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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#1
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843148/hypervulnerability-of-the-adolescent-prefrontal-cortex-to-nutritional-stress-via-reelin-deficiency
#2
M A Labouesse, O Lassalle, J Richetto, J Iafrati, U Weber-Stadlbauer, T Notter, T Gschwind, L Pujadas, E Soriano, A C Reichelt, C Labouesse, W Langhans, P Chavis, U Meyer
Overconsumption of high-fat diets (HFDs) can critically affect synaptic and cognitive functions within telencephalic structures such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. Here we show that adolescence is a sensitive period for the emergence of prefrontal cognitive deficits in response to HFD. We establish that the synaptic modulator reelin (RELN) is a critical mediator of this vulnerability because (1) periadolescent HFD (pHFD) selectively downregulates prefrontal RELN(+) cells and (2) augmenting mPFC RELN levels using transgenesis or prefrontal pharmacology prevents the pHFD-induced prefrontal cognitive deficits...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832676/editorial-to-child-and-adolescence-psychopharmacology
#3
G Juckel
The editors of Pharmacopsychiatry have decided in 2016 to prepare special issues regularly in order provide our readers volumes of the journal with a thematic focus 1. The first such special issue is dedicated to the field of child and adolescent psychopharmacology. Many young patients are treated with psychotherapeutic, but also pharmacotherapeutic, methods worldwide. Most of our psychopharmacological agents are not approved by the federal institutions for persons under 18 years old. However, severe mental illnesses like schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, ADHD, and bipolar disorder frequently require pharmacological treatments in children and adolescents...
November 2016: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825017/a-pharmacological-overview-of-lamotrigine-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#4
Venkata Ramesh Yasam, Satya Lavanya Jakki, V Senthil, M Eswaramoorthy, S Shanmuganathan, K Arjunan, M J Nanjan
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, affecting about 2% of the population worldwide. Lamotrigine (LTG) is a second generation anti-epileptic drug (AED) with broad spectrum of activity, a favourable side-effect profile, simpler dosing than earlier drugs and efficacious in diverse epilepsy syndromes. Areas covered: The present review focuses on pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of LTG and its effect on cognition, psychiatry, quality of life, women and pregnancy along with effect of enzyme inducing and enzyme inhibiting drugs over LTG and their effect on serum level fluctuations by collecting data from various studies over the years until 2016...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820603/forebrain-selective-ampa-receptor-antagonism-guided-by-tarp-%C3%AE-8-as-an-antiepileptic-mechanism
#5
Akihiko S Kato, Kevin D Burris, Kevin M Gardinier, Douglas L Gernert, Warren J Porter, Jon Reel, Chunjin Ding, Yuan Tu, Douglas A Schober, Matthew R Lee, Beverly A Heinz, Thomas E Fitch, Scott D Gleason, John T Catlow, Hong Yu, Stephen M Fitzjohn, Francesca Pasqui, He Wang, Yuewei Qian, Emanuele Sher, Ruud Zwart, Keith A Wafford, Kurt Rasmussen, Paul L Ornstein, John T R Isaac, Eric S Nisenbaum, David S Bredt, Jeffrey M Witkin
Pharmacological manipulation of specific neural circuits to optimize therapeutic index is an unrealized goal in neurology and psychiatry. AMPA receptors are important for excitatory synaptic transmission, and their antagonists are antiepileptic. Although efficacious, AMPA-receptor antagonists, including perampanel (Fycompa), the only approved antagonist for epilepsy, induce dizziness and motor impairment. We hypothesized that blockade of forebrain AMPA receptors without blocking cerebellar AMPA receptors would be antiepileptic and devoid of motor impairment...
November 7, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799842/variations-in-the-management-of-fibromyalgia-by-physician-specialty-rheumatology-versus-primary-care
#6
Stephen L Able, Rebecca L Robinson, Kurt Kroenke, Philip Mease, David A Williams, Yi Chen, Madelaine Wohlreich, Bill H McCarberg
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of physician specialty regarding diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) and assess the clinical status of patients initiating new treatment for FM using data from Real-World Examination of Fibromyalgia: Longitudinal Evaluation of Costs and Treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Outpatients from 58 sites in the United States were enrolled. Data were collected via in-office surveys and telephone interviews. Pairwise comparisons by specialty were made using chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and Student's t-tests...
