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Mindfulness based interventions

Benjamin W Mooneyham, Michael D Mrazek, Alissa J Mrazek, Kaita L Mrazek, Dawa T Phillips, Jonathan W Schooler
During tasks that require continuous engagement, the mind alternates between mental states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Existing research has assessed the functional connectivity of intrinsic brain networks underlying the experience and training of these mental states using "static" approaches that assess connectivity across an entire task. To disentangle the functional connectivity between brain regions as the mind fluctuates between discrete brain states, we employed a dynamic functional connectivity approach that characterized brain activity using a sliding window...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Matthew Blake, Joanna M Waloszek, Orli Schwartz, Monika Raniti, Julian G Simmons, Laura Blake, Greg Murray, Ronald E Dahl, Richard Bootzin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B Allen
Objective: Sleep problems are a major risk factor for the emergence of mental health problems in adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the post intervention effects of a cognitive-behavioral/mindfulness-based group sleep intervention on sleep and mental health among at-risk adolescents. Method: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted across High schools in Melbourne, Australia. One hundred forty-four adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with high levels of anxiety and sleeping difficulties, but without past or current depressive disorder, were randomized into either a sleep improvement intervention or an active control 'study skills' intervention...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Fiona H McKay, Christina Cheng, Annemarie Wright, Jane Shill, Hugh Stephens, Mary Uccellini
INTRODUCTION: Increasing smartphones access has allowed for increasing development and use of smart phone applications (apps). Mobile health interventions have previously relied on voice or text-based short message services (SMS), however, the increasing availability and ease of use of apps has allowed for significant growth of smartphone apps that can be used for health behaviour change. This review considers the current body of knowledge relating to the evaluation of apps for health behaviour change...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Sophie Reijman, Lenneke R A Alink, Laura H C G Compier-De Block, Claudia D Werner, Athanasios Maras, Corine Rijnberk, Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
This study assessed attachment representation and attachment-related autonomic regulation in a sample of 38 maltreating and 35 nonmaltreating mothers. Mothers' state of mind regarding attachment was measured using the Adult Attachment Interview. They further watched an attachment-based comfort paradigm, during which we measured skin conductance and vagal tone. More maltreating mothers (42%) than nonmaltreating mothers (17%) had an unresolved/disoriented attachment classification. Attachment representation was related to physiology during the comfort paradigm: an unresolved state of mind and a nonautonomous classification were associated with a decrease in skin conductance during the comfort paradigm, specifically during the responsive caregiver scenario...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Jeanette M Johnstone, Chelsea Roake, Ifrah Sheikh, Ashlie Mole, Joel T Nigg, Barry Oken
Adolescents are in a high-risk period developmentally, in terms of susceptibility to stress. A mindfulness intervention represents a potentially useful strategy for developing cognitive and emotion regulation skills associated with successful stress coping. Mindfulness strategies have been used successfully for emotional coping in adults, but are not as well studied in youth. This article details a novel proposal for the design of an 8-week randomized study to evaluate a high school-based mindfulness curriculum delivered as part of a two semester health class...
December 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Jinho Shin
Since the introduction of visit to visit blood pressure variability (VVBPV) for cardiovascular outcome, it has long been awaited for prospective intervention trial to reduce VVBPV for evidence based medicine. But because of several hurdles, most importantly, pending measure to reduce VVBPV, such trial may not be available in the near future. It means that current understanding on the VVBPV is not casual but related to the cardiovascular outcome.Waiting for more sound evidence, which can be remained in a clinician's mind struggling not to be indifferent for potential benefit? Firstly, the most important potential confounder in spite of the strict statistical analyses to be published may be the mean blood pressure...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yuko M Komesu, Rebecca G Rogers, Robert E Sapien, Ronald M Schrader, Timothy Simmerman-Sierra, Andrew R Mayer, Loren H Ketai
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We describe the rationale and methodology for a study comparing mind-body treatment and pharmacotherapy in women with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). To explore brain associations in UUI, a subset of patients will also undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesize that hypnotherapy, a mind-body intervention, will be at least as effective as pharmacotherapy in treating UUI. We also hypothesize that fMRI findings will change following treatment, with changes potentially differing between groups...
