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Acute inflammatory response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100903/rhodoccocus-equi-pneumonia-and-paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids
#1
Ritika Zijoo, Ahmed Dirweesh, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CASE REPORT A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100653/minocycline-blocks-glial-cell-activation-and-ventilatory-acclimatization-to-hypoxia
#2
Jennifer Ann Stokes, Tara Elizabeth Arbogast, Esteban A Moya, Zhenxing Fu, Frank L Powell
Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) is the time-dependent increase in ventilation, which persists upon return to normoxia, and involves plasticity in both central nervous system respiratory centers and peripheral chemoreceptors. We investigated the role of glial cells in VAH in male Sprague Dawley rats using minocycline, an antibiotic that inhibits microglia activation and has anti-inflammatory properties, and barometric pressure plethysmography to measure ventilation. Rats received either minocycline (45mg/kg, i...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099388/valproic-acid-mitigates-the-inflammatory-response-and-prevents-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-a-murine-model-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-at-the-expense-of-bacterial-clearance
#3
George Kasotakis, Manuel Galvan, Elizabeth King, Beda Sarkar, Arthur Stucchi, Joseph P Mizgerd, Peter A Burke, Daniel Remick
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are members of a family of epigenetic modifying agents with broad anti-inflammatory properties. These anti-inflammatory properties may have important therapeutic implications in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). However, administration of HDACI may create an immunosuppressive environment conducive to bacterial growth. Accordingly, the aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of HDACI Valproic Acid (VPA) on host inflammatory response and bacterial burden in a murine model of E...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099145/down-regulation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-alleviates-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#4
Qiankun Zhu, Guizhen He, Jie Wang, Yukang Wang, Wei Chen, Tai Guo
Intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is a critical problem, which can cause intestinal injury locally and acute lung injury (ALI) distally by inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in innate immune and inflammatory responses. This study was to determine whether TLR4 mutant can attenuate intestinal and lung injuries after intestinal IR. Wild type (WT) and TLR4 mutant mice were submitted to intestinal IR by occluding the superior mesenteric artery. Histological assessment of the intestine and the lung were conducted by HE staining...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097746/a-high-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-is-associated-with-refractory-kawasaki-disease
#5
Hong-Je Cho, So Young Bak, Su Yeong Kim, Rita Yoo, Hae-Sung Baek, Seung Yang, Il-Tae Hwang, Ji-Eun Ban
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has not yet been fully elucidated in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between NLR and the response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy affecting coronary abnormalities in KD METHODS: A total of 196 patients of KD who were treated with IVIG therapy were analyzed. We evaluated the baseline NLR immediately before IVIG therapy and classified the study patients into 2 groups according to the value of the NLR...
January 18, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096524/a-case-of-seronegative-limbic-encephalitis-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-possible-overlapping-syndrome
#6
Zerrin Karaaslan, Özlem Mercan, Erdem Tüzün, Handan Mısırlı, Recai Türkoğlu
BACKGROUND Autoimmune encephalitis might coexist in patients with autoimmune demyelinating disorders. CASE REPORT We report on a case of a 45-year-old female multiple sclerosis (MS) patient presenting with acute onset short-term memory loss, altered mental status, inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and an MRI lesion on the left temporal lobe. An extensive panel for neuronal autoantibodies proved negative. Neuropsychological symptoms gave a prompt response to immunotherapy but nevertheless control MRI showed left hippocampal atrophy...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096485/murine-cytomegalovirus-deubiquitinase-regulates-viral-chemokine-levels-to-control-inflammation-and-pathogenesis
#7
Adam T Hilterbrand, Daniel R Boutz, Edward M Marcotte, Jason W Upton
: Maintaining control over inflammatory processes represents a paradox for viral pathogens. Although many viruses induce host inflammatory responses to facilitate infection, control is necessary to avoid overactivation. One way is through the manipulation of proinflammatory chemokine levels, both host and viral. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), a model betaherpesvirus, encodes a viral C-C chemokine, MCK2, which promotes host inflammatory responses and incorporates into virions to facilitate viral dissemination...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096329/tissue-dual-rna-seq-allows-fast-discovery-of-infection-specific-functions-and-riboregulators-shaping-host-pathogen-transcriptomes
#8
Aaron M Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Maria Pimenova, Carina Schmühl, Wiebke Opitz, Fabio Pisano, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
