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Psychiatry pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498090/world-federation-of-societies-of-biological-psychiatry-wfsbp-guidelines-for-biological-treatment-of-schizophrenia-a-short-version-for-primary-care
#1
Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai, Thomas Wobrock, Jeffrey Lieberman, Birte Glenthøj, Wagner F Gattaz, Florence Thibaut, Hans-Jürgen Möller
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder and many patients are treated in primary care settings. Apart from the pharmacological management of disease-associated symptoms, the detection and treatment of side effects is of the utmost importance in clinical practice. The purpose of this publication is to offer relevant evidence-based recommendations for the biological treatment of schizophrenia in primary care. METHODS: This publication is a short and practice-oriented summary of Parts I-III of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia...
June 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485408/genetic-and-pharmacological-antagonism-of-nk1-receptor-prevents-opiate-abuse-potential
#2
A J Sandweiss, M I McIntosh, A Moutal, R Davidson-Knapp, J Hu, A K Giri, T Yamamoto, V J Hruby, R Khanna, T M Largent-Milnes, T W Vanderah
Development of an efficacious, non-addicting analgesic has been challenging. Discovery of novel mechanisms underlying addiction may present a solution. Here we target the neurokinin system, which is involved in both pain and addiction. Morphine exerts its rewarding actions, at least in part, by inhibiting GABAergic input onto substance P (SP) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), subsequently increasing SP release onto dopaminergic neurons. Genome editing of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in the VTA renders morphine non-rewarding...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477247/why-psychiatry-needs-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-a-child-psychiatrist-s-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Ben Sessa
Since the late 1980s the psychoactive drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has had a well-known history as the recreationally used drug ecstasy. What is less well known by the public is that MDMA started its life as a therapeutic agent and that in recent years an increasing amount of clinical research has been undertaken to revisit the drug's medical potential. MDMA has unique pharmacological properties that translate well to its proposed agent to assist trauma-focused psychotherapy. Psychological trauma-especially that which arises early in life from child abuse-underpins many chronic adult mental disorders, including addictions...
May 5, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461701/activation-of-a-novel-p70-s6-kinase-1-dependent-intracellular-cascade-in-the-basolateral-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-is-required-for-the-acquisition-of-extinction-memory
#4
T N Huynh, E Santini, E Mojica, A E Fink, B S Hall, R N Fetcho, L Grosenick, K Deisseroth, J E LeDoux, C Liston, E Klann
Repeated presentations of a previously conditioned stimulus lead to a new form of learning known as extinction, which temporarily alters the response to the original stimulus. Previous studies have shown that the consolidation of extinction memory requires de novo protein synthesis. However, the role of specific nodes of translational control in extinction is unknown. Using auditory threat conditioning in mice, we investigated the role of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its effector p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in the extinction of auditory threat conditioning...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451624/tics-in-the-pediatric-population-pragmatic-management
#5
REVIEW
Christos Ganos, Davide Martino, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: Primary tic disorders, notably Tourette syndrome, are very common movement disorders in childhood. However, the management of such patients still poses great therapeutic challenges to medical professionals. METHODS: Based on a synthesis of the available guidelines published in Europe, Canada, and the United States, coupled with more recent therapeutic developments, the authors provide a pragmatic guide to aid clinicians in deciding when and how to treat patients who have primary tic disorders...