October 17, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Joana Duarte, José Pinto-Gouveia
BACKGROUND: Job stress and burnout are highly frequent in healthcare professionals, and prevalence in nurses can be as high as 40%. Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress and increasing well-being in a wide range of populations and contexts. However, controlled studies with healthcare professionals, and especially nurses, are scarce. OBJECTIVES, DESIGN AND SETTING: The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an on-site, abbreviated mindfulness-based intervention for nurses, using a nonrandomized, wait-list comparison design...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Sara Boucher, Olivia Edwards, Andrew Gray, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Jason Lillis, Tracy L Tylka, Caroline C Horwath
BACKGROUND: Middle-aged women are at risk of weight gain and associated comorbidities. Deliberate restriction of food intake (dieting) produces short-term weight loss but is largely unsuccessful for long-term weight management. Two promising approaches for the prevention of weight gain are intuitive eating (ie, eating in accordance with hunger and satiety signals) and the development of greater psychological flexibility (ie, the aim of acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]). OBJECTIVES: This pilot study investigated the usage, acceptability, and feasibility of "Mind, Body, Food," a Web-based weight gain prevention intervention prototype that teaches intuitive eating and psychological flexibility skills...
October 14, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Lianne M Tomfohr-Madsen, Tavis S Campbell, Gerald F Giesbrecht, Nicole L Letourneau, Linda E Carlson, Joshua W Madsen, Sona Dimidjian
BACKGROUND: Clinically significant psychological distress in pregnancy is common, with epidemiological research suggesting that between 15 and 25 % of pregnant women experience elevated symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Untreated psychological distress in pregnancy is associated with poor obstetrical outcomes, changes in maternal physiology, elevated incidence of child physical and psychological disorders, and is predictive of maternal postpartum mood disorders. Despite the wide-ranging impact of antenatal psychological distress on mothers and their children, there is a gap in our knowledge about the most effective treatments that are available for psychological distress experienced in pregnancy...
October 13, 2016: Trials
Melanie P J Schellekens, Rie Tamagawa, Laura E Labelle, Michael Speca, Joanne Stephen, Elaine Drysdale, Sarah Sample, Barbara Pickering, Dale Dirkse, Linette Lawlor Savage, Linda E Carlson
Despite growing evidence in support of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), it has been suggested that nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as the experience of social support, may contribute to the positive effects of MBIs. In the present study, we examined whether change in mindfulness and/or social support mediated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) compared to another active intervention (i.e. Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET)), on change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms and quality of life...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Richard R Reich, Cecile A Lengacher, Carissa B Alinat, Kevin E Kip, Carly Paterson, Sophia Ramesar, Heather S Han, Roohi Ismail-Khan, Versie Johnson-Mallard, Manolete Moscoso, Pinky Budhrani-Shani, Steve Shivers, Charles E Cox, Matthew Goodman, Jong Park
CONTEXT: Breast cancer survivors (BCS) face adverse physical and psychological symptoms, often co-occurring. Biological and psychological factors may link symptoms within clusters, distinguishable by prevalence and/or severity. Few studies have examined the effects of behavioral interventions or treatment of symptom clusters. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify symptom clusters among post-treatment BCS and determine symptom cluster improvement following the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer (MBSR(BC)) program...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Jenny My Huen, Eliza Sy Lai, Angie Ky Shum, Sam Wk So, Melissa Ky Chan, Paul Wc Wong, Y W Law, Paul Sf Yip
BACKGROUND: Digital game-based learning (DGBL) makes use of the entertaining power of digital games for educational purposes. Effectiveness assessment of DGBL programs has been underexplored and no attempt has been made to simultaneously model both important components of DGBL: learning attainment (ie, educational purposes of DGBL) and engagement of users (ie, entertaining power of DGBL) in evaluating program effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe and evaluate an Internet-based DGBL program, Professor Gooley and the Flame of Mind, which promotes mental health to adolescents in a positive youth development approach...
