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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740470/manual-dexterity-in-schizophrenia-a-neglected-clinical-marker
#1
Maxime Térémetz, Loïc Carment, Lindsay Brénugat-Herne, Marta Croca, Jean-Pierre Bleton, Marie-Odile Krebs, Marc A Maier, Isabelle Amado, Påvel G Lindberg
Impaired manual dexterity is commonly observed in schizophrenia. However, a quantitative description of key sensorimotor components contributing to impaired dexterity is lacking. Whether the key components of dexterity are differentially affected and how they relate to clinical characteristics also remains unclear. We quantified the degree of dexterity in 35 stabilized patients with schizophrenia and in 20 age-matched control subjects using four visuomotor tasks: (i) force tracking to quantify visuomotor precision, (ii) sequential finger tapping to measure motor sequence recall, (iii) single-finger tapping to assess temporal regularity, and (iv) multi-finger tapping to measure independence of finger movements...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738042/cognitive-screening-using-the-clock-drawing-test-to-assess-for-preexisting-deficits-in-older-women-diagnosed-with-breast-cancer%C3%A2
#2
Janine Overcash, Maddy Perry
BACKGROUND: Older women diagnosed with breast cancer may also have preexisting cognitive deficits.
. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study is to describe errors on the clock-drawing test (CDT), which is used to screen for preexisting cognitive deficits in older women diagnosed with breast cancer.
. METHODS: This descriptive study included a convenience sample of women aged 69 years or older with a diagnosis of breast cancer. The CDT was used to screen for cognitive deficits, such as size of the clock, graphic difficulties, stimulus-bound response, conceptual deficit, spatial and/or planning deficit, and perseveration...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733837/orientation-categories-used-in-guidance-of-attention-in-visual-search-can-differ-in-strength
#3
Garry Kong, David Alais, Erik Van der Burg
We investigated orientation categories in the guidance of attention in visual search. In the first two experiments, participants had a limited amount of time to find a target line among distractors lines. We systematically varied the orientation of the target and the angular difference between the target and distractors. We find vertical, horizontal, and 45° targets require the least target/distractor angular difference to be found reliably and that the rate at which increases in target/distractor difference decrease search difficulty to be independent of target identity...
July 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732799/monocausal-attribution-and-its-relationship-with-reasoning-biases-in-schizophrenia
#4
Steffen Moritz, Richard P Bentall, Katharina Kolbeck, Daniela Roesch-Ely
BACKGROUND: Aberrant attributional styles are counted to a set of circumscribed cognitive biases that are implicated in the pathogenesis of (paranoid) psychosis. However, evidence for a specific profile (e.g., an exaggerated self-serving bias, other-blaming bias) has become equivocal over the years. More recently, one-sided (monocausal) attributions have been reported in patients with psychosis. METHODS: We compared a large sample of patients with diagnosed schizophrenia (n=145) to nonclinical controls (n=30) on a revised version of the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ-R)...
July 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731362/greater-cognitive-deficits-with-sleep-disordered-breathing-among-individuals-with-genetic-susceptibility-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#5
Dayna A Johnson, Jacqueline Lane, Rui Wang, Michelle Reid, Ina Djonlagic, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Stephen R Rapp, Luenda E Charles, Ruth O'Hara, Richa Saxena, Susan Redline
RATIONALE: There are conflicting findings regarding the link between sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: Investigate associations between indicators of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and assess effect modification by the apolipoprotein ε-4 (APOE-ε4) allele. METHODS: A diverse population (N=1,752) underwent Type 2 in-home polysomnography, which included measurement of % sleep time <90% oxyhemoglobin saturation (%Sat<90%) and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)...
July 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728461/rehabilitation-of-emergent-awareness-of-errors-post-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-intervention
#6
Mary C C FitzGerald, Fiadhnait O'Keeffe, Simone Carton, Robert F Coen, Simon Kelly, Paul Dockree
Impaired awareness of errors is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can be a barrier to successful rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a computer-based intervention programme aimed at improving error awareness in individuals with TBI. A further aim was to explore its effects on metacognitive awareness and variability of performance. Participants were 11 individuals with TBI and impaired error awareness who performed a sustained attention task twice-weekly for four weeks...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725993/are-young-children-able-to-learn-exploratory-strategies-by-observation
#7
Francesca Foti, Domenico Martone, Stefania Orrù, Simone Montuori, Esther Imperlini, Pasqualina Buono, Laura Petrosini, Laura Mandolesi
New competencies may be learned through active experience (experiential learning or learning by doing) or observation of others' experiences (learning by observation). Observing another person performing a complex action facilitates the observer's acquisition of the same action. The present research is aimed at analyzing if the observation of specific explorative strategies adopted in a constrained environment, such as the Radial Arm Maze (RAM), could help young children to explore the maze and to build a cognitive spatial map of the explored environment...