2016: Pragmat Obs Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752082/inhibition-of-step61-ameliorates-deficits-in-mouse-and-hipsc-based-schizophrenia-models
#7
J Xu, B J Hartley, P Kurup, A Phillips, A Topol, M Xu, C Ononenyi, E Foscue, S-M Ho, T D Baguley, N Carty, C S Barros, U Müller, S Gupta, P Gochman, J Rapoport, J A Ellman, C Pittenger, B Aronow, A C Nairn, M W Nestor, P J Lombroso, K J Brennand
The brain-specific tyrosine phosphatase, STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) is an important regulator of synaptic function. STEP normally opposes synaptic strengthening by increasing N-methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) internalization through dephosphorylation of GluN2B and inactivation of the kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Fyn. Here we show that STEP61 is elevated in the cortex in the Nrg1(+/-) knockout mouse model of schizophrenia (SZ). Genetic reduction or pharmacological inhibition of STEP prevents the loss of NMDARs from synaptic membranes and reverses behavioral deficits in Nrg1(+/-) mice...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743677/-prescription-of-antipsychotics-in-elderly-patients-with-dementia-in-a-psychiatric-hospital-impact-of-recommendations-of-the-french-health-authority
#8
X Jégouzo, M Desbordes, S Delègue, G Le Vacon, M Patrick, S Mouchabac
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms have a high prevalence in dementia. They include mood disorders, psychotic disorders and behavioral disorders such as aggression or screaming. Despite a number of side effects and an increased mortality, antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for treatment of this disorder. In France, this increased risk of mortality led in 2009 to the adoption of guidelines concerning all antipsychotics. The guidelines propose a sensible use of antipsychotics after the establishment of non-pharmacological measures...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707008/social-neuroscience-undoing-the-schism-between-neurology-and-psychiatry
#9
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671475/transgenerational-disruption-of-functional-5-ht1ar-induced-connectivity-in-the-adult-mouse-brain-by-traumatic-stress-in-early-life
#10
F Razoux, H Russig, T Mueggler, C Baltes, K Dikaiou, M Rudin, I M Mansuy
Traumatic stress in early life is a strong risk factor for psychiatric disorders that can affect individuals across several generations. Although the underlying mechanisms have been proposed to implicate serotonergic transmission in the brain, the neural circuits involved remain poorly delineated. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging in mice, we demonstrate that traumatic stress in postnatal life alters 5-HT1A receptor-evoked local and global functions in both, the exposed animals and their progeny when adult...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625080/pharmacology-and-psychiatry-at-the-origins-of-greek-medicine-the-myth-of-melampus-and-the-madness-of-the-proetides
#11
Matteo F Olivieri, Francesca Marzari, Andreas J Kesel, Laura Bonalume, Francesco Saettini
Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620841/transglutaminase-2-overexpression-induces-depressive-like-behavior-and-impaired-trkb-signaling-in-mice
#12
C D Pandya, N Hoda, A Crider, D Peter, A Kutiyanawalla, S Kumar, A O Ahmed, G Turecki, C M Hernandez, A V Terry, A Pillai
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are two signaling molecules that have important regulatory roles in the development and plasticity of neural circuits that are known to be altered in depression. However, the mechanism by which 5-HT regulates BDNF signaling is unknown. In the present study, we found that 5-HT treatment increases BDNF receptor, TrkB (tropomyosin related kinase B), levels in mouse primary cortical neurons via a Rac1 (RAS-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1)-dependent mechanism...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620840/sphingomyelin-induced-inhibition-of-the-plasma-membrane-calcium-atpase-causes-neurodegeneration-in-type-a-niemann-pick-disease
#13
A Pérez-Cañamás, S Benvegnù, C B Rueda, A Rábano, J Satrústegui, M D Ledesma
Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPA) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe neurological alterations that leads to death in childhood. Loss-of-function mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) gene cause NPA, and result in the accumulation of sphingomyelin (SM) in lysosomes and plasma membrane of neurons. Using ASM knockout (ASMko) mice as a NPA disease model, we investigated how high SM levels contribute to neural pathology in NPA. We found high levels of oxidative stress both in neurons from these mice and a NPA patient...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595593/loss-of-hypothalamic-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-markedly-reduces-anxiety-behaviors-in-mice
#14
R Zhang, M Asai, C E Mahoney, M Joachim, Y Shen, G Gunner, J A Majzoub
