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Sensory Processing Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#1
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910097/chronic-migraine-an-update-on-physiology-imaging-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-two-available-pharmacologic-therapies
#2
Sheena K Aurora, Mitchell F Brin
Several lines of research support the hypothesis that migraine is a spectrum of illness, with clinical symptoms that vary along a continuum from episodic migraine to chronic migraine. Physiologic changes may result in episodic migraine evolving into chronic migraine over months to years in susceptible individuals. With chronification, headache frequency increases, becoming more disabling and less responsive to therapy. Neurophysiologic and functional imaging research has reported that chronic migraine may be associated with severity-specific metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities in the brainstem...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#3
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906968/structural-and-functional-recovery-of-sensory-cilia-in-c-elegans-ift-mutants-upon-aging
#4
Astrid Cornils, Ashish K Maurya, Lauren Tereshko, Julie Kennedy, Andrea G Brear, Veena Prahlad, Oliver E Blacque, Piali Sengupta
The majority of cilia are formed and maintained by the highly conserved process of intraflagellar transport (IFT). Mutations in IFT genes lead to ciliary structural defects and systemic disorders termed ciliopathies. Here we show that the severely truncated sensory cilia of hypomorphic IFT mutants in C. elegans transiently elongate during a discrete period of adult aging leading to markedly improved sensory behaviors. Age-dependent restoration of cilia morphology occurs in structurally diverse cilia types and requires IFT...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905557/hallucinations-in-schizophrenia-and-parkinson-s-disease-an-analysis-of-sensory-modalities-involved-and-the-repercussion-on-patients
#5
P M Llorca, B Pereira, R Jardri, I Chereau-Boudet, G Brousse, D Misdrahi, G Fénelon, A-M Tronche, R Schwan, C Lançon, A Marques, M Ulla, P Derost, B Debilly, F Durif, I de Chazeron
Hallucinations have been described in various clinical populations, but they are neither disorder nor disease specific. In schizophrenia patients, hallucinations are hallmark symptoms and auditory ones are described as the more frequent. In Parkinson's disease, the descriptions of hallucination modalities are sparse, but the hallucinations do tend to have less negative consequences. Our study aims to explore the phenomenology of hallucinations in both hallucinating schizophrenia patients and Parkinson's disease patients using the Psycho-Sensory hAllucinations Scale (PSAS)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896947/reduced-modulation-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-during-exposure-to-sensory-stimuli-in-asd
#6
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#7
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894464/functional-neurological-symptoms-modulate-processing-of-emotionally-salient-stimuli
#8
Johanna Fiess, Brigitte Rockstroh, Roger Schmidt, Christian Wienbruch, Astrid Steffen
OBJECTIVE: Dysfunctional emotion processing has been discussed as a contributing factor to functional neurological symptoms (FNS) in the context of conversion disorder, and refers to blunted recognition and the expression of one's own feelings. However, the emotion processing components characteristic for FNS and/or relevant for conversion remain to be specified. With this goal, the present study targeted the initial, automatic discrimination of emotionally salient stimuli. METHODS: The magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was monitored in 21 patients with functional weakness and/or sensory disturbance subtypes of FNS and 21 healthy comparison participants (HC) while they passively watched 600 emotionally arousing, pleasant, unpleasant or neutral stimuli in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) design...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868393/atypical-effective-connectivity-of-thalamo-cortical-circuits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Heng Chen, Lucina Q Uddin, Youxue Zhang, Xujun Duan, Huafu Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by atypical connectivity within and across multiple brain systems. We aimed to explore information transmission from the sensory periphery to information processing centers of the brain across thalamo-cortical circuits in ASD. A large multicenter dataset from the autism brain imaging data exchange was utilized. A thalamus template derived from the Automatic Anatomic Labeling atlas was subdivided into six subregions corresponding to six cortical regions using a "winner-takes-all" strategy...
