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Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Waqas Hameed, Bilal Iqbal Avan
INTRODUCTION: Respectful and dignified healthcare is a fundamental right for every woman. However, many women seeking childbirth services, especially those in low-income countries such as Pakistan, are mistreated by their birth attendants. The aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalence of mistreatment and types of mistreatment among women giving birth in facility- and home-based settings in Pakistan in order to address the lack of empirical evidence on this topic...
2018: PloS One
Kimberly Coughlin, R David Hayward, Mary Fessler, Elango Edhayan
OBJECTIVES: Although individual socioeconomic status has been linked with risk of traumatic injury, there has been relatively little research into the question of how economic changes may impact trauma admission rates in neighborhoods with different socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: This study pairs ZIP code-level data on trauma admissions with county-level data on unemployment to assess differences in the type of changes experienced in more and less affluent neighborhoods of the Detroit metropolitan area between 2006 and 2014...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Adam Whitworth
BACKGROUND: Health-related unemployment is a major issue across advanced economies. Modified versions of well-evidenced Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models of employment support for health cohorts offer considerable potential. A significant gap currently however is the lack of evidence around their financial return on investment. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To provide robust financial return on investment estimates for analytically derived alternative specifications of modified IPS services for the first time in the literature, sensitivity tested across various levels of performance...
March 9, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
M Austin Coker, Carrie E Huisingh, Gerald McGwin, Russell W Read, Mark W Swanson, Laura E Dreer, Dawn K DeCarlo, Lindsay Gregg, Cynthia Owsley
Importance: The prevalence of irreversible vision impairment in the United States is expected to increase by 2050. Vision rehabilitation is the primary treatment option. Clinical trials have established its efficacy in improving quality of life. Yet studies indicate that patients experience many barriers to accessing low-vision care. Objectives: To examine the rate of referral for low-vision rehabilitation services by resident and attending ophthalmologists for adults with irreversible vision impairment and to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of patients about vision rehabilitation...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Soojin Park, Esra Kürüm
Randomized experiments are often complicated because of treatment noncompliance. This challenge prevents researchers from identifying the mediated portion of the intention-to-treated (ITT) effect, which is the effect of the assigned treatment that is attributed to a mediator. One solution suggests identifying the mediated ITT effect on the basis of the average causal mediation effect among compliers when there is a single mediator. However, considering the complex nature of the mediating mechanisms, it is natural to assume that there are multiple variables that mediate through the causal path...
March 15, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Susana Algarvio, Isabel Leal, João Maroco
The aim of this study was to validate the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for Portuguese parents and to further investigate the scale's criterion-related validity. A two-stage stratified sample of the Portuguese population of parents, with children attending public preschools and primary schools, was obtained, totalizing 3842 parents of children between 3 and 10 years old. Parents completed a Parental Concerns Scale and the Portuguese version of the PSS. Results support the four-factor structure of the Portuguese version of the PSS...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Lara Manuela Guedes de Pinho, Anabela Maria de Sousa Pereira, Cláudia Margarida Correia Balula Chaves
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and satisfaction with social support with the quality of life of schizophrenic patients. METHODOLOGY: This study included a sample of 268 participants. An interview was conducted to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data, supplemented with two assessment tools used to evaluate quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version - WHOQOL-Bref) and satisfaction with social support (Social Support Satisfaction Scale - SSSS)...
March 8, 2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Rachel C Garthe, Deborah Gorman-Smith, Joshua Gregory, Michael E Schoeny
The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Liliana Angelica Ponguta, Muneera Abdul Rasheed, Chin Regina Reyes, Aisha Khizar Yousafzai
The international community has set forth global targets that include calls for universal access to high-quality early childhood care and education (ECCE), as indicated in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. One major impediment to achieving this target is the lack of a skilled workforce. In this paper, we argue the case for leveraging youth as an untapped resource for supplying the workforce the ECCE system needs. Youth comprise a large proportion of the global population, and historically, although youth experience higher unemployment rates than their adult counterparts, youth are important agents of social awareness, social transformation, and community mobilization in multiple global contexts...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Hila Axelrad, Erika L Sabbath, Summer Sherburne Hawkins
This study examined whether economic changes related to the 2008-2009 Recession were associated with employment status and job quality indicators among older workers in Europe and Israel. Data were derived from 4917 respondents (16,090 observations both before and after the recession) from 13 countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Annual data on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, life expectancy, and quarterly unemployment rates were assigned to employment assessments from 2004 to 2013...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Yuka Minagawa, Yasuhiko Saito
Compared to the large volume of research focused on mortality differentials within Japan, relatively little is known about regional variations in health expectancy, particularly among older people. This article has two interrelated objectives. The first objective is to estimate prefecture-specific disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) at 65 years of age in 2010. DFLE at 65 by gender and prefecture was computed using the Sullivan method, which was applied to prefecture-specific life tables and prevalence of disability from Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa (Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions) of 2010...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate depressive symptoms and their association with sociodemographic factors, stressors and support, including childhood adversity, health status risk and behaviour in Indonesia. METHOD: In a cross-sectional national population survey in 2014-15 in Indonesia, 31442 adults (mean age 37.3 years, SD = 14.9, age range 15-101 years) responded to the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) and various other measures...
