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Ageing and HIV

Cremildo João Baptista, Ines Dourado, Sandra Brignol, Tarcísio de Matos Andrade, Francisco Inácio Bastos
BACKGROUND: The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, is higher in low-income countries, with serious consequences and profound impact on sexual and reproductive health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. Syphilis prevalence tend to be higher among people who misuse drugs than in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To assess syphilis and associated factors among polydrug users (PDU) in the city of Salvador, Northeast Brazil...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Wang Wei, Zhang Wei-Sheng, Alayi Ahan, Yan Ci, Zhang Wei-Wen, Cao Ming-Qin
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB) cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection) through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate...
2016: PloS One
Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
J M Koshy, S Mohan, D Deodhar, M John, A Oberoi, A Pannu
BACKGROUND: Though cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is recognized as a disease of the immunocompromised, studies have implicated that it also affect immunocompetent patients. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross sectional study conducted in the Department of Medicine of a tertiary teaching institution in North India. All the patients diagnosed with CM on the basis of detection of cryptococcal antigen or the presence of capsulated budding yeast cells on India ink preparation, from April 2009 to March2015 were included in the study...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Aditya H Gaur, Hilda Kizito, Wasana Prasitsueubsai, Natella Rakhmanina, Mohammed Rassool, Rana Chakraborty, Jagmohan Batra, Pope Kosalaraksa, Wicharn Luesomboon, Danielle Porter, Yongwu Shao, Michael Myers, Lillian Ting, Devi SenGupta, Erin Quirk, Martin S Rhee
BACKGROUND: The prodrug tenofovir alafenamide is associated with improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. We aimed to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of this single-tablet, fixed-dose combination of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adolescents. METHODS: We did a 48 week, single-arm, open-label trial in treatment-naive adolescents with HIV from ten hospital clinics in South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA...
October 17, 2016: Lancet HIV
Ana Gabriela Travassos, Eveline Xavier Pereira de Souza, Eduardo Netto, Eda Vinhaes Dantas, Maiara Timbó, Isabella Nóbrega, Tatiana Haguihara, Júlia Maria de Oliveira Neumeyer, Nathalia Araújo Lisboa, Maria Angela Soidan, Fábio Ferreira, Carlos Brites
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. These sexually transmitted infections are a growing problem in people living with HIV/AIDS. However, the presence of these agents in extra genital sites, remains poorly studied in our country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae anal and genital infection in people living with HIV/AIDS followed in a reference center in Salvador, Brazil...
October 17, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Y M Sun, W D Sun, H Y Lu, R L Xin, S F He, Q Zhang, H Yue, X G Fan, X Y Ma
Objective: To understand the HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and discuss the feasibility of respondent driven sampling (RDS) as a tool to conduct long term HIV surveillance in MSM in Beijing. Methods: From 2005 to 2012 RDS was used to recruit MSM for face-to-face interview with structured questionnaire to collect their demographic characteristics and HIV risk-related behavior. Blood samples were collected from them for HIV test. Results: A total of 427, 540, 607, 614, 616, 602, 579 and 600 MSM were surveyed, respectively, from 2005 to 2012...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
J A Bohn, B M Kassaye, D Record, B C Chou, I L Kraft, J C Purdy, K A Hilton, D A Miller, S Getachew, A Addissie, J A Robison
BACKGROUND: Global childhood mortality rates remain high. Millennium Development Goal 4 focused efforts on reducing rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Ethiopia, child mortality rates dropped 71 % from 1990 to 2015, however it is estimated that 184,000 Ethiopian children die each year. There is limited information about pediatric hospital admissions in Ethiopia. Our aims were to examine the temporal relationship of mortality to admission, describe the demographics, and identify cause mortality of children admitted to the Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Gladys E Ibañez, Elaine Whitt, Tenesha Avent, Steve S Martin, Leah M Varga, Miguel A Cano, Daniel J O'Connell
OBJECTIVES: Latina women are disproportionately affected by HIV in the US, and account for 30% of all HIV infections in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The main risk for Latina women is heterosexual contact. Little is known about the relational and cultural factors that may impact women's HIV risk perception. This study aims to describe Latina women's perception of their HIV risk within a relational, cultural, and linguistic context. DESIGN: Eight focus groups of Latina women (n = 28), four English speaking groups and four Spanish speaking groups, were conducted between December 2013 and May 2014...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Simnikiwe H Mayaphi, Desmond J Martin, Thomas C Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker, Steve A S Olorunju, Gregory R Tintinger, Anton C Stoltz
BACKGROUND: Two thirds of the world's new HIV infections are in sub-Saharan Africa. Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the time of virus acquisition until the appearance of HIV antibodies. Early HIV infection, which includes AHI, is the interval between virus acquisition and establishment of viral load set-point. This study aimed to detect acute and early HIV infections in a hyper-endemic setting. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional diagnostic study that enrolled individuals who had negative rapid HIV results in five clinics in South Africa...
2016: PloS One
Anna B Cope, Catalina Ramirez, Robert F DeVellis, Robert Agans, Victor J Schoenbach, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: Concurrent sexual partnerships (partnerships that overlap in time) may contribute to higher rates of HIV transmission in African Americans. Attitudes toward a behavior constitute an important component of most models of health-related behavior and behavioral change. We have developed a scale, employing realistic vignettes that appear to reliably measure attitudes about concurrency in young African American adults. METHODS: Vignette-based items to assess attitudes about concurrency were developed following focus groups and cognitive testing of items adapted from existing scales assessing psychosocial constructs surrounding related sexual behaviors...
