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Suifang Ye, David M Whiley, Robert S Ware, Theo P Sloots, Carl D Kirkwood, Keith Grimwood, Stephen B Lambert
Several viruses are associated with gastroenteritis in infants. This pilot study, nested within a larger community-based project of early childhood infections, collected daily symptom data and 511 weekly stool samples from five healthy, fully-vaccinated, term infants from birth until their second birthday. Real-time PCR assays were used to detect six enteric viruses. Frequent, silent shedding of one or more of the six viruses was observed, particularly involving adenovirus where shedding could be for up to 3-months without gastrointestinal symptoms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Abed Khorasani, Nargess Heydari Beni, Vahid Shalchyan, Mohammad Reza Daliri
Local field potential (LFP) signals recorded by intracortical microelectrodes implanted in primary motor cortex can be used as a high informative input for decoding of motor functions. Recent studies show that different kinematic parameters such as position and velocity can be inferred from multiple LFP signals as precisely as spiking activities, however, continuous decoding of the force magnitude from the LFP signals in freely moving animals has remained an open problem. Here, we trained three rats to press a force sensor for getting a drop of water as a reward...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sanket Newale, Deepak S Bachani
AIM: The study was conducted to understand the demographics, prevalence of co-morbid conditions and treatment modalities of depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationwide observational study was conducted to understand the management pattern of depression in India. Depression was majorly diagnosed with DSM-IV TR criteria. RESULTS: The data of 2276 Indian patients across 18 states were collected through 135 mental health professionals. The study population was predominantly from urban (81...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jun Goo Kang, Cheol-Young Park, Sung-Hee Ihm, Sung Woo Park
The aim of this study was to compare the fasting serum glucose level with the fasting plasma glucose level for diagnosing hyperglycemic states in real-life clinical situations. Additionally, we investigated a usual delay in sample processing and how such delays can impact the diagnosis of hyperglycemic states. Among 1,254 participants who had normoglycemia or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) assessed by the fasting serum glucose level, 20.9% were newly diagnosed with diabetes based on the plasma fasting glucose level...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Razia S Shaik, Xiaocheng Zhu, David R Clements, Leslie A Weston
Part of the challenge in dealing with invasive plant species is that they seldom represent a uniform, static entity. Often, an accurate understanding of the history of plant introduction and knowledge of the real levels of genetic diversity present in species and populations of importance is lacking. Currently, the role of genetic diversity in promoting the successful establishment of invasive plants is not well defined. Genetic profiling of invasive plants should enhance our understanding of the dynamics of colonization in the invaded range...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Lai Heng Lee
The group of new oral anticoagulants or NOACs, now termed direct oral anticoagulants or DOACs, with their favourable results from large scale phase III clinical trials, represent a major advancement and expanded armamentarium in antithrombotic therapy. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban are now in clinical routine use for prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thrombotic diseases as addressed in their clinical trials. Usage of the DOACs is expected to increase as clinicians gain more experience and reassurance with data from the real world studies which are generally consistent with that from clinical trials...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Melissa Ellamil, Joshua Berson, Jen Wong, Louis Buckley, Daniel S Margulies
Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music...
