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Acute inflammatory response

Martin Rozanovic, Csaba Csontos, Lajos Bogár, Lívia Szélig, Tímea Bocskai, Patrícia Kovács, Marianna Matancic, Attila Miseta, Csaba Loibl
BACKGROUND: In polytrauma and burn injury Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) develops. SIRS is presented in many hospitalized patients, including those who never develop infection or sepsis. Both in SIRS and sepsis the leukocyte activation occurs. In acute phase reaction leukocytes' upward flotation i.e. leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) can indicate infectious origin. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive power of LAR, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels regarding mortality risk and development of septic complications...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Szczepan Mogilski, Monika Kubacka, Dorota Łażewska, Małgorzata Więcek, Monika Głuch-Lutwin, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Barbara Filipek, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Histamine H4 receptor (H4R) offers a great potential for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammation-based diseases. The aim of this study is to present the pharmacological profile of two recently synthesized ligands of H4R with particular reference to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: We used mice and rats in the in vivo tests. We also used murine RAW 264.7 cells and isolated guinea-pig ileum in in vitro test...
October 20, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Linda Witek Janusek, Dina Tell, Noni Gaylord-Harden, Herbert L Mathews
African American men (AAM) who are exposed to trauma and adversity during their early life are at greater risk for poor health over their lifespan. Exposure to adversity during critical developmental windows may embed an epigenetic signature that alters expression of genes that regulate stress response systems, including those genes that regulate the inflammatory response to stress. Such an epigenetic signature may increase risk for diseases exacerbated by inflammation, and may contribute to health disparity...
October 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Chia-Sheng Chao, Chien-Sung Tsai, Yee-Phoung Chang, Jian-Ming Chen, Hsien-Kuo Chin, Shyh-Chyun Yang
Hyperin, a flavonoid compound found in Ericaceae, Guttiferae, and Celastraceae, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hyperin on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice. The renal tissue damage induced by cisplatin was detected by H&E staining. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were also detected. Further, the effects of hyperin on cisplatin-induced TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were detected by ELISA...
October 17, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Luciana Nahar Dos Santos, Pedro Henrique Lopes da Silva, Iris Maria Peixoto Alvim, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Flávio Alves Lara, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Danuza Esquenazi
In spite of hyporesponsivity to Mycobacterium leprae, borderline lepromatous (BL) patients show clinical and immunological instability, and undergo frequent acute inflammatory episodes such as type 1 reaction (T1R), which may cause nerve damages. This work focused on the participation of T cell subsets from blood and skin at T1R onset. We observed a significantly increased ex vivo frequency of both effector and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in T1R group. Besides, ex vivo frequency of T cell homing receptor, the Cutaneous Leukocyte-associated Antigen (CLA) was significantly increased in T cells from T1R patients...
2016: PloS One
Achraf Ammar, Mouna Turki, Hamdi Chtourou, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Choumous Kallel, Osama Abdelkarim, Anita Hoekelmann, Mohamed Bouaziz, Fatma Ayadi, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural Pomegranate juice supplementation on performance and acute and delayed responses of muscle soreness and biomarkers of muscle damage after a weightlifting training session. METHODS: Nine elite weightlifters (21±0.5 years) performed two Olympic-Weightlifting-sessions after either placebo (PLA) or natural pomegranate juice (POMj) supplementations. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood samples (hematological parameters, muscle damage and C-reactive protein (CRP)) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each session...
2016: PloS One
Chris Durkin, Travis Schisler, Jens Lohser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite marked improvements in perioperative outcomes, esophagectomy continues to be a high-risk operation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Progress has been achieved through evidence-based changes in preoperative optimization, intraoperative ventilation strategies, fluid therapy, and analgesia, as well as expedited postoperative recovery pathways. This review will summarize the recent literature on the anesthetic management of patients undergoing esophageal resection...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Attilio Pingitore, Edward S Chambers, Thomas Hill, Inmaculada Ruz Maldonado, Bo Liu, Gavin Bewick, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Gareth A Wallis, Catriona Tedford, Ramón Castañera González, Guo Cai Huang, Pratik Choudhary, Gary Frost, Shanta J Persaud
AIMS: Diet-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) improve glucose homeostasis in vivo, but the role of individual SCFAs and their mechanisms of action have not been defined. This study evaluated the effects of increasing colonic delivery of the SCFA propionate on β-cell function in humans and the direct effects of propionate on isolated human islets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 24 weeks human subjects ingested an inulin-propionate ester that delivers propionate to the colon...
