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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352723/which-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-t-cell-counts-benefit-most-from-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-a-post-hoc-subgroup-analysis-of-the-start-trial
#1
Jean-Michel Molina, Birgit Grund, Fred Gordin, Ian Williams, Mauro Schechter, Marcello Losso, Matthew Law, Ernest Ekong, Noluthando Mwelase, Athanasios Skoutelis, Martin J Wiselka, Linos Vandekerckhove, Thomas Benfield, David Munroe, Jens D Lundgren, James D Neaton
BACKGROUND: Immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in asymptomatic adults with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL, as recommended, might not always be possible in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify subgroups of individuals who would benefit most from immediate treatment. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in asymptomatic, HIV-positive adults previously untreated with ART. Participants with CD4 counts higher than 500 cells per μL were randomly assigned to receive immediate ART or to defer ART until CD4 counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 15, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351788/elevated-inflammatory-cytokines-in-aqueous-cytokine-profile-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-with-cataracts-in-uganda
#2
Juliet Otiti-Sengeri, Robert Colebunders, Steven J Reynolds, Musa Muwonge, Getrude Nakigozi, Valerian Kiggundu, Fred Nalugoda, Damalie Nakanjako
BACKGROUND: Cataracts occur earlier among HIV-infected adults and this is attributed to various intraocular inflammatory processes that result in early degeneration. In this study we purposed to investigate whether HIV infected individuals with cataracts develop heightened intraocular inflammatory processes compared to their HIV negative counterparts by determining the concentration of 8 cytokines in the aqueous humour of HIV-positive adults with cataracts and their HIV-negative counterparts...
January 19, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351672/high-treatment-success-rate-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-myanmar-2012-2014-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Myat K Thu, Ajay M V Kumar, Kyaw T Soe, Saw Saw, Saw Thein, Zaw Mynit, Htet M W Maung, Si T Aung
Background: Since 2011, Myanmar has adopted domiciliary care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients and implemented several patient-support measures such as community-based directly observed treatment, nutritional support and financial incentives for patients and providers. We assessed treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered for treatment in the Yangon and Mandalay Regions of Myanmar during 2012-2014 and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351630/prevalence-and-trends-of-transfusion-transmittable-infections-among-blood-donors-in-southwest-china
#4
Ting Xu, Zhong-Mei Yi, Jun-Mei Luo, He-Lian Yu, Ya-Han Fan, Hua Lu, Shu-Ming Zhao, Tian-Lun Jiang
Background: The high prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) is causing serious harm to human health worldwide. The aim of this research was to assess the prevalence and influencing factors of TTIs in Southwest China. Methods: A retrospective study of blood donor records from January 2008 to December 2015 was conducted. All samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The donor's data was recorded and analyzed statistically using SPSS software...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351561/preconception-use-of-cart-by-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-increases-the-risk-of-infants-being-born-small-for-gestational-age
#5
Ingrid J M Snijdewind, Colette Smit, Mieke H Godfried, Rachel Bakker, Jeannine F J B Nellen, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Elisabeth van Leeuwen, Peter Reiss, Eric A P Steegers, Marchina E van der Ende
BACKGROUND: The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT]) currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as to which type of cART is safest for pregnant women and women of childbearing age. We studied the effect of timing and exposure to different classes of cART on adverse birth outcomes in a large HIV cohort in the Netherlands...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351445/impact-of-hiv-infection-on-alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-the-lung
#6
Sarah E Stephenson, Carole L Wilson, Kristina Crothers, Engi F Attia, Cherry Wongtrakool, Irina Petrache, Lynn M Schnapp
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is one of the most common lung diseases in HIV+ individuals. The pathogenesis of HIV-associated emphysema remains unclear; however, radiographic distribution and earlier age of presentation of emphysema in the lungs of HIV+ patients are similar to deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), a key elastase inhibitor in the lung. Reduced levels of circulating A1AT have been detected in HIV+ patients, suggesting a potential mechanism for emphysema development. In the present study, we asked if A1AT levels and activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) differ in patients with and without HIV and emphysema...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350379/metabolic-syndrome-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-poland
#7
Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Anna Grzeszczuk, Paweł Rogalski, Mariusz Łucejko, Robert Flisiak
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is usually diagnosed based on presence of abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein levels (HDL). Whether HIV is associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than general population remains unclear. AIM: Aim of the study was to determine the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the population of HIV infected adults and its association with clinical, virological and biochemical features...