July 20, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724568/bet-2-poor-evidence-on-whether-teaching-cognitive-debiasing-or-cognitive-forcing-strategies-lead-to-a-reduction-in-errors-attributable-to-cognition-in-emergency-medicine-students-or-doctors
#8
Govind Oliver, Gopal Oliver, Rick Body
A short review was carried out to see if teaching cognitive forcing strategies reduces cognitive error in the practice of emergency medicine. Two relevant papers were found using the described search strategy. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. There is currently little evidence that teaching cognitive forcing strategies reduces cognitive error in the practice of emergency medicine.
August 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724392/a-prospective-study-assessing-agreement-and-reliability-of-a-geriatric-evaluation
#9
Isabella Locatelli, Stéfanie Monod, Jacques Cornuz, Christophe J Büla, Nicolas Senn
BACKGROUND: The present study takes place within a geriatric program, aiming at improving the diagnosis and management of geriatric syndromes in primary care. Within this program it was of prime importance to be able to rely on a robust and reproducible geriatric consultation to use as a gold standard for evaluating a primary care brief assessment tool. The specific objective of the present study was thus assessing the agreement and reliability of a comprehensive geriatric consultation...
July 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723964/development-of-the-korean-adult-reading-test-kart-to-estimate-premorbid-intelligence-in-dementia-patients
#10
Dahyun Yi, Eun Hyun Seo, Ji Young Han, Bo Kyung Sohn, Min Soo Byun, Jun Ho Lee, Young Min Choe, Suzy Ahn, Jong Inn Woo, Jongho Jun, Dong Young Lee
We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN) and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720484/long-term-enzyme-replacement-therapy-improves-neurocognitive-functioning-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-immune-tolerant-alpha-mannosidosis-mice
#11
Stijn Stroobants, Markus Damme, Ann Van der Jeugd, Ben Vermaercke, Claes Andersson, Jens Fogh, Paul Saftig, Judith Blanz, Rudi D'Hooge
Alpha-mannosidosis is a glycoproteinosis caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid alpha-mannosidase (LAMAN), which markedly affects neurons of the central nervous system (CNS), and causes pathognomonic intellectual dysfunction in the clinical condition. Cognitive improvement consequently remains a major therapeutic objective in research on this devastating genetic error. Immune-tolerant LAMAN knockout mice were developed to evaluate the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) by prolonged administration of recombinant human enzyme...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720184/human-performance-time-model-of-spacecraft-control-panel-operation-in-simulated-microgravity
#12
Shi Cao, Yijing Zhang, Yunhuan Guo, Shanguang Chen
BACKGROUND: Human performance modeling plays an important role in the design and management of human spaceflight missions. Previous studies reported that manual control task time increased in microgravity conditions. The current study aimed to find a modeling method that can quantify and predict the task time of spacecraft control panel operation in the simulated microgravity condition. METHODS: We proposed the application of a predetermined elemental task method together with an information processing time model to quantify both physical motion time and cognitive time...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714710/a-relative-bilingual-advantage-in-switching-with-preparation-nuanced-explorations-of-the-proposed-association-between-bilingualism-and-task-switching
#13
Alena Stasenko, Georg E Matt, Tamar H Gollan
Bilingual language switching may increase general switching efficiency, but the evidence on this question is mixed. We hypothesized that group differences in switching might be stronger at a long cue-target interval (CTI), which may better tap general switching abilities (Yehene & Meiran, 2007). Eighty Spanish-English bilinguals and 80 monolinguals completed a color-shape switching task, and an analogous language-switching task, varying CTI (short vs. long) in both tasks. With longer preparation time (long CTI), bilinguals exhibited significantly smaller task-switching costs than monolinguals, but only in the first half of trials...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714081/combining-two-model-systems-of-psychosis-the-effects-of-schizotypy-and-sleep-deprivation-on-oculomotor-control-and-psychotomimetic-states
#14
Inga Meyhöfer, Maria Steffens, Eliana Faiola, Anna-Maria Kasparbauer, Veena Kumari, Ulrich Ettinger
Model systems of psychosis, such as schizotypy or sleep deprivation, are valuable in informing our understanding of the etiology of the disorder and aiding the development of new treatments. Schizophrenia patients, high schizotypes, and sleep-deprived subjects are known to share deficits in oculomotor biomarkers. Here, we aimed to further validate the schizotypy and sleep deprivation models and investigated, for the first time, their interactive effects on smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades, antisaccades, predictive saccades, and measures of psychotomimetic states, anxiety, depression, and stress...
