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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915105/the-effects-of-sleep-restriction-and-sleep-deprivation-in-producing-false-memories
#1
Alex Chatburn, Mark J Kohler, Jessica D Payne, Sean P A Drummond
False memory has been claimed to be the result of an associative process of generalisation, as well as to be representative of memory errors. These can occur at any stage of memory encoding, consolidation, or retrieval, albeit through varied mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to experimentally determine: i) if cognitive dysfunction brought about by sleep loss at the time of stimulus encoding can influence false memory production; and ii) whether this relationship holds across sensory modalities. Subjects undertook both the Deese-Roedigger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task and a visual task designed to produce false memories...
November 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913156/the-oral-spelling-profile-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-and-the-nature-of-the-graphemic-representation
#2
Silvia Primativo, Keir X X Yong, Timothy J Shakespeare, Sebastian J Crutch
Spelling is a complex cognitive task where central and peripheral components are involved in engaging resources from many different cognitive processes. The present paper aims to both characterize the oral spelling deficit in a population of patients affected by a neurodegenerative condition and to clarify the nature of the graphemic representation within the currently available spelling models. Indeed, the nature of graphemic representation as a linear or multi-componential structure is still debated. Different hypotheses have been raised about its nature in the orthographic lexicon, with one positing that graphemes are complex objects whereby quantity and identity are separately represented in orthographic representations and can thus be selectively impaired...
November 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903769/education-for-the-next-frontier-in-patient-safety-a-longitudinal-resident-curriculum-on-diagnostic-error
#3
Emily Ruedinger, Maren Olson, Justin Yee, Emily Borman-Shoap, Andrew P J Olson
Diagnostic error is a common, serious problem that has received increased attention recently for its impact on both patients and providers. Presently, most graduate medical education programs do not formally address this topic. The authors developed and evaluated a longitudinal, multimodule resident curriculum about diagnostic error and medical decision making. Key components of the curriculum include demystifying the medical decision-making process, building skills in critical thinking, and providing strategies for diagnostic error mitigation...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902662/surveillance-a-nursing-intervention-for-improving-patient-safety-in-critical-care-environment
#4
Dale M Pfrimmer, Maren R Johnson, Martha L Guthmiller, Joanna L Lehman, Vickie K Ernste, Lori M Rhudy
BACKGROUND: Nursing surveillance has been identified as a key intervention in early recognition and prevention of errors/adverse events. Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) defines surveillance as "the purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making." Because nurses are the main staffing constant in the critical care environment, the importance of surveillance as an intervention is fundamental. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how surveillance is expressed by critical care nurses...
January 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899165/cognitive-dysfunction-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-new-implications-for-nosological-systems-and-neurobiological-models
#5
Kiri Jefferies-Sewell, Samuel R Chamberlain, Naomi A Fineberg, Keith R Laws
: Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. METHODS: Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task)...
November 30, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897988/reciprocally-benefited-secure-transmission-for-spectrum-sensing-based-cognitive-radio-sensor-networks
#6
Dawei Wang, Pinyi Ren, Qinghe Du, Li Sun, Yichen Wang
The rapid proliferation of independently-designed and -deployed wireless sensor networks extremely crowds the wireless spectrum and promotes the emergence of cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSN). In CRSN, the sensor node (SN) can make full use of the unutilized licensed spectrum, and the spectrum efficiency is greatly improved. However, inevitable spectrum sensing errors will adversely interfere with the primary transmission, which may result in primary transmission outage. To compensate the adverse effect of spectrum sensing errors, we propose a reciprocally-benefited secure transmission strategy, in which SN's interference to the eavesdropper is employed to protect the primary confidential messages while the CRSN is also rewarded with a loose spectrum sensing error probability constraint...