January 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350337/baseline-neurocognitive-functioning-predicts-viral-load-suppression-at-1-year-follow-up-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Lokesh Shahani, Lucrecia Salazar, Steven P Woods, Rodrigo Hasbun
The current prospective observational study evaluated the impact of baseline neurocognitive impairment on future viral load suppression among antiretroviral medication naive persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score less than 26, to identify patients with neurocognitive deficits. Of the 138 patients enrolled; virologic suppression was seen in 61% of the participants, while 72% of the participants had a MoCA score less than 26 at baseline. Variables significantly associated with low MoCA score included higher age (p < 0...
January 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349254/prevalence-of-psychological-distress-and-its-association-with-socio-demographic-and-hiv-risk-factors-in-south-africa-findings-of-the-2012-hiv-prevalence-incidence-and-behaviour-survey
#9
J C Mthembu, M L H Mabaso, G Khan, L C Simbayi
Background: In South Africa, there are limited nationally representative data on the prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress. This study used a 2012 nationally representative population-based household survey to investigate factors associated with psychological distress in South Africa. Methods: The survey is based on a multistage stratified cross-sectional design. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with psychological distress...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349098/comparison-of-hiv-testing-among-children-and-adults-with-tuberculosis-vietnam
#10
Tyson Volkmann, Binh Nguyen, Ebelechukwu G Anyalechi, Kimberly N Chapman Hedges, Ho Van Anh, Pham Quang Tue, Nguyen Viet Nhung, Eleanor S Click
HIV testing among persons with tuberculosis (TB) results in high-yield identification of persons infected with HIV. To evaluate differences in HIV testing among children versus adults with TB in Vietnam, we collected and analyzed age-disaggregated facility and aggregated provincial data from the National Tuberculosis Program. HIV testing was incompletely documented for >70% of children, whereas adult testing data were >90% complete. Standardized training of personnel for universal HIV testing and documentation for children with TB could improve HIV case-detection and permit linking of children with HIV to antiretroviral treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality...
December 2017: Journal of Tuberculosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347828/change-in-hiv-related-stigma-in-south-africa-between-2004-and-2016-a-cross-sectional-community-study
#11
Maretha J Visser
A critical component of an AIDS-free generation is to reduce HIV-related stigma. Previous research predicted that stigma would decline over time with increased contact with PLWH, understanding of the disease and availability of treatment. The aim of the research was to explore change in stigma over a 12-year period, by comparing data collected from two large cross-sectional samples from South African communities in 2004 (before the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART)) and in 2016. Students recruited respondents according to criteria related to age, gender, race and area of living...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347827/psychological-well-being-and-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zambia
#12
Sumiyo Okawa, Sylvia Mwanza Kabaghe, Mwiya Mwiya, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Masamine Jimba, Chipepo Kankasa, Naoko Ishikawa
Physical and psychosocial changes during adolescence could influence the psychological well-being and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of adolescents living with HIV. However, few studies have assessed these two important issues in Zambia. This study aimed at addressing this gap by examining adolescents' depressive symptoms and ART adherence. This was a mixed-methods study conducted from April to July 2014. We recruited 200 adolescents, ages 15 to 19, who were already aware of their HIV status. We measured depressive symptoms using the short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and self-reported three-day adherence to ART...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346606/characteristics-of-cases-with-repeated-sexually-transmitted-infections-massachusetts-2014-2016
#13
Katherine K Hsu, Lauren E Molotnikov, Kathleen A Roosevelt, Heather R Elder, R Monina Klevens, Alfred DeMaria, Sevgi O Aral
Background: Persons with prior sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at high risk for re-infection. No recent studies have examined the frequency with which persons within a geographic area are diagnosed and reported with multiple bacterial STIs over time. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, population-based study of confirmed syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infections reported to the Massachusetts state surveillance system within a two-year period, July 28, 2014 - July 27, 2016...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346443/exposure-to-previous-cart-is-associated-with-significant-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#14
Evrim Anadol, Kristina Lust, Christoph Boesecke, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander, Raphael Mohr, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Jürgen Kurt Rockstroh, Jonel Trebicka
INTRODUCTION: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival in HIV-patients. While the first antiretrovirals, which became available in particular D-drugs (especially didanosine and stavudine) and unboosted protease inhibitors, may impair liver function, the modern cART seems to decrease liver fibrosis. This study assessed the influence of exposure to previous antiretrovirals on liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional single-center study recruited 333 HIV patients and assessed liver fibrosis using transient elastography (TE)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346385/combined-effectiveness-of-anthelmintic-chemotherapy-and-wash-among-hiv-infected-adults