2016: PloS One
Seema T Meloni, Charlotte A Chang, Geoffrey Eisen, Toyin Jolayemi, Bolanle Banigbe, Prosper I Okonkwo, Phyllis J Kanki
BACKGROUND: While there has been a rapid global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy programs over the past decade, there are limited data on long-term outcomes from large cohorts in resource-constrained settings. Our objective in this evaluation was to measure multiple outcomes during first-line antiretroviral therapy in a large treatment program in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multi-site program evaluation of adult patients (age ≥15 years) initiating antiretroviral therapy between June 2004 and February 2012 in Nigeria...
2016: PloS One
Charles F Haines, John A Fleishman, Baligh R Yehia, Bryan Lau, Stephen A Berry, Allison L Agwu, Richard D Moore, Kelly A Gebo
BACKGROUND: In the current antiretroviral (ART) era, the evolution of HIV guidelines and emergence of new ART agents might be expected to impact the times to ART initiation and HIV virologic suppression. We sought to determine if times to AI and virologic suppression decreased and if disparities exist by age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of data from 12 sites of the HIV Research Network, a consortium of US clinics caring for HIV-infected patients...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Christina Ludema, Stephen R Cole, Joseph J Eron, Andrew Edmonds, G Mark Holmes, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer Cocohoba, Mardge Cohen, Hannah L F Cooper, Elizabeth T Golub, Seble Kassaye, Deborah Konkle-Parker, Lisa Metsch, Joel Milam, Tracey E Wilson, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the Affordable Care Act motivates assessment of health insurance and supplementary programs, such as the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) on health outcomes of HIV-infected people in the United States. We assessed the effects of health insurance, ADAP, and income on HIV viral load suppression. METHODS: We used existing cohort data from the HIV-infected participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the time from 2006 to unsuppressed HIV viral load (>200 copies/mL) among those with Medicaid, private, Medicare, or other public insurance, and no insurance, stratified by the use of ADAP...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Herman G Sprenger, Wouter F Bierman, Melanie I Martes, Reindert Graaff, Tjip S Van Der Werf, Andries J Smit
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed as stable markers of glycemic and oxidative stress. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) as marker of accumulated AGEs is increased and predictive of CVD events in diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and pre-existing CVD. We determined SAF levels in HIV-1 infected patients, testing the hypothesis that SAF predicts CVD events in HIV infection...
October 18, 2016: AIDS
Rob Stenstrom, Daphne Ling, Eric Grafstein, Rolando Barrios, Chris Sherlock, Reka Gustafson, Farzaneh Osati, Iraj Poureslami, Aslam Anis
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HIV infection and the acceptability of point-of-care HIV testing in an innercity Canadian emergency department. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in an urban tertiary care emergency department between August 2009 and January 2011. Randomly selected patients were enrolled using probabilistic sampling based on patient volumes. Inclusion criteria were age 19-75 years and ability to provide informed consent...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Mary Norval, Anna K Coussens, Robert J Wilkinson, Liza Bornman, Robyn M Lucas, Caradee Y Wright
In this review, reports were retrieved in which vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, was measured in South African population groups with varied skin colours and ethnicities. Healthy children and adults were generally vitamin D-sufficient [25(OH)D level >50 nmol/L] but the majority of those aged above 65 years were deficient. A major role for exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in determining 25(OH)D levels was apparent, with the dietary contribution being minor...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elizabeth Wolf, Joshua Herbeck, Stephen Van Rompaey, Mari M Kitahata, Katherine K Thomas, Gregory Pepper, Lisa Frenkel
HIV-1 incidence among youth, especially men who have sex with men (MSM), is increasing in the US. We aimed to better understand the patterns of adolescent HIV-1 acquisition, in order to help guide future prevention interventions. We conducted a study combining epidemiologic and HIV-1 pol sequence data from a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected adults and adolescents in Seattle, WA between 2000 and 2013. Adolescents were defined as 13-24 years of age at the time of first HIV-1 care. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were reconstructed to identify putative viral transmission clusters of two or more individuals, followed by multivariable regression tests of associations between clustering and demographic and clinical parameters...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Prerna K Chawla, Zarir F Udwadia, Rajeev Soman, Ashok A Mahashur, Rohit A Amale, Alpa J Dherai, Rohan V Lokhande, Prasad R Naik, Tester F Ashavaid
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a routinely practised clinical laboratory technique which aids the clinicians with a clear clinical judgement of the drug therapy and optimize the doses if necessary. Rifampicin is the most important and potent component of first line therapy of tuberculosis (TB). Several factors like age, weight, gender, doses and formulations, gastro-intestinal disorders, ethnicity etc alter the absorption and bioavailability of rifampicin thus altering the drug levels. Low plasma levels of rifampicin may play a plausible role in slow response to therapy, treatment failure or relapse or acquired drug resistance...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Margaret Giorgio, Loraine Townsend, Yanga Zembe, Mireille Cheyip, Sally Guttmacher, Farzana Kapadia, Cathy Mathews
Female cross-border migrants experience elevated risks for HIV, and migrants in South Africa may face additional risks due to the country's underlying HIV prevalence. These risks may be mitigated by the receipt of social support. A behavioral risk-factor survey was administered using respondent-driven sampling. Multivariable regression models assessed the relationships between social support and two HIV outcomes: HIV serostatus and perceived HIV status. Low social support was not significantly associated with HIV status (aOR = 1...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
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