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Psychiatry pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236996/-modeling-for-clinical-trial-in-psychiatry-rationale-benefits-and-limitations
#1
N Simon, J-M Azorin, R Belzeaux, M Adida, A Kaladjian
Drug development of new compounds implies to define the dosage as well as the conditions of their use (indication, treatment duration, drug interactions, warnings …). This information requires the identification of the time course response. The decisions made during the clinical phases are now based on mathematical models. These models are continuously described and improved during all phases of the drug development using data collected in healthy volunteers and patients. Their objectives are to describe the most precisely, the link between the compound characteristics (pharmacology), the patient demographics and the effects...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236988/-what-can-we-expect-from-clinical-trials-in-psychiatry
#2
A Marsot, Q Boucherie, F Kheloufi, C Riff, D Braunstein, J Dupouey, R Guilhaumou, X Zendjidjian, S Bonin-Guillaume, E Fakra, M Guye, V Jirsa, J-M Azorin, R Belzeaux, M Adida, J Micallef, O Blin
Clinical trials in psychiatry allow to build the regulatory dossiers for market authorization but also to document the mechanism of action of new drugs, to build pharmacodynamics models, evaluate the treatment effects, propose prognosis, efficacy or tolerability biomarkers and altogether to assess the impact of drugs for patient, caregiver and society. However, clinical trials have shown some limitations. Number of recent dossiers failed to convince the regulators. The clinical and biological heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the compounds, the lack of translatable biomarkers possibly explain these difficulties...
December 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195838/the-use-of-zonisamide-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-systematic-review
#3
Massimiliano Buoli, Silvia Grassi, Valentina Ciappolino, Marta Serati, Alfredo C Altamura
OBJECTIVE: Traditional pharmacotherapy has undoubtedly improved the outcome of patients with psychiatric disorders, but partial efficacy or poor tolerability persists in a number of these subjects. Among different compounds, zonisamide has been used to address unmet needs of standard pharmacotherapy. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review about the use of zonisamide for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. METHODS: A research in the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of the use of zonisamide in psychiatric disorders or associated conditions (obesity and smoking cessation)...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195010/efficacy-of-a-universal-smoking-cessation-intervention-initiated-in-inpatient-psychiatry-and-continued-post-discharge-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Alexandra P Metse, John Wiggers, Paula Wye, Luke Wolfenden, Megan Freund, Richard Clancy, Emily Stockings, Margarett Terry, John Allan, Kim Colyvas, Judith J Prochaska, Jenny A Bowman
OBJECTIVE: Interventions are required to redress the disproportionate tobacco-related health burden experienced by persons with a mental illness. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a universal smoking cessation intervention initiated within an acute psychiatric inpatient setting and continued post-discharge in reducing smoking prevalence and increasing quitting behaviours. METHOD: A randomised controlled trial was undertaken across four psychiatric inpatient facilities in Australia...
February 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194812/detection-and-management-of-hyperactive-and-hypoactive-delirium-in-older-patients-during-hospitalization-a-retrospective-cohort-study-evaluating-daily-practice
#5
Eveline L van Velthuijsen, Sandra M G Zwakhalen, Wubbo J Mulder, Frans R J Verhey, Gertrudis I J M Kempen
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to study daily hospital practice regarding detection and management and to study hyperactive and hypoactive delirium of older patients during their hospitalization. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study evaluating care as usual for older hospitalized patients with delirium at Maastricht University Medical Center+, a university hospital in the Netherlands, was performed. Inclusion criteria were older hospitalized patients (65+ years), diagnosed with delirium between 1 January and 31 December 2014...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194682/psychopharmacology-prescribing-workshops-a-novel-method-for-teaching-psychiatry-residents-how-to-talk-to-patients-about-medications
#6
Eileen P Kavanagh, John Cahill, Melissa R Arbuckle, Alison E Lenet, Kalyani Subramanyam, Ronald M Winchel, Ilana Nossel, Ravi DeSilva, Rachel A Caravella, Marra Ackerman, Henry C Park, David A Ross
OBJECTIVE: Traditional, lecture-based methods of teaching pharmacology may not translate into the skills needed to communicate effectively with patients about medications. In response, the authors developed an interactive course for third-year psychiatry residents to reinforce prescribing skills. METHODS: Residents participate in a facilitated group discussion combined with a role-play exercise where they mock-prescribe medication to their peers. Each session is focused on one medication or class of medications with an emphasis on various aspects of informed consent (such as describing the indication, dosing, expected benefits, potential side effects, and necessary work-up and follow up)...
