathoetiology of Parkinson's disease...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393368/increased-levels-of-the-t-helper-22-associated-cytokine-interleukin-22-and-transcription-factor-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-patients-with-periodontitis-are-associated-with-osteoclast-resorptive-activity-and-severity-of-the-disease
#13
J Díaz-Zúñiga, S Melgar-Rodríguez, L Rojas, C Alvarez, G Monasterio, P Carvajal, R Vernal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Two new T-helper (Th) phenotypes have been recently described and named Th9 and Th22 lymphocytes; however, their role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis remains unclear. This study was aimed to assess whether Th9 and Th22 lymphocytes, through interleukin (IL)-9 and IL-22 production, respectively, are associated with the severity of periodontitis and bone resorption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid samples and biopsies were obtained from patients with moderate-to-advanced chronic periodontitis and gingivitis, and healthy controls...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359147/functional-enhancers-as-master-regulators-of-tissue-specific-gene-regulation-and-cancer-development
#14
REVIEW
Je Yeong Ko, Sumin Oh, Kyung Hyun Yoo
Tissue-specific transcription is critical for normal development, and abnormalities causing undesirable gene expression may lead to diseases such as cancer. Such highly organized transcription is controlled by enhancers with specific DNA sequences recognized by transcription factors. Enhancers are associated with chromatin modifications that are distinct epigenetic features in a tissue-specific manner. Recently, super-enhancers comprising enhancer clusters co-occupied by lineage-specific factors have been identified in diverse cell types such as adipocytes, hair follicle stem cells, and mammary epithelial cells...
March 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357376/gonorrhea-an-evolving-disease-of-the-new-millennium
#15
REVIEW
Stuart A Hill, Thao L Masters, Jenny Wachter
Etiology, transmission and protection: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) is the etiological agent for the strictly human sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. Infections lead to limited immunity, therefore individuals can become repeatedly infected. Pathology/symptomatology: Gonorrhea is generally a non-complicated mucosal infection with a pustular discharge. More severe sequellae include salpingitis and pelvic inflammatory disease which may lead to sterility and/or ectopic pregnancy. Occasionally, the organism can disseminate as a bloodstream infection...
September 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356895/exploiting-long-noncoding-rnas-as-pharmacological-targets-to-modulate-epigenetic-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Bindu Prabhakar, Xiao-Bo Zhong, Theodore P Rasmussen
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute the largest class of non-coding transcripts in the human genome. Results from next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics advances indicate that the human genome contains more non-coding RNA genes than protein-coding genes. Validated functions of lncRNAs suggest that they are master regulators of gene expression and often exert their influences via epigenetic mechanisms by modulating chromatin structure. Specific lncRNAs can regulate transcription in gene clusters...
March 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351978/mouse-model-of-epstein-barr-virus-lmp1-and-lmp2a-driven-germinal-center-b-cell-lymphoproliferative-disease
#17
Takeharu Minamitani, Yijie Ma, Hufeng Zhou, Hiroshi Kida, Chao-Yuan Tsai, Masanori Obana, Daisuke Okuzaki, Yasushi Fujio, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Bo Zhao, Hitoshi Kikutani, Elliott Kieff, Benjamin E Gewurz, Teruhito Yasui
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a major cause of immunosuppression-related B-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In these malignancies, EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and LMP2A provide infected B cells with surrogate CD40 and B-cell receptor growth and survival signals. To gain insights into their synergistic in vivo roles in germinal center (GC) B cells, from which most EBV-driven lymphomas arise, we generated a mouse model with conditional GC B-cell LMP1 and LMP2A coexpression. LMP1 and LMP2A had limited effects in immunocompetent mice...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347804/o-glcnac-transferase-promotes-fatty-liver-associated-liver-cancer-through-inducing-palmitic-acid-and-activating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#18
Weiqi Xu, Xiang Zhang, Jian-Lin Wu, Li Fu, Ken Liu, Dabin Liu, George Gong Chen, Paul Bo-San Lai, Nathalie Wong, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is a unique glycosyltransferase involved in metabolic reprogramming. We investigated the functional role of OGT in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (NAFLD-HCC). METHODS: The biological function of OGT in NAFLD-HCC was determined by gain- or loss- of OGT functional assays in vitro and in nude mice. OGT target factors and pathways were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS), promoter luciferase assay, DNA binding activity assay and Western blot...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346597/association-of-risk-of-viremia-immunosuppression-serious-clinical-events-and-mortality-with-increasing-age-in-perinatally-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-youth
#19
Anne M Neilan, Brad Karalius, Kunjal Patel, Russell B Van Dyke, Mark J Abzug, Allison L Agwu, Paige L Williams, Murli Purswani, Deborah Kacanek, James M Oleske, Sandra K Burchett, Andrew Wiznia, Miriam Chernoff, George R Seage, Andrea L Ciaranello
Importance: As perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected youth (PHIVY) in the United States grow older and more treatment experienced, clinicians need updated information about the association of age, CD4 cell count, viral load (VL), and antiretroviral (ARV) drug use with risk of opportunistic infections, key clinical events, and mortality to understand patient risks and improve care. Objective: To examine the incidence or first occurrence during follow-up of key clinical events (including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B [CDC-B] and stage C [CDC-C] events) and mortality among PHIVY stratified by age, CD4 cell count, and VL and ARV status...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344104/antimicrobial-medium-and-long-chain-free-fatty-acids-prevent-prfa-dependent-activation-of-virulence-genes-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#20
Eva Maria Sternkopf Lillebæk, Stine Lambert Nielsen, Rikke Scheel Thomasen, Nils J Færgeman, Birgitte H Kallipolitis
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the invasive disease listeriosis. Infection by L. monocytogenes involves bacterial crossing of the intestinal barrier and intracellular replication in a variety of host cells. The PrfA protein is the master regulator of virulence factors required for bacterial entry, intracellular replication and cell-to-cell spread. PrfA-dependent activation of virulence genes occurs primarily in the blood and during intracellular infection. In contrast, PrfA does not play a significant role in regulation of virulence gene expression in the intestinal environment...
March 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
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