July 17, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712121/motor-symptom-laterality-affects-acquisition-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-cognitive-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Pei Huang, Yu-Yan Tan, Dong-Qiang Liu, Mohammad M Herzallah, Elizabeth Lapidow, Ying Wang, Yu-Feng Zang, Mark A Gluck, Sheng-Di Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Asymmetric onset of motor symptoms in PD can affect cognitive function. We examined whether motor-symptom laterality could affect feedback-based associative learning and explored its underlying neural mechanism by functional magnetic resonance imaging in PD patients. METHODS: We recruited 63 early-stage medication-naïve PD patients (29 left-onset medication-naïve patients, 34 right-onset medication-naïve patients) and 38 matched normal controls...
July 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712089/increased-recruitment-of-cognitive-control-in-the-presence-of-traumatic-stimuli-in-complex-ptsd
#16
Julia I Herzog, Inga Niedtfeld, Sophie Rausch, Janine Thome, Meike Mueller-Engelmann, Regina Steil, Kathlen Priebe, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl
A neurocircuitry model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli, coupled with hypoactivation of prefrontal regions associated with cognitive control. However, results are heterogenous across different subsamples of PTSD as well as different paradigms. We investigated cognitive control in a classic and emotional Stroop task in 28 female patients with complex PTSD (cPTSD), 28 female trauma-exposed healthy controls (TCs) and 28 female non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HCs) using functional neuroimaging...
July 15, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711117/mechanisms-of-change-during-attention-training-and-mindfulness-in-high-trait-anxious-individuals-a-randomized-controlled-study
#17
Peter M McEvoy, Rachel Graville, Sarra Hayes, Robert T Kane, Jonathan K Foster
The first aim of this study was to compare attention manipulation techniques deriving from metacognitive therapy (the Attention Training Technique; ATT) and mindfulness-based approaches (Mindfulness-Based Progressive Muscle Relaxation, MB-PMR) to a thought wandering control (TWC) condition, in terms of their impact on anxiety and four mechanisms: distancing, present-focused attention, uncontrollability and dangerousness, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility (Stroop task). The second aim was to test indirect effects of the techniques on anxiety via the mechanism measures...
September 2017: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710917/for-whom-does-interpersonal-psychotherapy-work-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Samantha L Bernecker, Alice E Coyne, Michael J Constantino, Paula Ravitz
The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to treat depression and other disorders is well established, yet it remains unknown which patients will benefit more from IPT than another treatment. This review summarizes 46years of clinical trial research on patient characteristics that moderate the relative efficacy of IPT vs. different treatments. Across 57 studies from 33 trials comparing IPT to pharmacotherapy, another psychotherapy, or control, there were few consistent indicators of when IPT would be more or less effective than another treatment...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710717/a-technological-framework-for-running-and-analyzing-animal-head-turning-experiments
#19
Jinook Oh, Marisa Hoeschele, Stephan A Reber, Vedrana Šlipogor, Thomas Bugnyar, W Tecumseh Fitch
Head turning experiments are widely used to test the cognition of both human infants and non-human animal species. Monitoring head turns allows researchers to non-invasively assess attention to acoustic or visual stimuli. In the majority of head turning experiments, the head direction analyses have been accomplished manually, which is extremely labor intensive and can be affected by subjectivity or other human errors and limitations. In the current study, we introduce an open-source computer program for measuring head directions of freely moving animals including common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), and Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) to reduce human effort and time in video coding...
July 14, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707310/sleep-deprivation-in-interventional-cardiology-implications-for-patient-care-and-physician-health
#20
Yader Sandoval, Angie S Lobo, Virend K Somers, Kenneth Rosenfield, Steven M Bradley, Paul Sorajja, Peter Tajti, Emmanouil S Brilakis
The burden and impact of sleep deprivation on both patient care and on the health of interventional cardiologists is not well understood. Due to the nature of emergent procedures occurring in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, interventionalists are prone to suffer from acute and/or chronic sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation has been associated with numerous adverse effects, such as impaired performance, cognitive deficits, reduced psychomotor vigilance, and workplace errors and injuries, among many others...
July 14, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
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