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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#1
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636630/accessibility-and-socio-economic-development-of-human-settlements
#2
Samiul Hasan, Xiaoming Wang, Yong Bing Khoo, Greg Foliente
Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634778/how-are-socio-demographic-and-psycho-social-factors-associated-with-the-prevalence-and-chronicity-of-severe-pain-in-14%C3%A2-different-body-sites-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-population-based-survey
#3
Thomas Ernst Dorner, Katharina Viktoria Stein, Julia Hahne, Florian Wepner, Martin Friedrich, Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz
BACKGROUND: Severe pain and chronic pain have a high impact on individuals and society. Body location of pain is important with regard to perception, articulation, and underlying biological, mental or social causes of pain. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in the general Austrian population with 15,474 personally interviewed subjects aged 15 years and older. RESULTS: The 1‑year period prevalence of severe pain in any body site was 38...
June 20, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633703/tuberculosis-inequalities-and-socio-economic-deprivation-in-portugal
#4
D Apolinário, A I Ribeiro, E Krainski, P Sousa, M Abranches, R Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the geographical distribution of tuberculosis (TB) in Portugal and estimate the association between TB and socio-economic deprivation. METHODS: An ecological study at the municipality level using TB notifications for 2010-2014 was conducted. Spatial Bayesian models were used to calculate smoothed standardised notification rates, identify high- and low-risk areas and estimate the association between TB notification and the European Deprivation Index (EDI) for Portugal and its component variables...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633049/physical-activity-correlates-among-24-230-people-with-depression-across-46-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Joseph Firth, Mats Hallgren, Felipe Schuch, Jouni Lahti, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, James Mugisha, André F Carvalho, Ai Koyanagi
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of nationally representative data available on the correlates of physical activity (PA) among people with depression, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated PA correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in this setting. METHODS: World Health Survey data included 24,230 adults (43.1 ± 16.1 years; 36.1% male) with ICD-10 diagnoses of depression including brief depressive episode and subsyndromal depression aged ≥ 18 years from 46 LMICs...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633047/the-impacts-of-the-global-financial-crisis-on-hospitalizations-due-to-depressive-illnesses-in-taiwan-a-prospective-nationwide-population-based-study
#6
Chiachi Bonnie Lee, Chen-Mao Liao, Chih-Ming Lin
BACKGROUND: In the third quarter of 2008, a major financial crisis hit many developed countries. Taiwan suffered its own share: a rise in unemployment and a severe decline in gross domestic product. This study is to address the health consequences of this crisis on different socioeconomic populations in Taiwan. METHODS: A sample of 6,225,766 men and 5,417,651 women, was obtained and their admissions data over 2007-2012 were retrieved. Stratified into three income levels, the sample was examined on the 147,921 episodes of hospitalization due to depressive illnesses (DIs) over that period by an interrupted time series analysis for monthly incidence rates of DI hospitalizations RESULTS: The adjusted incidence rates of hospitalization (AIRH) for DIs among the low income were 10 times that of the high income group...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629283/prevalence-and-correlates-of-major-depression-among-nigerian-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#7
Saheed O Raji, Ambrose O Lawani, Bawo O James
Objective To ascertain the current and lifetime prevalence of depression among adults with sickle cell disease and identify relevant socio-demographic and clinical correlates. Method A cross-sectional study of 205 stable adult out-patient attendees at a treatment center in southern Nigeria between April and September, 2014. A socio-demographic questionnaire, the depression module of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale were administered. Categorical and continuous variables associated with a diagnosis of depression were tested using chi-squared and t-tests respectively...
July 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629279/understanding-determinants-of-cardiovascular-health-in-a-mexican-american-community
#8
Karen A Larimer, Meg Gulanick, Sue Penckofer
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Hispanic Americans. Social and physical determinants of health unique to this community must be understood before interventions can be designed and implemented. This article describes a CVD risk assessment conducted in a primarily Mexican American community, using Healthy People 2020 as a model. Social (language, culture, awareness of CVD, and socio-economic status) and physical (presence and use of recreation areas, presence of grocery stores, public transportation, and environmental pollution) determinants of health as well as access to health services were assessed...
July 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629199/association-of-education-and-smoking-status-on-risk-of-diabetes-mellitus-a-population-based-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#9
Jin-Hyeong Kim, Juhwan Noh, Jae-Woo Choi, Eun-Cheol Park
Background: Exposure to smoke, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, is also a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and behavior risk factor-related variables and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007-2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES)...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628620/prevalence-and-determinants-of-online-sex-use-in-the-german-population
#10
Manfred E Beutel, Sebastian Giralt, Klaus Wölfling, Yve Stöbel-Richter, Claudia Subic-Wrana, Iris Reiner, Ana Nanette Tibubos, Elmar Brähler
INTRODUCTION: The unlimited access to sexual features in the World Wide Web has raised concerns about excessive and problematic online-sex use. However, little is known about antecedents of internet-sex use of different intensity. Based on a representative German sample of 2,522 participants between the ages of 14 and 97 years, the aims of the present study were (1) to determine the prevalence rates of online-sex users with the short version (ISSTGSV) of the Internet Sex Screening Test and (2) to associate online-sex use with anxious vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626358/psychosocial-correlates-of-patient-provider-family-planning-discussions-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-south-africa
#11
Violeta J Rodriguez, Ryan R Cook, Stephen M Weiss, Karl Peltzer, Deborah L Jones
Patient-provider family planning discussions and preconception counseling can reduce maternal and neonatal risks by increasing adherence to provider recommendations and antiretroviral medication. However, HIV-infected women may not discuss reproductive intentions with providers due to anticipation of negative reactions and stigma. This study aimed to identify correlates of patient-provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected women in rural South Africa, an area with high rates of antenatal HIV and suboptimal rates of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV...