A long-standing paradigm posits that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates neuroendocrine functions such as adrenal glucocorticoid release, whereas extra-hypothalamic CRH has a key role in stressor-triggered behaviors. Here we report that hypothalamus-specific Crh knockout mice (Sim1CrhKO mice, created by crossing Crhflox with Sim1Cre mice) have absent Crh mRNA and peptide mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) but preserved Crh expression in other brain regions including amygdala and cerebral cortex...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595592/parp-1-is-required-for-retrieval-of-cocaine-associated-memory-by-binding-to-the-promoter-of-a-novel-gene-encoding-a-putative-transposase-inhibitor
#15
E Lax, A Friedman, R Massart, R Barnea, L Abraham, D Cheishvili, M Zada, H Ahdoot, T Bareli, G Warhaftig, L Visochek, M Suderman, M Cohen-Armon, M Szyf, G Yadid
Reward-related memory is an important factor in cocaine seeking. One necessary signaling mechanism for long-term memory formation is the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. We demonstrate herein that auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of activated PARP-1 was significantly pronounced during retrieval of cocaine-associated contextual memory, in the central amygdala (CeA) of rats expressing cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Intra-CeA pharmacological and short hairpin RNA depletion of PARP-1 activity during cocaine-associated memory retrieval abolished CPP...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581115/-guideline-adherent-inpatient-psychiatric-psychotherapeutic-treatment-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-normative-definition-of-personnel-requirements
#16
K Radenbach, J Retzlik, S H Meyer-Rötz, C Wolff-Menzler, J Wolff, H Esselmann, F Godemann, M Riemenschneider, J Wiltfang, F Jessen
BACKGROUND: Dementia is of increasing medical and societal relevance. Hospitalization of dementia patients is mostly due to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). There is a need for sufficient qualified personnel in hospitals in order to be able to effectively treat these symptoms. OBJECTIVES: This study aims at identifying the personnel requirements for guideline-conform, evidence-based inpatient treatment concepts for patients with BPSD and to compare these with the resources defined by the German psychiatric personnel regulations (Psych-PV)...
August 31, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573878/p62-improves-ad-like-pathology-by-increasing-autophagy
#17
A Caccamo, E Ferreira, C Branca, S Oddo
The multifunctional protein p62 is associated with neuropathological inclusions in several neurodegenerative disorders, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Strong evidence shows that in AD, p62 immunoreactivity is associated with neurofibrillary tangles and is involved in tau degradation. However, it remains to be determined whether p62 also plays a role in regulating amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation and degradation. Using a gene therapy approach, here we show that increasing brain p62 expression rescues cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice, a widely used animal model of AD...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570346/disability-and-quality-of-life-of-subjects-with-bipolar-affective-disorder-in-remission
#18
Soumya P Thomas, A Nisha, P Joseph Varghese
BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances in pharmacological and psychological therapies for bipolar disorder, many people continue to have less than optimal outcomes, which are associated with significant disability and poor quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the disability and QOL and factors associated with such suboptimal outcomes in subjects with bipolar disorder in remission. METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed to have bipolar disorder in remission attending the Department of Psychiatry, MOSC Medical College, Kerala, India were recruited for the study...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514542/how-valid-is-placebo-in-the-indian-setting
#19
Himanshu Sharma
Background-The Placebo is defined as an inert substance with a potent therapeutic effect. Its effect is attributed to its psychological and neurobiological effect. Its use in Psychiatric drug practice in drug trials and clinical practice is common, especially in India .Currently there is a debate whether to use it or not as there are ethical, moral and legal issues. Also, its mechanism of action is not known. Discussion-The Indian Psychiatry scenario is muddled in relation to use of placebo in Randomized Controlled Trials or Psychiatric clinical practice...
August 10, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514465/pharmacogenomics-in-psychiatric-practice
#20
REVIEW
Rif S El-Mallakh, R Jeannie Roberts, Peggy L El-Mallakh, Lillian Jan Findlay, Kristen K Reynolds
Pharmacogenomic testing in psychiatry is becoming an established clinical procedure. Several vendors provide clinical interpretation of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing of gene variants that have documented predictive implications regarding either pharmacologic response or adverse effects in depression and other psychiatric conditions. Such gene profiles have demonstrated improvements in outcome in depression, and reduction of cost of care of patients with inadequate clinical response. Additionally, several new gene variants are being studied to predict specific response in individuals...
September 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
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