November 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896873/identifying-fallacious-arguments-in-a-qualitative-study-of-antipsychotic-prescribing-in-dementia
#7
Parastou Donyai
BACKGROUND: Dementia can result in cognitive, noncognitive and behavioural symptoms which are difficult to manage. Formal guidelines for the care and management of dementia in the UK state that antipsychotics should only be prescribed where fully justified. This is because inappropriate use, particularly problematic in care-home settings, can produce severe side effects including death. The aim of this study was to explore the use of fallacious arguments in professionals' deliberations about antipsychotic prescribing in dementia in care-home settings...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896065/analysis-of-ageing-associated-grey-matter-volume-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-shows-excess-atrophy-in-subcortical-regions
#8
Courtney A Bishop, Rexford D Newbould, Jean Sz Lee, Lesley Honeyfield, Rebecca Quest, Alessandro Colasanti, Rehiana Ali, Miriam Mattoscio, Antonio Cortese, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews, Paolo A Muraro, Adam D Waldman
Age of onset in multiple sclerosis (MS) exerts an influence on the course of disease. This study examined whether global and regional brain volumes differed between "younger" and "older" onset MS subjects who were matched for short disease duration, mean 1.9 years and burden as measured by the MS Severity Score and relapses. 21 younger-onset MS subjects (age 30.4 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 17 older-onset (age 48.7 ± 3.3 years) as well as age-matched controls (n = 31, 31.9 ± 3.5 years and n = 21, 47...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894438/how-doctors-think-common-diagnostic-errors-in-clinical-judgment-lessons-from-an-undiagnosed-and-rare-disease-program
#9
REVIEW
Robert M Kliegman, Brett J Bordini, Donald Basel, James J Nocton
The scientific process of analysis and deduction is frequently, often subconsciously, used by physicians to develop a differential diagnosis based on patients' symptoms. Common disorders are most frequently diagnosed in general practice. Rare diseases are uncommon and frequently remain undiagnosed for many years. Cognitive errors in clinical judgment delay definitive diagnosis. Whole-exome sequencing has helped identify the cause of undiagnosed or rare diseases in up to 40% of children. This article provides experiences with an undiagnosed or rare disease program, where detailed data accumulation and a multifaceted analytical approach assisted in diagnosing atypical presentations of common disorders...
February 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894024/foot-placement-during-error-and-pedal-applications-in-naturalistic-driving
#10
Yuqing Wu, Linda Ng Boyle, Daniel McGehee, Cheryl A Roe, Kazutoshi Ebe, James Foley
Data from a naturalistic driving study was used to examine foot placement during routine foot pedal movements and possible pedal misapplications. The study included four weeks of observations from 30 drivers, where pedal responses were recorded and categorized. The foot movements associated with pedal misapplications and errors were the focus of the analyses. A random forest algorithm was used to predict the pedal application types based the video observations, foot placements, drivers' characteristics, drivers' cognitive function levels and anthropometric measurements...
November 25, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893500/the-effect-of-reported-sleep-perceived-fatigue-and-sleepiness-on-cognitive-performance-in-a-sample-of-emergency-nurses
#11
Lisa A Wolf, Cydne Perhats, Altair Delao, Zoran Martinovich
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between reported sleep, perceived fatigue and sleepiness, and cognitive performance. BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests that fatigue and sleepiness affect the provision of care in inpatient units, there is a lack of research on the sleep patterns of emergency nurses and the effects of disturbed sleep and fatigue on their cognitive abilities and susceptibility to medical errors. METHODS: A quantitative correlational design was used in this study; in each of 7 different statistical models, zero-order relationships between predictors and the dependent variable were examined with appropriate inferential tests...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893264/-is-supervision-necessary-examining-the-effects-of-internet-based-cbt-training-with-and-without-supervision-correction-to-rakovshik-et-al-2016
#12
(no author information available yet)
: Reports an error in "Is supervision necessary? Examining the effects of internet-based CBT training with and without supervision" by Sarah G. Rakovshik, Freda McManus, Maria Vazquez-Montes, Kate Muse and Dennis Ougrin (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2016[Mar], Vol 84[3], 191-199). In the article, the department and affiliation were misspelled for author Kate Muse. The department and affiliation should have read Psychology Department, University of Worcester. All versions of this article has been corrected...
December 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891743/ingressive-speech-errors-a-service-evaluation-of-speech-sound-therapy-in-a-child-aged-4-6
#13
Laura Hrastelj, Rachael-Anne Knight
BACKGROUND: A pattern of ingressive substitutions for word-final sibilants can be identified in a small number of cases in child speech disorder, with growing evidence suggesting it is a phonological difficulty, despite the unusual surface form. Phonological difficulty implies a problem with the cognitive process of organizing speech into sound contrasts. AIMS: To evaluate phonological therapy approaches in the remediation of non-pulmonic speech errors. Thus, adding to evidence concerning the nature of ingressive substitutions and their remediation whilst highlighting their occurrence within child speech disorder population for practising and training speech and language therapists...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890805/predicting-brain-age-from-multimodal-imaging-data-captures-cognitive-impairment
#14
Franziskus Liem, Gaël Varoquaux, Jana Kynast, Frauke Beyer, Shahrzad Kharabian Masouleh, Julia M Huntenburg, Leonie Lampe, Mehdi Rahim, Alexandre Abraham, R Cameron Craddock, Steffi Riedel-Heller, Tobias Luck, Markus Loeffler, Matthias L Schroeter, Anja Veronica Witte, Daniel S Margulies
The disparity between the chronological age of an individual and their brain-age measured based on biological information has the potential to offer clinically-relevant biomarkers of neurological syndromes that emerge late in the lifespan. While prior brain-age prediction studies have relied exclusively on either structural or functional brain data, here we investigate how multimodal brain-imaging data improves age prediction. Using cortical anatomy and whole-brain functional connectivity on a large adult lifespan sample (N=2354, age 19-82), we found that multimodal data improves brain-based age prediction, resulting in a mean absolute prediction error of 4...