Pathogenic bacteria need to rapidly adjust their virulence and fitness program to prevent eradication by the host. So far, underlying adaptation processes that drive pathogenesis have mostly been studied in vitro, neglecting the true complexity of host-induced stimuli acting on the invading pathogen. In this study, we developed an unbiased experimental approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of genome-wide infection-linked transcriptional alterations of the host and colonizing extracellular pathogens. Using this tool for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-infected lymphatic tissues, we revealed numerous alterations of host transcripts associated with inflammatory and acute-phase responses, coagulative activities, and transition metal ion sequestration, highlighting that the immune response is dominated by infiltrating neutrophils and elicits a mixed TH17/TH1 response...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096092/initiation-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-by-angiogenesis
#9
Katarina Riesner, Yu Shi, Angela Jacobi, Martin Kraeter, Martina Kalupa, Aleixandria McGearey, Sarah Mertlitz, Steffen Cordes, Jens-Florian Schrezenmeier, Jörg Mengwasser, Sabine Westphal, Daniel Perez-Hernandez, Clemens Schmitt, Gunnar Dittmar, Jochen Guck, Olaf Penack
The inhibition of inflammation-associated angiogenesis ameliorates inflammatory diseases by reducing the recruitment of tissue infiltrating leukocytes. However, it is not known if angiogenesis has an active role during the initiation of inflammation or if it is merely a secondary effect occurring in response to stimuli by tissue infiltrating leukocytes. Here we show that angiogenesis precedes leukocyte infiltration in experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)...
January 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094802/extrinsic-mavs-signaling-is-critical-for-treg-maintenance-of-foxp3-expression-following-acute-flavivirus-infection
#10
Andreia Da Costa, Esteban Garza, Jessica B Graham, Jessica L Swarts, Andrew G Soerens, Michael Gale, Jennifer M Lund
Given the rapid spread of flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus, it is critical that we develop a complete understanding of the key mediators of an effective anti-viral response. We previously demonstrated that WNV infection of mice deficient in mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), the signaling adaptor for RNA helicases such as RIG-I, resulted in increased death and dysregulated immunity, which correlated with a failure of Treg expansion following infection. Thus, we sought to determine if intrinsic MAVS signaling is required for participation of Tregs in anti-WNV immunity...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094581/early-immunopathological-events-in-acute-model-of-mycobacterial-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-in-mice
#11
Elisabet Johansson, Gregory P Boivin, Jagjit S Yadav
Prolonged exposure to antigens of non-tuberculous mycobacteria species colonizing industrial metalworking fluid (MWF), particularly Mycobacterium immunogenum (MI), has been implicated in chronic forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machinists based on epidemiology studies and long-term exposure of mouse models. However, a role of short-term acute exposure to these antigens has not been described in the context of acute forms of HP. This study investigated short-term acute exposure of mice to MI cell lysate (or live cell suspension) via oropharyngeal aspiration...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094551/effect-of-bovine-lactoferrin-on-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-inflammation
#12
Rosa Sessa, Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Alessia Bressan, Luigi Rosa, Antimo Cutone, Alessandra Frioni, Francesca Berlutti, Rosalba Paesano, Piera Valenti
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate, intracellular pathogen responsible for the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide, causing acute and chronic infections. The acute infection is susceptible to antibiotics, whereas the chronic one needs prolonged therapies, thus increasing the risk of developing antibiotic resistance. Novel alternative therapies are needed. The intracellular development of C. trachomatis requires essential nutrients, including iron. Iron-chelating drugs inhibit C. trachomatis developmental cycle...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094295/loss-of-pafr-prevents-neuroinflammation-and-brain-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Xiang-Jie Yin, Zhen-Yan Chen, Xiao-Na Zhu, Jin-Jia Hu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability worldwide, which is a major public health problem. Death caused by TBI accounts for a third of all damage related illnesses, which 75% TBI occurred in low and middle income countries. With the increasing use of motor vehicles, the incidence of TBI has been at a high level. The abnormal brain functions of TBI patients often show the acute and long-term neurological dysfunction, which mainly associated with the pathological process of malignant brain edema and neuroinflammation in the brain...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093243/clinical-study-on-efficacy-of-allopurinol-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-its-functional-mechanism
#14
Ying Huang, Chunya Zhang, Zhiqing Xu, Jinghua Shen, Xiaogang Zhang, Huanhua Du, Kanjian Zhang, Daifu Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of allopurinol treatment on acute coronary syndrome and to elucidate its possible mechanism. METHODS: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (n=100) were recruited as research subjects in our hospital. The patients were randomly divided into two groups (allopurinol group, n = 50) and control group, n= 50). These two groups were treated with conventional antiplatelet, anticoagulation and anti-ischemic therapy, while allopurinol was added to allopurinol group based on conventional treatment...