October 20, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Amy Tsurumi, Yok-Ai Que, Colleen M Ryan, Ronald G Tompkins, Laurence G Rahme
Severe burn injury renders patients susceptible to multiple infection episodes; however, identifying specific patient groups at high risk remains challenging. Burn-induced inflammatory response dramatically modifies the levels of various cytokines. Whether these changes could predict susceptibility to infections remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the early changes in the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio and investigate its ability to predict susceptibility to repeated infections after severe burn trauma...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Lydia F Edey, Kieran P O'Dea, Bronwen R Herbert, Renyi Hua, Simon N Waddington, David A MacIntyre, Philip R Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
Inflammation plays a key role in human term and preterm labor (PTL). Intrauterine LPS has been widely used to model inflammation induced complications of pregnancy including PTL. It has been shown to induce an intense myometrial inflammatory cell infiltration, but the role of LPS-induced inflammatory cell activation in labor onset and fetal demise is unclear. We investigated this using a mouse model of PTL, where an intrauterine injection of 10 µg of LPS (serotype 0111:B4) was given at E16 of CD1 mouse pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
H-L Che, M S Kanthimathi, R Loganathan, K H Yuen, A T B Tan, K R Selvaduray, K Nesaretnam, K-T Teng
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence shows that tocotrienols potentially reverse various chronic disease progressions caused by the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single-dose supplementation of gamma and delta tocotrienols (γδ-T3, 1:4 ratio) compared with those in placebo on the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty metabolic syndrome subjects (15 men and 15 women) were recruited to a randomized, double-blinded and crossover study...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Giovanni Cimmino, Francesco S Loffredo, Alberto Morello, Saverio D Elia, Raffaele De Palma, Plinio Cirillo, Paolo Golino
In the last twenty years, our comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved in formation, progression and complication of atherosclerotic plaque has advanced significantly and the main role of inflammation and immunity in this phenomenon is now largely accepted. Accumulating evidence highlight the crucial role of different inflammatory and immune cells, such as monocytes and T-lymphocytes, in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion, particularly in contributing to its complications, such as rupture or ulceration...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Yeter Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Melike Sapmaz-Metin, Turan Karaca
Curcumin has several biological functions particularly antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aims of this study are determination of the protective effects of curcumin on cisplatin-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis and related pathways in kidney. Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6): the control, cisplatin (CP), and cisplatin + curcumin (CP + CUR). Acute renal damage was induced by single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg) injected by intraperitoneally (i...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
P Fabbrini, K Finkel, M Gallieni, G Capasso, M Cavo, A Santoro, S Pasquali
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma and is associated with increased short-term mortality. Additionally, even a single episode of AKI can eventually lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), significantly reducing quality of life and long-term survival. In the setting of multiple myeloma, severe AKI (requiring dialysis) is typically secondary to cast nephropathy (CN). Renal injury in CN is due to intratubular obstruction from precipitation of monoclonal serum free light chains (sFLC) as well as direct tubular toxicity of sFLC via stimulation of nuclear factor (NF)κB inflammatory pathways...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Lovish Marwaha, Yashika Bansal, Raghunath Singh, Priyanka Saroj, Ranjana Bhandari, Anurag Kuhad
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating disease which affects central as well as peripheral nervous system. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are ligand-gated ion channels that detect physical and chemical stimuli and promote painful sensations via nociceptor activation. TRP channels have physiological role in the mechanisms controlling several physiological responses like temperature and mechanical sensations, response to painful stimuli, taste, and pheromones. TRP channel family involves six different TRPs (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8, and TRPA1) which are expressed in pain sensing neurons and primary afferent nociceptors...
October 18, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Nicola M Grissom, Robert George, Teresa M Reyes
Nutritional conditions in early life can have a lasting impact on health and disease risk, though the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the healthy individual, physiological and behavioral responses to stress are coordinated in such a way as to mobilize resources necessary to respond to the stressor and to terminate the stress response at the appropriate time. Induction of proinflammatory gene expression within the brain is one such example that is initiated in response to both physiological and psychological stressors, and is the focus of the current study...
October 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Angélica S Reis, Mikaela Pinz, Luis Fernando B Duarte, Juliano A Roehrs, Diego Alves, Cristiane Luchese, Ethel A Wilhelm
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that quinoline compounds have attracted much attention in the field of drug development. Accordingly, 4-phenylselenyl-7-chloroquinoline (4-PSQ) is a new quinoline derivative containing selenium, which showed a potential antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic-like properties of 4-PSQ. Mice were orally pretreated with 4-PSQ (5-50 mg/kg) or vehicle, 30 min prior to the elevated plus-maze (EPM), light-dark (LDT) or open field (OFT) tests...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Nicolas Lefèvre, Benjamin Noyon, Dominique Biarent, Francis Corazza, Jean Duchateau, Georges Casimir
PURPOSE AND METHODS: The severity and prognosis of various acute inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis, differ between males and females. The mechanisms underlying these sex differences probably involve both hormonal and genetic factors. In order to evaluate a possible genetic influence, we reviewed clinical signs and biological inflammatory markers of prepubertal children with severe sepsis admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). FINDINGS: A total of 142 prepubertal children, 66 girls and 76 boys, suffering from severe sepsis and admitted to the PICU were included...
October 17, 2016: Shock
Luigina Sorbara, Aaron B Zimmerman, G Lynn Mitchell, Kathryn Richdale, Dawn Y Lam, Beth T Kinoshita, Robin L Chalmers, Heidi Wagner
PURPOSE: To test the ability of responses to the Contact Lens Assessment in Youth (CLAY) Contact Lens Risk Survey (CLRS) to differentiate behaviors among participants with serious and significant (S&S) contact lens-related corneal inflammatory events, those with other events (non-S&S), and healthy controls matched for age, gender, and soft contact lens (SCL) wear frequency. METHODS: The CLRS was self-administered electronically to SCL wearers presenting for acute clinical care at 11 clinical sites...
October 13, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
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