November 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867664/the-case-for-musical-instrument-training-in-cerebral-palsy-for-neurorehabilitation
#10
REVIEW
Ana Alves-Pinto, Varvara Turova, Tobias Blumenstein, Renée Lampe
Recent imaging studies in cerebral palsy (CP) have described several brain structural changes, functional alterations, and neuroplastic processes that take place after brain injury during early development. These changes affect motor pathways as well as sensorimotor networks. Several of these changes correlate with behavioral measures of motor and sensory disability. It is now widely acknowledged that management of sensory deficits is relevant for rehabilitation in CP. Playing a musical instrument demands the coordination of hand movements with integrated auditory, visual, and tactile feedback, in a process that recruits multiple brain regions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866043/sensory-processing-disorders-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#11
Sílvia Leticia Pavão, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira Rocha
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate sensory processing in children with CP using the Sensory Profile questionnaire and to compare results with the ones of children with typical development (TD). METHODS: We assessed sensory processing of 59 TD children and 43 CP children using the Sensory Profile, a standardized parent reporting measure that records children's responses to sensory events in daily life. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the results of sensory processing evaluation among the groups...
November 17, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848052/the-relationship-between-autistic-traits-and-atypical-sensory-functioning-in-neurotypical-and-asd-adults-a-spectrum-approach
#12
Jennifer L Mayer
Sensory processing atypicalities are a common feature in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and have previously been linked to a range of behaviours in individuals with ASD and atypical neurological development. More recently research has demonstrated a relationship between autistic traits in the neurotypical (NT) population and increased levels of atypical sensory behaviours. The aim of the present study is to extend previous research by examining specific patterns across aspects of autistic traits and sensory behaviours within both ASD and NT populations...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834163/is-not-just-right-experience-njre-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-part-of-an-autistic-phenotype
#13
Josselyn Hellriegel, Caroline Barber, Maheshi Wikramanayake, Naomi A Fineberg, William Mandy
OBJECTIVE: Harm avoidance (HA) and "not just right experience" (NJRE) have been proposed to be 2 core motivational processes underlying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The objective of this study was to explore whether NJRE demarcates a neurodevelopmental OCD subgroup distinct from HA related to autistic traits and/or to a broader phenotype of cognitive rigidity and sensory processing difficulties associated with an earlier age of OCD onset. METHODS: A correlational design investigated whether NJRE and HA are distinct entities in OCD and explored their relationship to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) traits measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ), sensory processing, set-shifting, and age of OCD onset in an OCD sample (N=25)...
November 11, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828859/aberrant-pulvinar-effective-connectivity-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#14
Reza Tadayonnejad, Heide Klumpp, Olusola Ajilore, Alex Leow, Kinh Luan Phan
Recent neuroimaging findings in general social anxiety disorder (gSAD) have extended our understanding of the neural mechanisms of gSAD beyond an amygdala-centric fear-based hyperactivity model to include other brain regions and networks relevant to salient cues. In particular, higher order areas compromising visual networks that process emotional and social information have been implicated. The pulvinar anchors this network and is a key regulatory node that mediates complex sensory inputs and the integration between limbic and frontal brain systems...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821467/a-painful-neuropathy-associated-nav1-7-mutant-leads-to-time-dependent-degeneration-of-small-diameter-axons-associated-with-intracellular-ca2-dysregulation-and-decrease-in-atp-levels
#15
Harshvardhan Rolyan, Shujun Liu, Janneke Gj Hoeijmakers, Catharina G Faber, Ingemar Sj Merkies, Giuseppe Lauria, Joel A Black, Stephen G Waxman
Small fiber neuropathy is a painful sensory nervous system disorder characterized by damage to unmyelinated C- and thinly myelinated Aδ- nerve fibers, clinically manifested by burning pain in the distal extremities and dysautonomia. The clinical onset in adulthood suggests a time-dependent process. The mechanisms that underlie nerve fiber injury in small fiber neuropathy are incompletely understood, although roles for energetic stress have been suggested. In the present study, we report time-dependent degeneration of neurites from dorsal root ganglia neurons in culture expressing small fiber neuropathy-associated G856D mutant Nav1...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816899/the-developmental-dynamics-of-gait-maturation-with-a-focus-on-spatiotemporal-measures
#16
REVIEW
C M Kraan, A H J Tan, K M Cornish
Gait analysis is recognised as a powerful clinical tool for studying relationships between motor control and brain function. By drawing on the literature investigating gait in individuals with neurological disorders, this review provides insight into the neural processes that contribute to and regulate specific spatiotemporal sub-components of gait and how they may mature across early to late childhood. This review also discusses the roles of changing anthropomorphic characteristics, and maturing sensory and higher-order cognitive processes in differentiating the developmental trajectories of the sub-components of gait...