January 13, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092863/adipose-derived-stem-cells-ameliorate-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-through-inhibition-of-emt-and-inflammatory-response-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway
#15
Yan Song, Changliang Peng, Shasha Lv, Jing Cheng, Shanshan Liu, Qing Wen, Guangju Guan, Gang Liu
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been successfully used to treat acute kidney injury or acute renal failure. However, the effect of ADSCs on treating renal interstitial fibrosis remains unknown. Here, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of ADSCs on renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) and explored the potential mechanisms. After 7days of UUO, rats were injected with ADSCs (5×10(6)) or vehicle via tail vein. We found that ADSCs administration significantly ameliorated renal interstitial fibrosis, the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammatory response...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092808/antinociceptive-effect-of-co-administered-nmda-and-histamine-h4-receptor-antagonists-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-pain
#16
Renata Wolińska, Anna Leśniak, Małgorzata Żochowska, Mariusz Sacharczuk, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
BACKGROUND: The histamine H4 receptor (H4R) has attracted a lot of attention in terms of its role in antinociception. The N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor is a well-characterized participant in pain pathways. However, it's influence on H4R signaling is poorly understood. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effect of a selective H4R antagonist JNJ7777120 (25mg/kg) and a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1-10μg) on nociceptive thresholds in a rat acute pain model. METHODS: The influence of intrathecally (it), intracerebroventricularly (icv) and intraplantarly (ipl) administered MK-801 co-injected with JNJ7777120 administered intraperitoneally (ip) was determined in the modified Randall-Selitto paw pressure, the tail flick and plantar tests...
October 29, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092794/%C3%AE-defensin-3-modulates-macrophage-activation-and-orientation-during-acute-inflammatory-response-to-porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide
#17
Jinglu Lyu, Tianying Bian, Bin Chen, Di Cui, Lili Li, Ling Gong, Fuhua Yan
β-defensin 3, a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide, has immuno-regulatory activities. We investigated the modulatory mechanism of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) on acute inflammatory response resulted from Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P.g-LPS), which plays a pro-inflammatory role in periodontal infection and its derived systemic inflammation. P.g-LPS was administrated to mice and murine macrophages alone or along with hBD3. P.g-LPS could lead to acute inflammation as soon as 2h. And it was observed that hBD3 significantly decreased the production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers of in response to P...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092376/infectious-immunity-in-the-central-nervous-system-and-brain-function
#18
REVIEW
Robyn S Klein, Charise Garber, Nicole Howard
Inflammation is emerging as a critical mechanism underlying neurological disorders of various etiologies, yet its role in altering brain function as a consequence of neuroinfectious disease remains unclear. Although acute alterations in mental status due to inflammation are a hallmark of central nervous system (CNS) infections with neurotropic pathogens, post-infectious neurologic dysfunction has traditionally been attributed to irreversible damage caused by the pathogens themselves. More recently, studies indicate that pathogen eradication within the CNS may require immune responses that interfere with neural cell function and communication without affecting their survival...
February 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092230/octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-d4
#19
(no author information available yet)
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4; CAS No. 556-67-2) is used as a monomer in the manufacture of polymeric materials, which are widely used in various industrial and/or medical applications, such as breast implants. D4 has a relatively low order of toxicity following acute administration via the oral, dermal, and inhalation routes of exposure and is not considered to be a dermal or eye irritant or to be a dermal sensitizer. There is no appreciable dermal absorption of D4 based on results from in vivo and in vitro studies...
January 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089910/glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells-evade-innate-immune-suppression-of-self-renewal-through-reduced-tlr4-expression
#20
Alvaro G Alvarado, Praveena S Thiagarajan, Erin E Mulkearns-Hubert, Daniel J Silver, James S Hale, Tyler J Alban, Soumya M Turaga, Awad Jarrar, Ofer Reizes, Michelle S Longworth, Michael A Vogelbaum, Justin D Lathia
Tumors contain hostile inflammatory signals generated by aberrant proliferation, necrosis, and hypoxia. These signals are sensed and acted upon acutely by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to halt proliferation and activate an immune response. Despite the presence of TLR ligands within the microenvironment, tumors progress, and the mechanisms that permit this growth remain largely unknown. We report that self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) in glioblastoma have low TLR4 expression that allows them to survive by disregarding inflammatory signals...
December 27, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
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