2016: PloS One
Fernando A Wagner, Payam Sheikhattari, Jane Buccheri, Mary Gunning, Lisa Bleich, Christine Schutzman
: Smoking disproportionally affects minority and underserved populations but only a handful of interventions tailored to these populations have demonstrated effectiveness in real-life situations. We use community-based participatory research (CBPR) to test two interventions delivered by a community-based health care center. METHODS: Participants randomly assigned to individual or group-based intervention for smoking cessation (N= 400). Both included cessation counseling and health education, a contingency behavioral program, Nicotine Replacement Therapy, and health care for other comorbidities...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Margie Steffens, Lisa Jamieson, Kostas Kapellas
Discrimination is a very real facet of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) life. Paradies has detailed the strong links between racism and chronic stress and the influence this may have on general health, confounding the pre-supposed notion that ATSI populations are more genetically predisposed to chronic diseases. For example a genetic predisposition promoting central adipose storage in populations with recent (in evolutionary terms) changes to hunter-gatherer dietary patterns is thought to contribute to the higher rates of diabetes seen in ATSI and other Native populations...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
André Klapper, Ron Dotsch, Iris van Rooij, Daniël H J Wigboldus
It is widely assumed among psychologists that people spontaneously form trustworthiness impressions of newly encountered people from their facial appearance. However, most existing studies directly or indirectly induced an impression formation goal, which means that the existing empirical support for spontaneous facial trustworthiness impressions remains insufficient. In particular, it remains an open question whether trustworthiness from facial appearance is encoded in memory. Using the 'who said what' paradigm, we indirectly measured to what extent people encoded the trustworthiness of observed faces...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Chiara Tani, Leopoldo Trieste, Valentina Lorenzoni, Sara Cannizzo, Giuseppe Turchetti, Marta Mosca
Recent advances in health information technologies (HIT) in systemic lupus erythematosus have included electronic databases and registries, computerised clinical charts for patient monitoring, computerised diagnostic tools, computerised prediction rules and, more recently, disease-specific applications for mobile devices for physicians, health care professionals, and patients. Traditionally, HIT development has been oriented primarily to physicians and public administrators. However, more recent development of patient-centered Apps could improve communication and empower patients in the daily management of their disease...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
E Berntorp, G Dolan, C Hay, S Linari, E Santagostino, A Tosetto, G Castaman, M T Álvarez-Román, R Parra Lopez, J Oldenburg, T Albert, U Scholz, M Holmström, J-F Schved, M Trossaërt, C Hermans, A Boban, C Ludlam, S Lethagen
INTRODUCTION: Haemophilia treatment varies significantly between individuals, countries and regions and details of bleed rates, factor consumption and injection frequency are often not available. AIM: To provide an overview of the FVIII/FIX treatment practice and outcome for patients with haemophilia A (HA) or haemophilia B (HB) across Europe. METHODS: Non-interventional, 12-month retrospective study where anonymized data were retrieved from haemophilia centres/registers in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom...
October 20, 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
Jakub Tomek, Rebecca A B Burton, Gil Bub
Cardiac arrhythmias are one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. A popular biological model used to study arrhythmogenesis is the cultured cardiac cell monolayer, which provides a good trade-off between physiological relevance and experimental access. Excitation wave patterns are imaged using high-bandwidth detectors, producing large data sets that are typically analyzed manually. To make such analysis less time consuming and less subjective, we have designed and implemented a toolkit for segmentation and tracking of cardiac waves in optical mapping recordings...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Lívia C Lionço, Angelo A de Mattos, Alex F Horbe, Ane M Costabeber, Ângelo Z de Mattos, Dorvaldo P Tarasconi
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the real-life survival rates of patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transarterial chemoembolization. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving 95 patients was conducted and the studied variables were analysed according to survival. Treatment response was determined using the Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors assessment. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used to analyse survival...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Richard A I Bethlehem, Carrie Allison, Emma M van Andel, Alexander I Coles, Kym Neil, Simon Baron-Cohen
Why do people act altruistically? One theory is that empathy is a driver of morality. Experimental studies of this are often confined to laboratory settings, which often lack ecological validity. In the present study we investigated whether empathy traits predict if people will act altruistically in a real-world setting, 'in the wild'. We staged a situation in public that was designed to elicit helping, and subsequently measured empathic traits in those who either stopped to help or walked past and did not help...
October 19, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Carol L Hodgson, Alison E Turnbull, Theodore J Iwashyna, Ann Parker, Wesley Davis, Clifton O Bingham, Nicola R Watts, Simon Finfer, Dale M Needham
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in measuring the quality of survivorship for patients admitted to the intensive care (ICU) for acute respiratory failure (ARF). However, there is substantial variability in the patient outcomes reported in studies evaluating these patients, with few data on which outcomes are essential to inform clinical practice. PURPOSE: To determine clinicians' perspectives on the outcome domains that should always be reported in studies evaluating ARF survivors after hospital discharge, and to compare findings between the US and Australian perspectives...
October 6, 2016: Physical Therapy
Leonie Segal, Claire Marsh, Rob Heyes
OBJECTIVES: We explored the real cost of training the workforce in a range of primary health care professions in Australia with a focus on the impact of retention to contribute to the debate on how best to achieve the optimal health workforce mix. METHODS: The cost to train an entry-level health professional across 12 disciplines was derived from university fees, payment for clinical placements and, where relevant, cost of internship, adjusted for student drop-out...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
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