October 29, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815131/sensory-coding-and-cognitive-processing-of-sound-in-veterans-with-blast-exposure
#17
Scott Bressler, Hannah Goldberg, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham
Recent anecdotal reports from VA audiology clinics as well as a few published studies have identified a sub-population of Service Members seeking treatment for problems communicating in everyday, noisy listening environments despite having normal to near-normal hearing thresholds. Because of their increased risk of exposure to dangerous levels of prolonged noise and transient explosive blast events, communication problems in these soldiers could be due to either hearing loss (traditional or "hidden") in the auditory sensory periphery or from blast-induced injury to cortical networks associated with attention...
November 2, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792883/the-relationship-between-sensory-processing-patterns-alexithymia-traumatic-childhood-experiences-and-quality-of-life-among-patients-with-unipolar-and-bipolar-disorders
#18
Gianluca Serafini, Xenia Gonda, Maurizio Pompili, Zoltan Rihmer, Mario Amore, Batya Engel-Yeger
Several studies documented the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. The long-term consequences of traumatic experiences and alexithymia have been demonstrated as well. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns, traumatic childhood experiences, and alexithymia has not been thoroughly examined in major affective disorders. The present study aimed to: (1) compare unipolar/bipolar patients with regard to their sensory processing patterns, alexithymia, childhood traumatic experiences and quality of life; (2) examine the correlations between sensory processing patterns and childhood traumatic experiences; (3) investigate the relative contribution of diagnostic groups (unipolar/bipolar), sensory processing patterns, alexithymia, and childhood traumatic experiences in predicting quality of life...
December 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785336/type-3-adenylyl-cyclase-a-key-enzyme-mediating-the-camp-signaling-in-neuronal-cilia
#19
REVIEW
Liyan Qiu, Robert P LeBel, Daniel R Storm, Xuanmao Chen
Cilia are rigid, centriole-derived, microtubule-based organelles present in a majority of vertebrate cells including neurons. They are considered the cellular "antennae" attuned for detecting a range of extracellular signals including photons, odorants, morphogens, hormones and mechanical forces. The ciliary microenvironment is distinct from most actin-based subcellular structures such as microvilli or synapses. In the nervous system, there is no evidence that neuronal cilia process any synaptic structure. Apparently, the structural features of neuronal cilia do not allow them to harbor any synaptic connections...
2016: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777418/the-phf21b-gene-is-associated-with-major-depression-and-modulates-the-stress-response
#20
M-L Wong, M Arcos-Burgos, S Liu, J I Vélez, C Yu, B T Baune, M C Jawahar, V Arolt, U Dannlowski, A Chuah, G A Huttley, R Fogarty, M D Lewis, S R Bornstein, J Licinio
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects around 350 million people worldwide; however, the underlying genetic basis remains largely unknown. In this study, we took into account that MDD is a gene-environment disorder, in which stress is a critical component, and used whole-genome screening of functional variants to investigate the 'missing heritability' in MDD. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using single- and multi-locus linear mixed-effect models were performed in a Los Angeles Mexican-American cohort (196 controls, 203 MDD) and in a replication European-ancestry cohort (499 controls, 473 MDD)...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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