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Psychiatry pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068983/a-comparison-of-two-psychiatric-service-approaches-findings-from-the-consultation-vs-liaison-psychiatry-study
#1
Caroline Lücke, Jürgen M Gschossmann, Alena Schmidt, Juliane Gschossmann, Alexandra Philomena Lam, Charlotte Elizabeth Schneider, Alexandra Philipsen, Helge H Müller
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidities are common in somatically ill patients. There is a lack of data that can provide clear insights into substantial comparative advantages of different Consultation/Liaison Psychiatry (CLP) services. METHODS: The Consultation versus Liaison Psychiatry-Study collected and analyzed data of 890 primarily somatically ill hospital inpatients presenting with psychiatric symptoms in a prospective observational study design. One group was treated via a liaison-model (LM) with regular consultation hours, the other via an on-demand-model (ODM) with individually requested consultations...
January 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051841/a-review-of-a-national-training-initiative-to-increase-provider-use-of-mat-to-address-the-opioid-epidemic
#2
REVIEW
Frances R Levin, Adam Bisaga, Maria A Sullivan, Arthur Robin Williams, Kathryn Cates-Wessel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Providers' Clinical Support System for Medication Assisted Treatment (PCSS-MAT) initiative focuses on training and mentoring health professionals in the treatment of opioid use disorders (OUD) using pharmacological strategies. Led by the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry (AAAP), PCSS-MAT is a consortium representing four of the five national professional organizations authorized by DATA 2,000-AAAP, American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine, American Psychiatric Association, and American Society of Addiction Medicine...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042526/cross-disorder-psychiatric-genomics
#3
Anna R Docherty, Arden A Moscati, Ayman H Fanous
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The following review provides some description of the movement in cross-disorder psychiatric genomics toward addressing both comorbidity and polygenicity. RECENT FINDINGS: We attempt to show how dimensional approaches to the phenotype have led to further addressing the problem of comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses. And we also attempt to show how a dimensional approach to the genome, with different statistical methods from traditional genome-wide association analyses, has begun to resolve the problem of massive polygenicity...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998324/investigating-the-current-methods-of-assessing-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-residential-aged-care-facilities-in-a-metropolitan-city
#4
Samantha M Loi, Nicola T Lautenschlager
Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders' views on current practices...
December 21, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992453/helpful-factors-in-the-treatment-of-depression-from-the-patient-s-carer-s-and-professional-s-perspective-a-concept-map-study
#5
Rosa A van Grieken, Hanka F Verburg, Maarten W J Koeter, Jessica Stricker, Udo W Nabitz, Aart H Schene
OBJECTIVE: Depression research has resulted in knowledge about neurobiology, pharmacological strategies and short-term cost-effective treatments. However, more than two-thirds of all depressed patients experience insufficient improvement. Therefore, a better understanding of what patients, carers and professionals perceive as most helpful in the treatment of depression is needed. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-method design, was used to identify the patients (n = 33), carers (n = 22) and professionals (n = 50) perspectives...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987558/recent-developments-in-molecular-brain-imaging-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Mark Slifstein, Anissa Abi-Dargham
Molecular imaging with PET or SPECT has been an important research tool in psychiatry for as long as these modalities have been available. Here, we discuss two areas of neuroimaging relevant to current psychiatry research. The first is the use of imaging to study neurotransmission. We discuss the use of pharmacologic probes to induce changes in levels of neurotransmitters that can be inferred through their effects on outcome measures of imaging experiments, from their historical origins focusing on dopamine transmission through recent developments involving serotonin, GABA, and glutamate...
January 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986999/-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-dementia-in-geriatric-psychiatry-care-units-scoping-review
#7
Anne Göhner, Michael Hüll, Sebastian Voigt-Radloff
BACKGROUND: The number of persons suffering from dementia will continuously increase in the coming years; therefore, evidence-based interventions are needed in geriatric psychiatric care. When evidence is poor scoping reviews may help to identify knowledge gaps and needs for research. AIM OF THE ARTICLE: To present an overview of clinical trials on non-pharmacological treatment for elderly with dementia in hospitals, wards and nursing homes, specializing in gerontopsychiatric care...