March 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439098/uncoupling-dapk1-from-nmda-receptor-glun2b-subunit-exerts-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects
#6
S-X Li, Y Han, L-Z Xu, K Yuan, R-X Zhang, C-Y Sun, D-F Xu, M Yuan, J-H Deng, S-Q Meng, X-J Gao, Q Wen, L-J Liu, W-L Zhu, Y-X Xue, M Zhao, J Shi, L Lu
Several preclinical studies have reported the rapid antidepressant effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) couples GluN2B subunits at extrasynaptic sites to regulate NMDAR channel conductance. In the present study, we found that chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced extracellular glutamate accumulation, accompanied by an increase in the DAPK1-NMDAR interaction, the high expression of DAPK1 and phosphorylated GluN2B at Ser1303, a decrease in phosphorylated DAPK1 at Ser308 and synaptic protein deficits in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#7
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419586/a-review-of-the-nutritional-challenges-experienced-by-people-living-with-severe-mental-illness-a-role-for-dietitians-in-addressing-physical-health-gaps
#8
REVIEW
S B Teasdale, K Samaras, T Wade, R Jarman, P B Ward
People experiencing a severe mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder or depression with psychotic features, have a 20-year mortality gap compared to the general population. This 'scandal of premature mortality' is primarily driven by preventable cardiometabolic disease, and recent research suggests that the mortality gap is widening. Multidisciplinary mental health teams often include psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, specialist mental health nurses, social workers and occupational therapists, offering a range of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments to enhance the recovery of clients who have experienced, or are experiencing a SMI...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416813/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-val-66-met-genotype-and-ovarian-steroids-interactively-modulate-working-memory-related-hippocampal-function-in-women-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#9
S-M Wei, E B Baller, P D Kohn, J S Kippenhan, B Kolachana, S J Soldin, D R Rubinow, P J Schmidt, K F Berman
Preclinical evidence suggests that the actions of ovarian steroid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are highly convergent on brain function. Studies in humanized mice document an interaction between estrus cycle-related changes in estradiol secretion and BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on measures of hippocampal function and anxiety-like behavior. We believe our multimodal imaging data provide the first demonstration in women that the effects of the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism on hippocampal function are selectively modulated by estradiol...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416811/gene-deficiency-and-pharmacological-inhibition-of-caspase-1-confers-resilience-to-chronic-social-defeat-stress-via-regulating-the-stability-of-surface-ampars
#10
M-X Li, H-L Zheng, Y Luo, J-G He, W Wang, J Han, L Zhang, X Wang, L Ni, H-Y Zhou, Z-L Hu, P-F Wu, Y Jin, L-H Long, H Zhang, G Hu, J-G Chen, F Wang
Both inflammatory processes and glutamatergic systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood-related disorders. However, the role of caspase-1, a classic inflammatory caspase, in behavioral responses to chronic stress remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we examined the effects and underlying mechanisms of caspase-1 on preclinical murine models of depression. We found that loss of caspase-1 expression in Caspase-1(-/-) knockout mice alleviated chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors, whereas overexpression of caspase-1 in the hippocampus of wild-type (WT) mice was sufficient to induce depression- and anxiety-like behaviors...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410867/psychotropic-implant-can-be-a-new-hope-in-psychiatry
#11
Guru S Gowda, Soumitra Das, Raveesh Bevinahalli Nanjegowda
Non-adherence to oral psychotropic medications is common in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). This substantially limits the effectiveness of treatment and results in higher rates of relapse, rehospitalization, suicide, early mortality and disability in SMI. This is a major concern for professionals, caregivers and policy makers. The pharmacological, psychological, psychosocial models and interventions have been there since last few decades to address non-adherence. These have not made major changes in treatment adherence and outcome of SMI...
March 27, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408985/new-drugs-in-psychiatry-focus-on-new-pharmacological-targets
#12
REVIEW
Filippo Caraci, Gian Marco Leggio, Salvatore Salomone, Filippo Drago
The approval of psychotropic drugs with novel mechanisms of action has been rare in recent years. To address this issue, further analysis of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is essential for identifying new pharmacological targets for psychotropic medications. In this report, we detail drug candidates being examined as treatments for psychiatric disorders. Particular emphasis is placed on agents with novel mechanisms of action that are being tested as therapies for depression, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406368/prn-medication-administration-in-a-geriatric-psychiatric-hospital-chart-review-and-nursing-perspective
#13
Lori Harper, John R Reddon, Courtney J Hunt, Heather Royan
OBJECTIVE: To improve patient care/outcome, an evaluation was conducted of nursing procedures and protocols for pro re nata (PRN) medications. METHODS: A 14-day chart review was conducted for 27 patients with mood and thought disorders (MTD) and for 24 patients with organic disorders (OD) at a geriatric psychiatric hospital, and a questionnaire was completed by 20 nurses. RESULTS: 377 PRNs were administered to patients in the MTD and OD units (240 and 137, respectively)...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406264/persistent-low-rates-of-treatment-of-metabolic-risk-factors-in-people-with-psychotic-disorders-a-phamous-study
