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George Church

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316123/from-designing-the-molecules-of-life-to-designing-life-future-applications-derived-from-advances-in-dna-technologies
#1
Richie E Kohman, Aditya M Kunjapur, Eriona Hysolli, Yu Wang, George M Church
Since the elucidation of its structure, DNA has been at the forefront of biological research. In the past half century, an explosion of DNA-based technology development has occurred with the most rapid advances being made for DNA sequencing. In parallel, dramatic improvements have also been made in the synthesis and editing of DNA from the oligonucleotide to the genome scale. In this Review, we will summarize four different subfields relating to DNA technologies following this trajectory of smaller to larger scale...
January 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301968/engineering-posttranslational-proofreading-to-discriminate-nonstandard-amino-acids
#2
Aditya M Kunjapur, Devon A Stork, Erkin Kuru, Oscar Vargas-Rodriguez, Matthieu Landon, Dieter Söll, George M Church
Incorporation of nonstandard amino acids (nsAAs) leads to chemical diversification of proteins, which is an important tool for the investigation and engineering of biological processes. However, the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases crucial for this process are polyspecific in regard to nsAAs and standard amino acids. Here, we develop a quality control system called "posttranslational proofreading" to more accurately and rapidly evaluate nsAA incorporation. We achieve this proofreading by hijacking a natural pathway of protein degradation known as the N-end rule, which regulates the lifespan of a protein based on its amino-terminal residue...
January 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241002/the-future-of-multiplexed-eukaryotic-genome-engineering
#3
David B Thompson, Soufiane Aboulhouda, Eriona Hysolli, Cory J Smith, Stan Wang, Oscar Castanon, George M Church
Multiplex genome editing is the simultaneous introduction of multiple distinct modifications to a given genome. Though in its infancy, maturation of this field will facilitate powerful new biomedical research approaches, and will enable a host of far-reaching biological engineering applications, including new therapeutic modalities and industrial applications, as well as 'genome writing' and de-extinction efforts. In this perspective, we focus on multiplex editing of large eukaryotic genomes. We describe the current state of multiplexed genome editing, the current limits of our ability to multiplex edits, and provide perspective on the many applications that fully-realized multiplex editing technologies would enable in higher eukaryotic genomes...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220033/challenges-and-recommendations-for-epigenomics-in-precision-health
#4
Ava C Carter, Howard Y Chang, George Church, Ashley Dombkowski, Joseph R Ecker, Elad Gil, Paul G Giresi, Henry Greely, William J Greenleaf, Nir Hacohen, Chuan He, David Hill, Justin Ko, Isaac Kohane, Anshul Kundaje, Megan Palmer, Michael P Snyder, Joyce Tung, Alexander Urban, Marc Vidal, Wing Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206288/absorbed-dose-kernel-and-self-shielding-calculations-for-a-novel-radiopaque-glass-microsphere-for-transarterial-radioembolization
#5
Cody Church, George Mawko, John Paul Archambault, Robert Lewandowski, David Liu, Sharon Kehoe, Daniel Boyd, Robert Abraham, Alasdair Syme
PURPOSE: Radiopaque microspheres may provide intraprocedural and postprocedural feedback during transarterial radioembolization (TARE). Furthermore, the potential to use higher-resolution x-ray imaging techniques as opposed to nuclear medicine imaging suggests that significant improvements in the accuracy and precision of radiation dosimetry calculations could be realized for this type of therapy. This study investigates the absorbed dose kernel for novel radiopaque microspheres including contributions of both short and long-lived contaminant radionuclides while concurrently quantifying the self-shielding of the glass network...
December 5, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202097/targeted-community-based-interventions-improved-malaria-management-competencies-in-rural-ghana
#6
Isabella A Quakyi, George O Adjei, David J Sullivan, Judith K Stephens, Amos Laar, Vivian N Ama Aubyn, Richmond Owusu, Kwame S Sakyi, Nathaniel Coleman, Francis D Krampa, Linda Vanotoo, Julliette Tuakli, Bernard B Bortei, Edward Essuman, Felix Sorvor, Isaac A Boateng, Constance Bart-Plange, Ebenezer A Addison, Peter Winch, Andrew A Adjei
Background: Malaria is one of the most challenging public health concerns in the developing world. To address its impact in endemic regions, several interventions are implemented by stakeholders. The Affordable Medicine Facility-malaria (AMFm) is an example of such interventions. Its activities include communication interventions to enhance the knowledge of caregivers of children under five years, licensed chemical sellers (LCS) and prescribers on malaria management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT)...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190363/efficient-in-situ-barcode-sequencing-using-padlock-probe-based-baristaseq
#7
Xiaoyin Chen, Yu-Chi Sun, George M Church, Je Hyuk Lee, Anthony M Zador
Cellular DNA/RNA tags (barcodes) allow for multiplexed cell lineage tracing and neuronal projection mapping with cellular resolution. Conventional approaches to reading out cellular barcodes trade off spatial resolution with throughput. Bulk sequencing achieves high throughput but sacrifices spatial resolution, whereas manual cell picking has low throughput. In situ sequencing could potentially achieve both high spatial resolution and high throughput, but current in situ sequencing techniques are inefficient at reading out cellular barcodes...
