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George Church

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145600/the-influence-of-gender-and-household-headship-on-voluntary-health-insurance-the-case-of-north-west-cameroon
#1
Tessa Oraro, Nestor Ngube, George Yuh Atohmbom, Siddharth Srivastava, Kaspar Wyss
Within the existing health financing literature, males are typically categorized as the household's decision-makers. While this view accurately reflects many local sociocultural realities, approximately a quarter of sub-Saharan African households are now headed by females. In light of various efforts to expand health insurance coverage in the region, it is necessary to examine whether the factors influencing voluntary health insurance enrolment are analogous across male- and female-headed households. This study sought to identify the gendered determinants of voluntary enrolment into a church-run micro health insurance scheme...
November 13, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141159/compelling-reasons-for-repairing-human-germlines
#2
George Church
Under normal circumstances, if you combined sperm half of which carried a dominant disease allele with unaffected oocytes, only 50% of the resulting human embryos would be expected to have unaffected copies of the gene in question. Researchers Ma, Mitalipov, and colleagues recently reported that..
November 16, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092770/avalon-catheters-in-pediatric-patients-requiring-ecmo-placement-and-migration-problems
#3
Marcus D Jarboe, Samir K Gadepalli, Joseph T Church, Meghan A Arnold, Ronald B Hirschl, George B Mychaliska
PURPOSE: The Avalon dual-lumen venovenous catheter has several advantages, but placement techniques and management have not been adequately addressed in the pediatric population. We assessed our institutional outcomes and complications using the Avalon catheter in children. METHODS: We reviewed all pediatric patients who had Avalon catheters placed for respiratory failure at our institution, excluding congenital heart disease patients, from April 2009 to March 2016...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062088/a-crispr-cas9-based-gene-drive-platform-for-genetic-interaction-analysis-in-candida-albicans
#4
Rebecca S Shapiro, Alejandro Chavez, Caroline B M Porter, Meagan Hamblin, Christian S Kaas, James E DiCarlo, Guisheng Zeng, Xiaoli Xu, Alexey V Revtovich, Natalia V Kirienko, Yue Wang, George M Church, James J Collins
Candida albicans is the leading cause of fungal infections; yet, complex genetic interaction analysis remains cumbersome in this diploid pathogen. Here, we developed a CRISPR-Cas9-based 'gene drive array' platform to facilitate efficient genetic analysis in C. albicans. In our system, a modified DNA donor molecule acts as a selfish genetic element, replaces the targeted site and propagates to replace additional wild-type loci. Using mating-competent C. albicans haploids, each carrying a different gene drive disabling a gene of interest, we are able to create diploid strains that are homozygous double-deletion mutants...
October 23, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038743/mature-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-human-podocytes-reconstitute-kidney-glomerular-capillary-wall-function-on-a-chip
#5
Samira Musah, Akiko Mammoto, Thomas C Ferrante, Sauveur S F Jeanty, Mariko Hirano-Kobayashi, Tadanori Mammoto, Kristen Roberts, Seyoon Chung, Richard Novak, Miles Ingram, Tohid Fatanat-Didar, Sandeep Koshy, James C Weaver, George M Church, Donald E Ingber
An in vitro model of the human kidney glomerulus - the major site of blood filtration - could facilitate drug discovery and illuminate kidney-disease mechanisms. Microfluidic organ-on-a-chip technology has been used to model the human proximal tubule, yet a kidney-glomerulus-on-a-chip has not been possible because of the lack of functional human podocytes - the cells that regulate selective permeability in the glomerulus. Here, we demonstrate an efficient (> 90%) and chemically defined method for directing the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into podocytes that express markers of the mature phenotype (nephrin+, WT1+, podocin+, Pax2-) and that exhibit primary and secondary foot processes...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036736/pulmonary-hypertension-in-patients-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-does-lung-size-matter
#6
Arin L Madenci, Joseph T Church, Robert J Gajarski, Kathryn Marchetti, Edwin J Klein, Megan A Coughlin, Jeannie Kreutzmann, Marjorie Treadwell, Maria Ladino-Torres, George B Mychaliska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019985/dna-sequencing-at-40-past-present-and-future
#7
Jay Shendure, Shankar Balasubramanian, George M Church, Walter Gilbert, Jane Rogers, Jeffery A Schloss, Robert H Waterston
This review commemorates the 40th anniversary of DNA sequencing, a period in which we have already witnessed multiple technological revolutions and a growth in scale from a few kilobases to the first human genome, and now to millions of human and a myriad of other genomes. DNA sequencing has been extensively and creatively repurposed, including as a 'counter' for a vast range of molecular phenomena. We predict that in the long view of history, the impact of DNA sequencing will be on a par with that of the microscope...