March 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Elson Asevedo, Carolina Ziebold, Elton Diniz, Ary Gadelha, Jair Mari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This was a retrospective ecological study to examine the relationship between suicide rates and economic indicators in large Brazilian urban centers. Data on macroeconomic indicators (GDP and unemployment rates) and suicide rates of the largest Brazilian cities were collected from January 2006 to December 2015. RECENT FINDINGS: Six cities were included in the study: Porto Alegre in the South, Recife and Salvador in the Northeast, and Belo Horizonte, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in the Southeast region...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
André Q C Miguel, Clarice S Madruga, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Rodolfo Yamauchi, Viviane Simões, Claudio J Da Silva, Renata R Abdalla, Michael McDonell, Sterling McPherson, John M Roll, Jair J Mari, Ronaldo R Laranjeira
Crack cocaine (crack) dependence is a severe disorder associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, constituting a major public health problem in Brazil. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the profile of treatment-seeking crack-dependent individuals. We recruited 65 crack-dependent individuals from among those seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic for alcohol and drug treatment in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Assessments, conducted between August 2012 and July 2014, focused on sociodemographic characteristics, the pattern/history of crack use, treatment history, concomitant substance use disorders, psychiatric symptomatology, and impulsivity...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Rebecca Burch, Paul Rizzoli, Elizabeth Loder
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this targeted systematic review, we aimed to identify up-to-date prevalence estimates of migraine and severe headache in adults from population-based US government surveys. Our goal was to assess the stability of prevalence estimates over time, and to identify additional information pertinent to the burden and treatment of migraine and other severe headache conditions. METHODS: We searched for the most current publicly available summary statistics from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)...
March 12, 2018: Headache
Andrew E Clark, Carine Milcent
In this paper, we address two issues: i) how hospital employment changes with local unemployment, according to the type of hospital ownership, and ii) whether this relationship changed after the implementation of a pro-competitive reform that made hospitals more similar. A 2006-2010 French panel of 1695 hospitals over five waves allows us to consider within-hospital employment changes. We first find that higher local unemployment is associated with greater employment in State-owned hospitals, but not for any other hospital ownership type: French local authorities then seem to respond to depressed local labour markets by increasing employment in State-owned hospitals...
March 1, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James Mugisha, Joseph Firth, Felipe B Schuch, Ai Koyanagi
OBJECTIVE: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is harmful for health and well-being and may be associated with depression. However, little is known about the correlates of SB in people with depression. Thus, we investigated SB correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in six low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. The analysis was restricted to those with DSM-IV Depression or receiving depression treatment in the last 12 months...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Tingzhong Yang, Ross Barnett, Sihui Peng, Lingwei Yu, Chichen Zhang, Weifang Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual and environmental stressors and problem alcohol use among Chinese university students. METHODS: Participants were 11,942 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process that included 50 universities. Individual information, including feelings of stress and perceptions of problem alcohol use, was obtained by self report. Urban and regional variables were retrieved from the National Bureau of Statistics database...
March 5, 2018: Health & Place
Ainhoa Urtasun, Imanol Nuñez
The neoclassic economic rationale has taken for granted that the effect of effort on health is negative. However, several studies in the field of occupational health and medicine claim that working is clearly better for health than non-working or being unemployed, as some psychological and physical condition may improve with work effort. This paper analyzes the effect of work effort on occupational health. The proposed human capital approach builds upon the classic economic perspective, that assumes a negative effect of effort on health, and extends it by allowing positive effects, as suggested by occupational researchers...
February 28, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
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