December 16, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943131/knowledge-and-attitude-towards-pharmacological-management-of-acute-agitation-a-survey-of-psychiatrists-psychiatry-residents-and-psychiatric-nurses
#8
KeumbÔh Tangu, Adaora Ifeanyi, Mayurapriya Velusamy, Sara Dar, Nurun Shah, Ifeoma E Ezeobele, Olaoluwa O Okusaga
OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the current knowledge and attitude of psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, and psychiatric nurses towards the pharmacological management of acute agitation. METHODS: Questionnaires were electronically distributed to all attending psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, and psychiatric nurses who were either employed by the University Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences or were staff at a 250-bed affiliated Psychiatric Hospital...
December 9, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936901/psychosomatic-patients-in-integrated-care-which-treatment-mediators-do-we-have-to-focus-on
#9
Karoline Parth, Ania Rosar, Kurt Stastka, Timo Storck, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
The field of psychosomatics has gained increasing significance; it has been struggling to establish its position as either an independent discipline or a subdomain of specific areas such as internal medicine or psychiatry. However, the rise of psychosomatic syndromes and disease patterns as well as an increase of specific integrated psychosomatic wards is a clear indication for the growing importance of interdisciplinary approaches to psychosomatic disorders. The study presents data from an 8-week inpatient treatment at a psychosomatic facility and investigates whether patients improved in their subjective symptom experience...
2016: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924144/sleep-disturbances-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-comparative-study-with-healthy-siblings
#10
Sreelakshmi Vaidyanathan, Henal Shah, Tejas Gayal
OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD impact their functioning and overall Quality of Life. This paper's purpose is to study the occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, in comparison to their healthy siblings and further, within the ADHD group, to look for correlation between sleep disturbances and age, severity of symptoms, presentations of ADHD and illness parameters. METHODS: The parents of 120 children of age group between 5-16 years, (60 children diagnosed with ADHD as per DSM-5 criteria and 60 of their healthy siblings) consecutively enrolled from a hospital's Child Psychiatry Outpatient services were interviewed using Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and severity of ADHD symptoms was rated using ADHD - RS...
2016: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913990/sirukumab-a-potential-treatment-for-mood-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Aileen J Zhou, Yena Lee, Giacomo Salvadore, Benjamin Hsu, Trehani M Fonseka, Sidney H Kennedy, Roger S McIntyre
Convergent evidence indicates that abnormalities in the innate immune system may be pertinent to the pathogenesis, phenomenology, and possible treatment of several mental disorders. In keeping with this view, the targeting of interleukin-6 with the human monoclonal antibody sirukumab may represent a possible treatment and disease modification approach, for adults with brain-based disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder). A PubMed/Medline database search was performed using the following search terms: sirukumab; anti-IL-6; IL-6; major depressive disorder; inflammation...
January 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#12
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843148/hypervulnerability-of-the-adolescent-prefrontal-cortex-to-nutritional-stress-via-reelin-deficiency
#13
M A Labouesse, O Lassalle, J Richetto, J Iafrati, U Weber-Stadlbauer, T Notter, T Gschwind, L Pujadas, E Soriano, A C Reichelt, C Labouesse, W Langhans, P Chavis, U Meyer
Overconsumption of high-fat diets (HFDs) can critically affect synaptic and cognitive functions within telencephalic structures such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. Here we show that adolescence is a sensitive period for the emergence of prefrontal cognitive deficits in response to HFD. We establish that the synaptic modulator reelin (RELN) is a critical mediator of this vulnerability because (1) periadolescent HFD (pHFD) selectively downregulates prefrontal RELN(+) cells and (2) augmenting mPFC RELN levels using transgenesis or prefrontal pharmacology prevents the pHFD-induced prefrontal cognitive deficits...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832676/editorial-to-child-and-adolescence-psychopharmacology
#14
G Juckel
The editors of Pharmacopsychiatry have decided in 2016 to prepare special issues regularly in order provide our readers volumes of the journal with a thematic focus 1. The first such special issue is dedicated to the field of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Many young patients are treated with psychotherapeutic, but also pharmacotherapeutic, methods worldwide. Most of our psychopharmacological agents are not approved by the federal institutions for persons under 18 years old. However, severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, ADHD, and bipolar disorder frequently require pharmacological treatments in children and adolescents...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825017/a-pharmacological-overview-of-lamotrigine-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#15
Venkata Ramesh Yasam, Satya Lavanya Jakki, V Senthil, M Eswaramoorthy, S Shanmuganathan, K Arjunan, M J Nanjan
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, affecting about 2% of the population worldwide. Lamotrigine (LTG) is a second generation anti-epileptic drug (AED) with broad spectrum of activity, a favourable side-effect profile, simpler dosing than earlier drugs and efficacious in diverse epilepsy syndromes. Areas covered: The present review focuses on pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of LTG and its effect on cognition, psychiatry, quality of life, women and pregnancy along with effect of enzyme inducing and enzyme inhibiting drugs over LTG and their effect on serum level fluctuations by collecting data from various studies over the years until 2016...