November 23, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888347/different-phenotypes-in-identical-twins-with-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-case-series
#15
Dénes Zádori, László Szpisjak, László Madar, Viktória Evelin Varga, Bernadett Csányi, Krisztina Bencsik, István Balogh, Mariann Harangi, Éva Kereszty, László Vécsei, Péter Klivényi
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare, genetically determined error of metabolism. The characteristic clinical symptoms are diarrhea, juvenile cataracts, tendon xanthomas and neuropsychiatric alterations. The aim of this study is to present a pair of identical adult twins with considerable differences in the severity of phenotype. With regards to neuropsychiatric symptoms, the predominant features were severe Parkinsonism and moderate cognitive dysfunctions in the more-affected individual, whereas these alterations in the less-affected patient were only very mild and mild, respectively...
November 25, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886528/neighborhood-social-stressors-fine-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-cognitive-function-among-older-u-s-adults
#16
Jennifer Ailshire, Amelia Karraker, Philippa Clarke
A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884632/strategies-for-improving-the-value-of-the-radiology-report-a-retrospective-analysis-of%C3%A2-errors-in-formally-over-read-studies
#17
Suraj Jay Kabadi, Arun Krishnaraj
PURPOSE: The radiology report is a critical component of the Imaging Value Chain. Unfortunately, the quality of this aspect of a radiologist's work is often heterogeneous and fails to add significant value to the referring provider and, ultimately, the patient. Gauging what defines quality can be elusive; however, we elucidate techniques that can be employed to ensure that reports are more comprehensible, actionable, and useful to our customers. METHODS: Four hundred consecutive studies (July-August 2015) submitted to our institution with request for a formal over-read were reviewed retrospectively, specifically focused on analyzing differences in language, organization, and impression between the outside reports and the formal over-reads performed at our institution...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882596/core-intuitions-about-persons-coexist-and-interfere-with-acquired-christian-beliefs-about-god
#18
Michael Barlev, Spencer Mermelstein, Tamsin C German
This study tested the hypothesis that in the minds of adult religious adherents, acquired beliefs about the extraordinary characteristics of God coexist with, rather than replace, an initial representation of God formed by co-option of the evolved person concept. In three experiments, Christian religious adherents were asked to evaluate a series of statements for which core intuitions about persons and acquired Christian beliefs about God were consistent (i.e., true according to both [e.g., "God has beliefs that are true"] or false according to both [e...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881121/knowledge-is-not-enough-to-solve-the-problems-the-role-of-diagnostic-knowledge-in-clinical-reasoning-activities
#19
Jan Kiesewetter, Rene Ebersbach, Nike Tsalas, Matthias Holzer, Ralf Schmidmaier, Martin R Fischer
BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning is a key competence in medicine. There is a lack of knowledge, how non-experts like medical students solve clinical problems. It is known that they have difficulties applying conceptual knowledge to clinical cases, that they lack metacognitive awareness and that higher level cognitive actions correlate with diagnostic accuracy. However, the role of conceptual, strategic, conditional, and metacognitive knowledge for clinical reasoning is unknown. METHODS: Medical students (n = 21) were exposed to three different clinical cases and instructed to use the think-aloud method...
November 24, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879980/theory-based-interventions-for-contraception
#20
REVIEW
Laureen M Lopez, Thomas W Grey, Mario Chen, Elizabeth E Tolley, Laurie L Stockton
BACKGROUND: The explicit use of theory in research helps expand the knowledge base. Theories and models have been used extensively in HIV-prevention research and in interventions for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The health behavior field uses many theories or models of change. However, many educational interventions addressing contraception have no explicit theoretical base. OBJECTIVES: To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tested a theoretical approach to inform contraceptive choice and encourage or improve contraceptive use...
November 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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