2017: Open Access J Contracept
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625192/prolonged-birth-intervals-in-hamedan-iran-variations-and-determinants
#12
Amir Erfani, Marzieh Nojomi, Hatam Hosseini
The enduring sub-replacement level of fertility in Iran is the result of changing timing of births. Using data from the 2015 Hamedan Survey of Fertility, conducted in a representative sample of 3000 married women aged 15-49, this study examined variations in median lengths of birth intervals employing cumulative survival functions, and investigated the determinants of birth interval lengths using regression hazard models. The results showed that the median first, second and third birth intervals, estimated at 28, 74 and 136 months respectively, doubled between 1995 and 2015...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619039/food-insecurity-and-food-consumption-by-season-in-households-with-children-in-an-arctic-city-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Catherine Huet, James D Ford, Victoria L Edge, Jamal Shirley, Nia King, Sherilee L Harper
BACKGROUND: High rates of food insecurity are documented among Inuit households in Canada; however, data on food insecurity prevalence and seasonality for Inuit households with children are lacking, especially in city centres. This project: (1) compared food consumption patterns for households with and without children, (2) compared the prevalence of food insecurity for households with and without children, (3) compared food consumption patterns and food insecurity prevalence between seasons, and (4) identified factors associated with food insecurity in households with children in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada...
June 15, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618448/out-of-sight-but-not-out-of-mind-home-countries-macroeconomic-volatilities-and-immigrants-mental-health
#14
Ha Trong Nguyen, Luke Brian Connelly
We provide the first empirical evidence that better economic performances by immigrants' countries of origin, as measured by lower consumer price index (CPI) or higher gross domestic product, improve immigrants' mental health. We use an econometrically-robust approach that exploits exogenous changes in macroeconomic conditions across immigrants' home countries over time and controls for immigrants' observable and unobservable characteristics. The CPI effect is statistically significant and sizeable. Furthermore, the CPI effect diminishes as the time since emigrating increases...
June 15, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618088/a-comparison-of-barriers-to-mental-health-support-seeking-among-farming-and-non-farming-adults-in-rural-south-australia
#15
Melissa J Hull, Kate M Fennell, Kari Vallury, Martin Jones, James Dollman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences between farming and non-farming rural adults in perceived barriers to mental health service use. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey, modified from the Barriers to Help-Seeking Scale (BHSS), was conducted using a computer-assisted telephone interview. SETTING: Respondents (age 52.6 ± 11.6 years) were recruited from three rural regions of South Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Approximately, 78 non-farmers and 45 farmers were included in analyses...
June 15, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617776/-employment-status-and-perceived-health-in-italy-data-from-the-european-union-statistics-on-income-and-living-conditions-eu-silc-longitudinal-study
#16
Silvia Bacci, Marco Seracini, Manuela Chiavarini, Francesco Bartolucci, Liliana Minelli
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between employment status (permanent employment, fixed-term employment, unemployment, other) and perceived health status in a sample of the Italian population. Data was obtained from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC) study during the period 2009 - 2012. The sample consists of 4,848 individuals, each with a complete record of observations during four years for a total of 19,392 observations. The causal relationship between perceived/self-reported health status and employment status was tested using a global logit model (STATA)...
March 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616441/is-firearm-threat-in-intimate-relationships-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-women
#17
Tami P Sullivan, Nicole H Weiss
In the context of intimate partner violence (IPV), firearms may be used to threaten, coerce, and intimidate. Yet, what little research exists on firearms among IPV victims has focused almost exclusively on homicide or near homicide. Thus, the deleterious health consequences of firearms more broadly remain unknown. The goals of the current study were (1) to document the prevalence of firearm threat in a community sample of female IPV victims, and (2) to identify the extent to which threat with a firearm, independent of other forms of IPV, is related to women's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity...
June 1, 2017: Violence and Gender
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615082/differential-responses-in-first-birth-behaviour-to-economic-recession-in-the-united-kingdom
#18
Mark Lyons-Amos, Ingrid Schoon
Economic conditions have dramatic influences on fertility. This paper evaluates the effect of the 2008 'Great Recession' in the UK on first birth rate, which is the fertility behaviour most susceptible to external economic conditions. The key aim of the study was to assess the effect of the recession on fertility by individual-level characteristics, enabling variation in responses to economic hardship to be observed. Data were from the nationally representative UK Household Longitudinal Study (UK-HLS). Cumulative transition models were used to model the probability of first birth for women between the ages of 17 and 30 in three UK birth cohorts...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611506/indian-science-culture-needs-a-paradigm-shift
#19
Om P Sharma
There is a general impression in the scientific community in our country that the way science is taught, leant and the work culture of research and management of academic and research institutions is not conducive to cutting edge research, innovation and making world leaders. Mentoring continues to be poor with some exceptions. Very often, senior scientists with long innings in science teaching and research express anguish at the status quo in spite of a number of policy documents and recommendations for change...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609313/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-life-satisfaction-in-a-representative-adolescent-and-adult-sample
#20
Timo Hennig, Ute Koglin, Sören Schmidt, Franz Petermann, Elmar Brähler
Although it is well documented that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced life satisfaction, the mechanisms that might explain this co-occurrence are unclear. We examined the correlation of ADHD symptoms with life satisfaction and whether this association is mediated by (lacking) social support and depressive symptoms. Self-reported ADHD symptoms, life satisfaction, social support, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a representative, predominantly adult sample from the general population (14-91 years, N = 2517)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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