#15
Arianna R Means, Lisette van Lieshout, Eric Brienen, Krista Yuhas, James P Hughes, Paul Ndungu, Benson Singa, Judd L Walson
INTRODUCTION: Current global helminth control guidelines focus on regular deworming of targeted populations for morbidity control. However, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions may also be important for reducing helminth transmission. We evaluated the impact of different potential helminth protective packages on infection prevalence, including repeated treatment with albendazole and praziquantel with and without WASH access. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort study nested within a randomized trial of empiric deworming of HIV-infected adults in Kenya...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346185/higher-art-adherence-is-associated-with-lower-systemic-inflammation-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-ugandans-who-achieve-virologic-suppression
#16
Jose R Castillo-Mancilla, Mary Morrow, Yap Boum, Helen Byakwaga, Jessica E Haberer, Jeffrey N Martin, David Bangsberg, Samantha Mawhinney, Nicholas Musinguzi, Yong Huang, Russell P Tracy, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth Williams, Conrad Muzoora, Peter W Hunt, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Residual systemic inflammation persists despite suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is associated with non-AIDS clinical outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the association between ART adherence and inflammation in Ugandans living with HIV who were predominantly receiving nevirapine-based ART with a thymidine analog backbone and were virologically suppressed by conventional assays. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, soluble (s)CD14, sCD163, the kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio, in addition to CD8 T-cell activation, were measured at baseline and 6 months after ART initiation in treatment-naïve adults who achieved an undetectable plasma HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL) at their 6-month visit...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345844/assessing-hepatitis-c-spontaneous-clearance-and-understanding-associated-factors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Dewi Nur Aisyah, Laura Shallcross, Alice Jane Hully, Alastair O'Brien, Andrew Hayward
New advances in the treatment of hepatitis C provide high levels of sustained viral response but their expense limits availability in publicly funded health systems. The aim of this review is to estimate the proportion of patients who will spontaneously clear HCV and to identify factors that are associated with clearance, to support better targeting of directly acting antivirals. We searched Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline and Pubmed from 1st January 1994 to 30th June 2015 for studies reporting hepatitis C spontaneous clearance and/or demographic, clinical, and behavioural factors associated with clearance...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345159/weighing-in-on-the-risks-and-benefits-of-probiotic-use-in-hiv-infected-and-immunocompromised-populations
#18
A U Happel, S L Barnabas, R Froissart, J S Passmore
Probiotics are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of several conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and colic in infants. Despite the long history of probiotic use in humans, there is still significant debate about their efficacy and safety, particularly in HIV-infected and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we reviewed the safety and adverse event (AE) reporting from clinical trials that have tested probiotics in at risk populations, including HIV-infected individuals, the terminally ill and elderly, and neonates...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344084/the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-sdq-in-africa-a-scoping-review-of-its-application-and-validation
#19
REVIEW
Nikhat Hoosen, Eugene Lee Davids, Petrus J de Vries, Maylene Shung-King
Background: Child and adolescent mental health in Africa remains largely neglected. Quick and cost-effective ways for early detection may aid early intervention. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is globally used to screen for mental health problems, but little is known about its use in Africa. We set out to perform a scoping review to examine existing studies that have used the SDQ in Africa. Methods: A comprehensive scoping review methodology was used to identify all peer-reviewed studies ever published that have used the SDQ in Africa...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343423/request-for-hiv-serology-in-primary-care-a-survey-of-medical-and-nursing-professionals
#20
Myrian Pichiule-Castañeda, M Felicitas Domínguez-Berjón, María D Esteban-Vasallo, Carmen García-Riolobos, M Carmen Álvarez-Castillo, Jenaro Astray-Mochales
INTRODUCTION: In the Community of Madrid there is 42.7% late HIV diagnosis. Primary care is the gateway to the health system and the frequency of serological tests requested by these professionals is unknown. The objectives were to establish the frequency of requests for HIV serology by medical and nursing primary care professionals in the Community of Madrid and the factors associated with these requests. METHOD: An 'on-line' survey was conducted, asking professionals who participated in the evaluation study of strategies to promote early diagnosis of HIV in primary care in the Community of Madrid (ESTVIH) about the number of HIV-serology tests requested in the last 12 months...
January 15, 2018: Enfermería Clínica
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