February 13, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167616/towards-trans-diagnostic-mechanisms-in-psychiatry-neurobehavioral-profile-of-rats-with-a-loss-of-function-point-mutation-in-the-dopamine-transporter-gene
#7
Valentina Vengeliene, Anton Bespalov, Martin Roßmanith, Sandra Horschitz, Stefan Berger, Ana L Relo, Hamid R Noori, Peggy Schneider, Thomas Enkel, Dusan Bartsch, Miriam Schneider, Berthold Behl, Anita C Hansson, Patrick Schloss, Rainer Spanagel
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix has been developed to reorient psychiatric research towards measurable behavioral dimensions and underlying mechanisms. Here we used a new genetic rat model with a loss of function point mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (Slc6a3_N157K) to systematically study the RDoC matrix (www.nimh.nih.gov/research-priorities/rdoc/constructs/rdoc-matrix.shtml). First, we examined the impact of the Slc6a3_N157K mutation on monoaminergic signaling. We then performed behavioral tests representing each of the five RDoC domains - negative and positive valence systems, cognitive, social, and in arousal/regulatory systems...
February 6, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138200/a-review-of-psychopharmacological-interventions-post-disaster-to-prevent-psychiatric-sequelae
#8
REVIEW
Badari Birur, Suresh Bada Math, Rachel E Fargason
BACKGROUND: Disasters are mega-scale catastrophic events which cause trauma and mental health sequelae. A review of early pharmacological interventions for the prevention of psychiatric disorders following disasters is sorely needed. METHODS: A literature search of "Psychiatric Sequelae AND Disasters", "Disaster mental health/Disaster psychiatry", "Psychotropics AND Disasters", and "Drug therapy AND Disasters" yielded 213 articles, 38 of which were included in the review...
January 26, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068983/a-comparison-of-two-psychiatric-service-approaches-findings-from-the-consultation-vs-liaison-psychiatry-study
#9
Caroline Lücke, Jürgen M Gschossmann, Alena Schmidt, Juliane Gschossmann, Alexandra Philomena Lam, Charlotte Elizabeth Schneider, Alexandra Philipsen, Helge H Müller
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidities are common in somatically ill patients. There is a lack of data that can provide clear insights into substantial comparative advantages of different Consultation/Liaison Psychiatry (CLP) services. METHODS: The Consultation versus Liaison Psychiatry-Study collected and analyzed data of 890 primarily somatically ill hospital inpatients presenting with psychiatric symptoms in a prospective observational study design. One group was treated via a liaison-model (LM) with regular consultation hours, the other via an on-demand-model (ODM) with individually requested consultations...
January 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051841/a-review-of-a-national-training-initiative-to-increase-provider-use-of-mat-to-address-the-opioid-epidemic
#10
REVIEW
Frances R Levin, Adam Bisaga, Maria A Sullivan, Arthur Robin Williams, Kathryn Cates-Wessel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Providers' Clinical Support System for Medication Assisted Treatment (PCSS-MAT) initiative focuses on training and mentoring health professionals in the treatment of opioid use disorders (OUD) using pharmacological strategies. Led by the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry (AAAP), PCSS-MAT is a consortium representing four of the five national professional organizations authorized by DATA 2,000-AAAP, American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine, American Psychiatric Association, and American Society of Addiction Medicine...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042526/cross-disorder-psychiatric-genomics
#11
Anna R Docherty, Arden A Moscati, Ayman H Fanous
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The following review provides some description of the movement in cross-disorder psychiatric genomics toward addressing both comorbidity and polygenicity. RECENT FINDINGS: We attempt to show how dimensional approaches to the phenotype have led to further addressing the problem of comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses. And we also attempt to show how a dimensional approach to the genome, with different statistical methods from traditional genome-wide association analyses, has begun to resolve the problem of massive polygenicity...
September 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998324/investigating-the-current-methods-of-assessing-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-residential-aged-care-facilities-in-a-metropolitan-city
#12
Samantha M Loi, Nicola T Lautenschlager
Up to 90% of people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) display behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and these are associated with poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. In order to implement appropriate interventions, it is important to understand the symptoms in more detail. Despite the availability of BPSD assessment tools, it is unknown what the current practice of monitoring of BPSD in RACFs. We sought to investigate the current BPSD assessment tools being used in RACFs and explore different stakeholders' views on current practices...