#14
Jojanneke Bruins, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Ellen Visser, Eva Corpeleijn, Agna A Bartels-Velthuis, Richard Bruggeman, Frederike Jörg
OBJECTIVE: People with psychotic disorders have an increased metabolic risk and a shortened life expectancy compared to the general population. Two large studies showed that metabolic disorders were untreated in a majority of the patients. Since then, guidelines have urged monitoring of metabolic health. This study examined the course of metabolic disorders over time in people with psychotic disorders and investigated current treatment rates. METHODS: A total of 1,259 patients with psychotic disorders, as defined by the DSM-IV, from 4 Dutch mental health institutions participated in 3 yearly assessments of the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey (PHAMOUS) between 2006 and 2014...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401674/placebo-like-response-in-absence-of-treatment-in-children-with-autism
#15
Rebecca M Jones, Caroline Carberry, Amarelle Hamo, Catherine Lord
Caregiver report is the most common measure of change in pediatric psychiatry. Yet, placebo response rates pose significant challenges to reliably detect a treatment response. The present study simulated an eight-week clinical trial protocol for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) for the purpose of testing the feasibility and validity of several outcome measures. Twenty caregivers answered questions about their child's behavior on their smartphone each week and completed a battery of paper questionnaires during weeks one and eight...
April 12, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397840/neuronal-plasticity-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-drug-responses
#16
E Castrén, H Antila
Neurotrophic factors, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other members of the neurotrophin family, are central mediators of the activity-dependent plasticity through which environmental experiences, such as sensory information are translated into the structure and function of neuronal networks. Synthesis, release and action of BDNF is regulated by neuronal activity and BDNF in turn leads to trophic effects such as formation, stabilization and potentiation of synapses through its high-affinity TrkB receptors...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396067/control-conditions-for-randomised-trials-of-behavioural-interventions-in-psychiatry-a-decision-framework
#17
REVIEW
Stefan M Gold, Paul Enck, Helge Hasselmann, Tim Friede, Ulrich Hegerl, David C Mohr, Christian Otte
In psychiatry, comparative analyses of therapeutic options and the aggregation of data from clinical trials across different therapeutic approaches play an important role in clinical decision making, treatment guidelines, and health policy. This approach assumes that trials of pharmacological and behavioural therapies generally produce the same level of evidence when properly designed. However, trial design for behavioural interventions has some unique characteristics and control groups vary widely, which influence the effects observed in any given trial...
April 7, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373691/blocking-human-fear-memory-with-the-matrix-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-doxycycline
#18
D R Bach, A Tzovara, J Vunder
Learning to predict threat is a fundamental ability of many biological organisms, and a laboratory model for anxiety disorders. Interfering with such memories in humans would be of high clinical relevance. On the basis of studies in cell cultures and slice preparations, it is hypothesised that synaptic remodelling required for threat learning involves the extracellular enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9. However, in vivo evidence for this proposal is lacking. Here we investigate human Pavlovian fear conditioning under the blood-brain barrier crossing MMP inhibitor doxycyline in a pre-registered, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367707/pharmacological-treatment-of-unipolar-depressive-disorders-summary-of-wfsbp-guidelines
#19
Michael Bauer, Emanuel Severus, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Allan H Young
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe mood disorder affecting individuals of all ages and is characterised by single or recurrent major depressive episodes. Key elements of acute and maintenance treatment of MDD include pharmacotherapy, and psychological approaches such as psychoeducation and adherence monitoring. METHODS: This summary of the 'Practice guidelines for the biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders' comprises acute, continuation and maintenance treatment developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP), and focuses on pharmacological treatment options...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351199/pharmacological-management-of-psychiatric-symptoms-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Massimiliano Buoli, Marta Serati, Alice Caldiroli, Daniela Galimberti, Elio Scarpini, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
Psychiatric symptoms in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are highly prevalent and may complicate clinical management of these patients. Purpose of the present article is to present and discuss available data about the pharmacological treatment of psychiatric symptoms in patients with FTD. A research in the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of the pharmacological management of psychiatric symptoms in patients with FTD. The search strategy included the following terms-"FTD and psychiatry," "FTD and behavioural disturbances," and "FTD and treatment"...
May 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
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