November 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171094/perv-inactivation-is-necessary-to-guarantee-absence-of-pig-to-patient-pervs-transmission-in-xenotransplantation
#8
Marc Güell, Dong Niu, Yinan Kan, Haydy George, Tao Wang, I-Hsiu Lee, Gang Wang, George Church, Luhan Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145600/the-influence-of-gender-and-household-headship-on-voluntary-health-insurance-the-case-of-north-west-cameroon
#9
Tessa Oraro, Nestor Ngube, George Yuh Atohmbom, Siddharth Srivastava, Kaspar Wyss
Within the existing health financing literature, males are typically categorized as the household's decision-makers. While this view accurately reflects many local sociocultural realities, approximately a quarter of sub-Saharan African households are now headed by females. In light of various efforts to expand health insurance coverage in the region, it is necessary to examine whether the factors influencing voluntary health insurance enrolment are analogous across male- and female-headed households. This study sought to identify the gendered determinants of voluntary enrolment into a church-run micro health insurance scheme...
November 13, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141159/compelling-reasons-for-repairing-human-germlines
#10
George Church
Under normal circumstances, if you combined sperm half of which carried a dominant disease allele with unaffected oocytes, only 50% of the resulting human embryos would be expected to have unaffected copies of the gene in question. Researchers Ma, Mitalipov, and colleagues recently reported that..
November 16, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092770/avalon-catheters-in-pediatric-patients-requiring-ecmo-placement-and-migration-problems
#11
Marcus D Jarboe, Samir K Gadepalli, Joseph T Church, Meghan A Arnold, Ronald B Hirschl, George B Mychaliska
PURPOSE: The Avalon dual-lumen venovenous catheter has several advantages, but placement techniques and management have not been adequately addressed in the pediatric population. We assessed our institutional outcomes and complications using the Avalon catheter in children. METHODS: We reviewed all pediatric patients who had Avalon catheters placed for respiratory failure at our institution, excluding congenital heart disease patients, from April 2009 to March 2016...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062088/a-crispr-cas9-based-gene-drive-platform-for-genetic-interaction-analysis-in-candida-albicans
#12
Rebecca S Shapiro, Alejandro Chavez, Caroline B M Porter, Meagan Hamblin, Christian S Kaas, James E DiCarlo, Guisheng Zeng, Xiaoli Xu, Alexey V Revtovich, Natalia V Kirienko, Yue Wang, George M Church, James J Collins
Candida albicans is the leading cause of fungal infections; yet, complex genetic interaction analysis remains cumbersome in this diploid pathogen. Here, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9-based 'gene drive array' platform to facilitate efficient genetic analysis in C. albicans. In our system, a modified DNA donor molecule acts as a selfish genetic element, replaces the targeted site and propagates to replace additional wild-type loci. Using mating-competent C. albicans haploids, each carrying a different gene drive disabling a gene of interest, we are able to create diploid strains that are homozygous double-deletion mutants...
January 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038743/mature-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-human-podocytes-reconstitute-kidney-glomerular-capillary-wall-function-on-a-chip
#13
Samira Musah, Akiko Mammoto, Thomas C Ferrante, Sauveur S F Jeanty, Mariko Hirano-Kobayashi, Tadanori Mammoto, Kristen Roberts, Seyoon Chung, Richard Novak, Miles Ingram, Tohid Fatanat-Didar, Sandeep Koshy, James C Weaver, George M Church, Donald E Ingber
An in vitro model of the human kidney glomerulus - the major site of blood filtration - could facilitate drug discovery and illuminate kidney-disease mechanisms. Microfluidic organ-on-a-chip technology has been used to model the human proximal tubule, yet a kidney-glomerulus-on-a-chip has not been possible because of the lack of functional human podocytes - the cells that regulate selective permeability in the glomerulus. Here, we demonstrate an efficient (> 90%) and chemically defined method for directing the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into podocytes that express markers of the mature phenotype (nephrin+, WT1+, podocin+, Pax2-) and that exhibit primary and secondary foot processes...