December 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820603/forebrain-selective-ampa-receptor-antagonism-guided-by-tarp-%C3%AE-8-as-an-antiepileptic-mechanism
#16
Akihiko S Kato, Kevin D Burris, Kevin M Gardinier, Douglas L Gernert, Warren J Porter, Jon Reel, Chunjin Ding, Yuan Tu, Douglas A Schober, Matthew R Lee, Beverly A Heinz, Thomas E Fitch, Scott D Gleason, John T Catlow, Hong Yu, Stephen M Fitzjohn, Francesca Pasqui, He Wang, Yuewei Qian, Emanuele Sher, Ruud Zwart, Keith A Wafford, Kurt Rasmussen, Paul L Ornstein, John T R Isaac, Eric S Nisenbaum, David S Bredt, Jeffrey M Witkin
Pharmacological manipulation of specific neural circuits to optimize therapeutic index is an unrealized goal in neurology and psychiatry. AMPA receptors are important for excitatory synaptic transmission, and their antagonists are antiepileptic. Although efficacious, AMPA-receptor antagonists, including perampanel (Fycompa), the only approved antagonist for epilepsy, induce dizziness and motor impairment. We hypothesized that blockade of forebrain AMPA receptors without blocking cerebellar AMPA receptors would be antiepileptic and devoid of motor impairment...
December 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799842/variations-in-the-management-of-fibromyalgia-by-physician-specialty-rheumatology-versus-primary-care
#17
Stephen L Able, Rebecca L Robinson, Kurt Kroenke, Philip Mease, David A Williams, Yi Chen, Madelaine Wohlreich, Bill H McCarberg
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of physician specialty regarding diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) and assess the clinical status of patients initiating new treatment for FM using data from Real-World Examination of Fibromyalgia: Longitudinal Evaluation of Costs and Treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Outpatients from 58 sites in the United States were enrolled. Data were collected via in-office surveys and telephone interviews. Pairwise comparisons by specialty were made using chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and Student's t-tests...
2016: Pragmat Obs Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752082/inhibition-of-step61-ameliorates-deficits-in-mouse-and-hipsc-based-schizophrenia-models
#18
J Xu, B J Hartley, P Kurup, A Phillips, A Topol, M Xu, C Ononenyi, E Foscue, S-M Ho, T D Baguley, N Carty, C S Barros, U Müller, S Gupta, P Gochman, J Rapoport, J A Ellman, C Pittenger, B Aronow, A C Nairn, M W Nestor, P J Lombroso, K J Brennand
The brain-specific tyrosine phosphatase, STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) is an important regulator of synaptic function. STEP normally opposes synaptic strengthening by increasing N-methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) internalization through dephosphorylation of GluN2B and inactivation of the kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Fyn. Here we show that STEP61 is elevated in the cortex in the Nrg1(+/-) knockout mouse model of schizophrenia (SZ). Genetic reduction or pharmacological inhibition of STEP prevents the loss of NMDARs from synaptic membranes and reverses behavioral deficits in Nrg1(+/-) mice...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743677/-prescription-of-antipsychotics-in-elderly-patients-with-dementia-in-a-psychiatric-hospital-impact-of-recommendations-of-the-french-health-authority
#19
X Jégouzo, M Desbordes, S Delègue, G Le Vacon, M Patrick, S Mouchabac
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms have a high prevalence in dementia. They include mood disorders, psychotic disorders and behavioral disorders such as aggression or screaming. Despite a number of side effects and an increased mortality, antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for treatment of this disorder. In France, this increased risk of mortality led in 2009 to the adoption of guidelines concerning all antipsychotics. The guidelines propose a sensible use of antipsychotics after the establishment of non-pharmacological measures...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707008/social-neuroscience-undoing-the-schism-between-neurology-and-psychiatry
#20
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
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