December 21, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992453/helpful-factors-in-the-treatment-of-depression-from-the-patient-s-carer-s-and-professional-s-perspective-a-concept-map-study
#13
Rosa A van Grieken, Hanka F Verburg, Maarten W J Koeter, Jessica Stricker, Udo W Nabitz, Aart H Schene
OBJECTIVE: Depression research has resulted in knowledge about neurobiology, pharmacological strategies and short-term cost-effective treatments. However, more than two-thirds of all depressed patients experience insufficient improvement. Therefore, a better understanding of what patients, carers and professionals perceive as most helpful in the treatment of depression is needed. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-method design, was used to identify the patients (n = 33), carers (n = 22) and professionals (n = 50) perspectives...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987558/recent-developments-in-molecular-brain-imaging-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Mark Slifstein, Anissa Abi-Dargham
Molecular imaging with PET or SPECT has been an important research tool in psychiatry for as long as these modalities have been available. Here, we discuss two areas of neuroimaging relevant to current psychiatry research. The first is the use of imaging to study neurotransmission. We discuss the use of pharmacologic probes to induce changes in levels of neurotransmitters that can be inferred through their effects on outcome measures of imaging experiments, from their historical origins focusing on dopamine transmission through recent developments involving serotonin, GABA, and glutamate...
January 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986999/-non-pharmacological-treatment-of-dementia-in-geriatric-psychiatry-care-units-scoping-review
#15
Anne Göhner, Michael Hüll, Sebastian Voigt-Radloff
BACKGROUND: The number of persons suffering from dementia will continuously increase in the coming years; therefore, evidence-based interventions are needed in geriatric psychiatric care. When evidence is poor scoping reviews may help to identify knowledge gaps and needs for research. AIM OF THE ARTICLE: To present an overview of clinical trials on non-pharmacological treatment for elderly with dementia in hospitals, wards and nursing homes, specializing in gerontopsychiatric care...
December 16, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943131/knowledge-and-attitude-towards-pharmacological-management-of-acute-agitation-a-survey-of-psychiatrists-psychiatry-residents-and-psychiatric-nurses
#16
KeumbÔh Tangu, Adaora Ifeanyi, Mayurapriya Velusamy, Sara Dar, Nurun Shah, Ifeoma E Ezeobele, Olaoluwa O Okusaga
OBJECTIVE: The authors compared the current knowledge and attitude of psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, and psychiatric nurses towards the pharmacological management of acute agitation. METHODS: Questionnaires were electronically distributed to all attending psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, and psychiatric nurses who were either employed by the University Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences or were staff at a 250-bed affiliated Psychiatric Hospital...
December 9, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936901/psychosomatic-patients-in-integrated-care-which-treatment-mediators-do-we-have-to-focus-on
#17
Karoline Parth, Ania Rosar, Kurt Stastka, Timo Storck, Henriette Löffler-Stastka
The field of psychosomatics has gained increasing significance; it has been struggling to establish its position as either an independent discipline or a subdomain of specific areas such as internal medicine or psychiatry. However, the rise of psychosomatic syndromes and disease patterns as well as an increase of specific integrated psychosomatic wards is a clear indication for the growing importance of interdisciplinary approaches to psychosomatic disorders. The study presents data from an 8-week inpatient treatment at a psychosomatic facility and investigates whether patients improved in their subjective symptom experience...
2016: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924144/sleep-disturbances-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-comparative-study-with-healthy-siblings
#18
Sreelakshmi Vaidyanathan, Henal Shah, Tejas Gayal
OBJECTIVES: Sleep disturbances in children with ADHD impact their functioning and overall Quality of Life. This paper's purpose is to study the occurrence of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD, in comparison to their healthy siblings and further, within the ADHD group, to look for correlation between sleep disturbances and age, severity of symptoms, presentations of ADHD and illness parameters. METHODS: The parents of 120 children of age group between 5-16 years, (60 children diagnosed with ADHD as per DSM-5 criteria and 60 of their healthy siblings) consecutively enrolled from a hospital's Child Psychiatry Outpatient services were interviewed using Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and severity of ADHD symptoms was rated using ADHD - RS...
2016: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913990/sirukumab-a-potential-treatment-for-mood-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Aileen J Zhou, Yena Lee, Giacomo Salvadore, Benjamin Hsu, Trehani M Fonseka, Sidney H Kennedy, Roger S McIntyre
Convergent evidence indicates that abnormalities in the innate immune system may be pertinent to the pathogenesis, phenomenology, and possible treatment of several mental disorders. In keeping with this view, the targeting of interleukin-6 with the human monoclonal antibody sirukumab may represent a possible treatment and disease modification approach, for adults with brain-based disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder). A PubMed/Medline database search was performed using the following search terms: sirukumab; anti-IL-6; IL-6; major depressive disorder; inflammation...
January 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#20
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
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