October 7, 2016: JMIR Mental Health
Tonny Elmose Andersen, Henrik Bjarke Vægter
BACKGROUND: Eradication of pain is seldom an option in chronic pain management. Hence, mindfulness meditation has become popular in pain management. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study compared the effect of a 13-weeks cognitive behavioural therapy program with integrated mindfulness meditation (CBTm) in patients with chronic non-malignant pain with a control condition. It was hypothesised that the CBTm program would reduce pain intensity and psychological distress compared to the control condition and that level of mindfulness and acceptance both would be associated with the reduction in pain intensity and psychological distress...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Laurence Guillaumie, Olivier Boiral, Julie Champagne
AIM: To review the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on registered nurses and nursing students. BACKGROUND: Work-related stress among nurses is estimated to be the biggest occupational health problem after musculoskeletal disorders. DESIGN: A mixed-method systematic review incorporating quantitative and qualitative data was conducted. DATA SOURCES: Studies on the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for nurses and nursing students published between 1980 - 2014 were identified through a systematic search in electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and Cinahl...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Joanne Jordan, Louise Rose, Katie N Dainty, Jane Noyes, Bronagh Blackwood
BACKGROUND: Prolonged mechanical ventilation is associated with a longer intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and higher mortality. Consequently, methods to improve ventilator weaning processes have been sought. Two recent Cochrane systematic reviews in ICU adult and paediatric populations concluded that protocols can be effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation, but there was significant heterogeneity in study findings. Growing awareness of the benefits of understanding the contextual factors impacting on effectiveness has encouraged the integration of qualitative evidence syntheses with effectiveness reviews, which has delivered important insights into the reasons underpinning (differential) effectiveness of healthcare interventions...
October 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Edo Shonin, William Van Gordon
Consistent with its growing popularity amongst the general public and medical community, throughout recent decades there have been increasing attempts to understand the mechanisms that underlie therapeutic improvement in individuals receiving mindfulness training. The current paper draws upon findings from various remits of scientific enquiry and summarises key evidence-based mechanisms of mindfulness that have been proposed in the academic literature to date. Empirical findings indicate that mindfulness targets biological, psychological, social, and spiritual psychopathology determinants...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Petra Jansen, Katharina Dahmen-Zimmer, Brigitte M Kudielka, Anja Schulz
In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effects of karate versus a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention on well-being and cognitive functioning in older adults. Fifty-five adults (52-81 years old) participated in twice-weekly karate versus MBSR sessions or no training for 8 weeks. In pre- and postassessments, subjective well-being, health, cognitive functioning, and chronic stress were measured. Preassessment hair cortisol served as physiological stress marker. The results showed an improvement for the karate group, but not the MBSR and control group, in subjective mental health and anxiety as well as cognitive processing speed...
September 29, 2016: Research on Aging
Jacinda K Dariotis, Fallon Cluxton-Keller, Roxanne Mirabal-Beltran, Laura Feagans Gould, Mark T Greenberg, Tamar Mendelson
CONTEXT: School-based mindfulness and yoga studies generally measure stress-related outcomes using quantitative measures. OBJECTIVE: This study answers the following research questions: How do youth define stress and in what ways, if any, was a mindful yoga intervention helpful to youth during stress experiences? DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: To explore youths' own perspectives on stress, stressors in youths' lives, and perceived changes in responses to stress post-intervention, we conducted focus group discussions with 22 middle school students from low-income urban communities following a 16-week mindful yoga intervention...
August 18, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
J David Creswell
Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing: (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
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