October 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991237/corrigendum-engineering-and-optimising-deaminase-fusions-for-genome-editing
#8
Luhan Yang, Adrian W Briggs, Wei Leong Chew, Prashant Mali, Marc Guell, John Aach, Daniel Bryan Goodman, David Cox, Yinan Kan, Emal Lesha, Venkataramanan Soundararajan, Feng Zhang, George Church
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13330.
October 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991236/corrigendum-an-ethnically-relevant-consensus-korean-reference-genome-is-a-step-towards-personal-reference-genomes
#9
Yun Sung Cho, Hyunho Kim, Hak-Min Kim, Sungwoong Jho, JeHoon Jun, Yong Joo Lee, Kyun Shik Chae, Chang Geun Kim, Sangsoo Kim, Anders Eriksson, Jeremy S Edwards, Semin Lee, Byung Chul Kim, Andrea Manica, Tae-Kwang Oh, George M Church, Jong Bhak
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13637.
October 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981667/identifying-gaps-in-hiv-policy-and-practice-along-the-hiv-care-continuum-evidence-from-a-national-policy-review-and-health-facility-surveys-in-urban-and-rural-kenya
#10
Caoimhe Cawley, Ellen McRobie, Samuel Oti, Brian Njamwea, Amek Nyaguara, Frank Odhiambo, Fredrick Otieno, Muthoni Njage, Tara Shoham, Kathryn Church, Paul Mee, Jim Todd, Basia Zaba, Georges Reniers, Alison Wringe
The last decade has seen rapid evolution in guidance from the WHO concerning the provision of HIV services along the diagnosis-to-treatment continuum, but the extent to which these recommendations are adopted as national policies in Kenya, and subsequently implemented in health facilities, is not well understood. Identifying gaps in policy coverage and implementation is important for highlighting areas for improving service delivery, leading to better health outcomes. We compared WHO guidance with national policies for HIV testing and counselling, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV treatment and retention in care...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960932/heterologous-erythromycin-production-across-strain-and-plasmid-construction
#11
Lei Fang, Marc Guell, George M Church, Blaine A Pfeifer
The establishment of erythromycin production within the heterologous host E. coli marked an accomplishment in genetic transfer capacity. Namely, over 20 genes and 50 kb of DNA was introduced to E. coli for successful heterologous biosynthetic reconstitution. However, the prospect for production levels that approach those of the native host requires the application of engineering tools associated with E. coli. In this report, metabolic and genomic engineering were implemented to improve the E. coli cellular background and the plasmid platform supporting heterologous erythromycin formation...
September 28, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937410/cerebral-oxygenation-of-premature-lambs-supported-by-an-artificial-placenta
#12
Ahmed M El-Sabbagh, Brian W Gray, Andrew W Shaffer, Benjamin S Bryner, Joseph T Church, Jennifer S McLeod, Sara Zakem, Elena M Perkins, Renée A Shellhaas, John D E Barks, Alvaro Rojas-Peña, Robert H Bartlett, George B Mychaliska
An artificial placenta (AP) using venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) could represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of extremely premature infants. However, AP support could potentially alter cerebral oxygen delivery. We assessed cerebral perfusion in fetal lambs on AP support using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and carotid arterial flow (CAF). Fourteen premature lambs at EGA 130 days (term = 145) underwent cannulation of the right jugular vein and umbilical vein with initiation of VV-ECLS...
September 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933153/rapid-sequential-in-situ-multiplexing-with-dna-exchange-imaging-in-neuronal-cells-and-tissues
#13
Yu Wang, Johannes B Woehrstein, Noah Donoghue, Mingjie Dai, Maier S Avendaño, Ron C J Schackmann, Jason J Zoeller, Shan Shan H Wang, Paul W Tillberg, Demian Park, Sylvain W Lapan, Edward S Boyden, Joan S Brugge, Pascal S Kaeser, George M Church, Sarit S Agasti, Ralf Jungmann, Peng Yin
To decipher the molecular mechanisms of biological function, it is critical to map the molecular composition of individual cells or even more importantly tissue samples in the context of their biological environment in situ. Immunofluorescence (IF) provides specific labeling for molecular profiling. However, conventional IF methods have finite multiplexing capabilities due to spectral overlap of the fluorophores. Various sequential imaging methods have been developed to circumvent this spectral limit but are not widely adopted due to the common limitation of requiring multirounds of slow (typically over 2 h at room temperature to overnight at 4 °C in practice) immunostaining...
October 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911123/a-systematic-comparison-of-error-correction-enzymes-by-next-generation-sequencing
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nathan B Lubock, Di Zhang, Angus M Sidore, George M Church, Sriram Kosuri
Gene synthesis, the process of assembling gene-length fragments from shorter groups of oligonucleotides (oligos), is becoming an increasingly important tool in molecular and synthetic biology. The length, quality and cost of gene synthesis are limited by errors produced during oligo synthesis and subsequent assembly. Enzymatic error correction methods are cost-effective means to ameliorate errors in gene synthesis. Previous analyses of these methods relied on cloning and Sanger sequencing to evaluate their efficiencies, limiting quantitative assessment...