2017: Nature Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036736/pulmonary-hypertension-in-patients-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-does-lung-size-matter
#14
Arin L Madenci, Joseph T Church, Robert J Gajarski, Kathryn Marchetti, Edwin J Klein, Megan A Coughlin, Jeannie Kreutzmann, Marjorie Treadwell, Maria Ladino-Torres, George B Mychaliska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019985/dna-sequencing-at-40-past-present-and-future
#15
Jay Shendure, Shankar Balasubramanian, George M Church, Walter Gilbert, Jane Rogers, Jeffery A Schloss, Robert H Waterston
This review commemorates the 40th anniversary of DNA sequencing, a period in which we have already witnessed multiple technological revolutions and a growth in scale from a few kilobases to the first human genome, and now to millions of human and a myriad of other genomes. DNA sequencing has been extensively and creatively repurposed, including as a 'counter' for a vast range of molecular phenomena. We predict that in the long view of history, the impact of DNA sequencing will be on a par with that of the microscope...
October 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991237/corrigendum-engineering-and-optimising-deaminase-fusions-for-genome-editing
#16
Luhan Yang, Adrian W Briggs, Wei Leong Chew, Prashant Mali, Marc Guell, John Aach, Daniel Bryan Goodman, David Cox, Yinan Kan, Emal Lesha, Venkataramanan Soundararajan, Feng Zhang, George Church
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13330.
October 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991236/corrigendum-an-ethnically-relevant-consensus-korean-reference-genome-is-a-step-towards-personal-reference-genomes
#17
Yun Sung Cho, Hyunho Kim, Hak-Min Kim, Sungwoong Jho, JeHoon Jun, Yong Joo Lee, Kyun Shik Chae, Chang Geun Kim, Sangsoo Kim, Anders Eriksson, Jeremy S Edwards, Semin Lee, Byung Chul Kim, Andrea Manica, Tae-Kwang Oh, George M Church, Jong Bhak
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13637.
October 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981667/identifying-gaps-in-hiv-policy-and-practice-along-the-hiv-care-continuum-evidence-from-a-national-policy-review-and-health-facility-surveys-in-urban-and-rural-kenya
#18
Caoimhe Cawley, Ellen McRobie, Samuel Oti, Brian Njamwea, Amek Nyaguara, Frank Odhiambo, Fredrick Otieno, Muthoni Njage, Tara Shoham, Kathryn Church, Paul Mee, Jim Todd, Basia Zaba, Georges Reniers, Alison Wringe
The last decade has seen rapid evolution in guidance from the WHO concerning the provision of HIV services along the diagnosis-to-treatment continuum, but the extent to which these recommendations are adopted as national policies in Kenya, and subsequently implemented in health facilities, is not well understood. Identifying gaps in policy coverage and implementation is important for highlighting areas for improving service delivery, leading to better health outcomes. We compared WHO guidance with national policies for HIV testing and counselling, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV treatment and retention in care...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960932/heterologous-erythromycin-production-across-strain-and-plasmid-construction
#19
Lei Fang, Marc Guell, George M Church, Blaine A Pfeifer
The establishment of erythromycin production within the heterologous host E. coli marked an accomplishment in genetic transfer capacity. Namely, over 20 genes and 50 kb of DNA was introduced to E. coli for successful heterologous biosynthetic reconstitution. However, the prospect for production levels that approach those of the native host requires the application of engineering tools associated with E. coli. In this report, metabolic and genomic engineering were implemented to improve the E. coli cellular background and the plasmid platform supporting heterologous erythromycin formation...
September 28, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937410/cerebral-oxygenation-of-premature-lambs-supported-by-an-artificial-placenta
#20
Ahmed M El-Sabbagh, Brian W Gray, Andrew W Shaffer, Benjamin S Bryner, Joseph T Church, Jennifer S McLeod, Sara Zakem, Elena M Perkins, Renée A Shellhaas, John D E Barks, Alvaro Rojas-Peña, Robert H Bartlett, George B Mychaliska
An artificial placenta (AP) using venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) could represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of extremely premature infants. However, AP support could potentially alter cerebral oxygen delivery. We assessed cerebral perfusion in fetal lambs on AP support using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and carotid arterial flow (CAF). Fourteen premature lambs at EGA 130 days (term = 145) underwent cannulation of the right jugular vein and umbilical vein with initiation of VV-ECLS...
September 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
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