September 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852223/beyond-editing-to-writing-large-genomes
#15
REVIEW
Raj Chari, George M Church
Recent exponential advances in genome sequencing and engineering technologies have enabled an unprecedented level of interrogation into the impact of DNA variation (genotype) on cellular function (phenotype). Furthermore, these advances have also prompted realistic discussion of writing and radically re-writing complex genomes. In this Perspective, we detail the motivation for large-scale engineering, discuss the progress made from such projects in bacteria and yeast and describe how various genome-engineering technologies will contribute to this effort...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828661/imaging-of-isolated-extracellular-vesicles-using-fluorescence-microscopy
#16
Dmitry Ter-Ovanesyan, Emma J K Kowal, Aviv Regev, George M Church, Emanuele Cocucci
High-resolution fluorescence microscopy approaches enable the study of single objects or biological complexes. Single object studies have the general advantage of uncovering heterogeneity that may be hidden during the ensemble averaging which is common in any bulk conventional biochemical analysis. The implementation of single object analysis in the study of extracellular vesicles (EVs) may therefore be used to characterize specific properties of vesicle subsets which would be otherwise undetectable. We present a protocol for staining isolated EVs with a fluorescent lipid dye and attaching them onto a glass slide in preparation for imaging with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF-M) or other high-resolution microscopy techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828654/extracellular-vesicle-isolation-and-analysis-by-western-blotting
#17
Emma J K Kowal, Dmitry Ter-Ovanesyan, Aviv Regev, George M Church
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by mammalian cells and are thought to be important mediators of intercellular communication. There are many methods for isolating EVs from cell culture media, but the most popular methods involve purification based on ultracentrifugation . Here, we provide a detailed protocol for isolating EVs by differential ultracentrifugation and analyzing EV proteins (such as the tetraspanins CD9 , CD63 and CD81 ) by western blotting.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807739/community-based-participatory-research-to-design-a-faith-enhanced-diabetes-prevention-program-the-better-me-within-randomized-trial
#18
Heather Kitzman, Leilani Dodgen, Abdullah Mamun, J Lee Slater, George King, Donna Slater, Alene King, Surendra Mandapati, Mark DeHaven
Reducing obesity positively impacts diabetes and cardiovascular risk; however, evidence-based lifestyle programs, such as the diabetes prevention program (DPP), show reduced effectiveness in African American (AA) women. In addition to an attenuated response to lifestyle programs, AA women also demonstrate high rates of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To address these disparities, enhancements to evidence-based lifestyle programs for AA women need to be developed and evaluated with culturally relevant and rigorous study designs...
November 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798043/inactivation-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-in-pigs-using-crispr-cas9
#19
Dong Niu, Hong-Jiang Wei, Lin Lin, Haydy George, Tao Wang, I-Hsiu Lee, Hong-Ye Zhao, Yong Wang, Yinan Kan, Ellen Shrock, Emal Lesha, Gang Wang, Yonglun Luo, Yubo Qing, Deling Jiao, Heng Zhao, Xiaoyang Zhou, Shouqi Wang, Hong Wei, Marc Güell, George M Church, Luhan Yang
Xenotransplantation is a promising strategy to alleviate the shortage of organs for human transplantation. In addition to the concerns about pig-to-human immunological compatibility, the risk of cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has impeded the clinical application of this approach. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of inactivating PERV activity in an immortalized pig cell line. We now confirm that PERVs infect human cells, and we observe the horizontal transfer of PERVs among human cells...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714951/rates-distribution-and-implications-of-postzygotic-mosaic-mutations-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Elaine T Lim, Mohammed Uddin, Silvia De Rubeis, Yingleong Chan, Anne S Kamumbu, Xiaochang Zhang, Alissa M D'Gama, Sonia N Kim, Robert Sean Hill, Arthur P Goldberg, Christopher Poultney, Nancy J Minshew, Itaru Kushima, Branko Aleksic, Norio Ozaki, Mara Parellada, Celso Arango, Maria J Penzol, Angel Carracedo, Alexander Kolevzon, Christina M Hultman, Lauren A Weiss, Menachem Fromer, Andreas G Chiocchetti, Christine M Freitag, George M Church, Stephen W Scherer, Joseph D Buxbaum, Christopher A Walsh
We systematically analyzed postzygotic mutations (PZMs) in whole-exome sequences from the largest collection of trios (5,947) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) available, including 282 unpublished trios, and performed resequencing using multiple independent technologies. We identified 7.5% of de novo mutations as PZMs, 83.3% of which were not described in previous studies. Damaging, nonsynonymous PZMs within critical exons of prenatally expressed genes were more common in ASD probands than controls (P < 1 × 10(-6)), and genes carrying these PZMs were enriched for expression in the amygdala (P = 5...
September 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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