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Sensory Processing Disorder

Jidan Zhong, David Qixiang Chen, Peter S P Hung, Dave J Hayes, Kevin E Liang, Karen D Davis, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe form of chronic facial neuropathic pain. Increasing interest in the neuroimaging of pain has highlighted changes in the root entry zone in TN, but also group level CNS grey and white matter abnormalities. Group differences in neuroimaging data are frequently evaluated with univariate statistics, however this approach is limited because it is based on single, or clusters of, voxels. In contrast, multivariate pattern analyses consider all the model's neuroanatomical features to capture a specific distributed spatial pattern...
June 13, 2018: Pain
F Charoenwong, A Charlanes, C Chesnel, D Menoux, D Motavasseli, E Tan, F Le Breton, G Amarenco
INTRODUCTION: Need to void level depends on two parameters, bladder volume and attentional process. If it is well known that the maximum voluntary contraction of the perineal muscles may transiently inhibit the micturition reflex itself, no work demonstrates the effect of this contraction on the intensity of the need itself. METHODS: An experimental, prospective, open, monocentric study was conducted between March and April 2017. In total, 15 subjects with no neurological history or neuro-perineal disorders consulting for functional constipation were included...
June 11, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
Valerio Zerbi, Giovanna D Ielacqua, Marija Markicevic, Matthias Georg Haberl, Mark H Ellisman, Arjun A-Bhaskaran, Andreas Frick, Markus Rudin, Nicole Wenderoth
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders for which there is currently no targeted therapeutic approach. It is thought that alterations of genes regulating migration and synapse formation during development affect neural circuit formation and result in aberrant connectivity within distinct circuits that underlie abnormal behaviors. However, it is unknown whether deviant developmental trajectories are circuit-specific for a given autism risk-gene. We used MRI to probe changes in functional and structural connectivity from childhood to adulthood in Fragile-X (Fmr1-/y) and contactin-associated (CNTNAP2-/-) knockout mice...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Yu Fu, Emre Selcuk, Sarah R Moore, Richard A Depue
Soft touch possesses strong prosocial effects that facilitate social bonding and group cohesion in animals. Touch activates opioids (OP) and oxytocin (OXT), two neuromodulators involved in affiliative behaviors and social bonding. We examined whether touch serves as an unconditioned reward in affective conditioning of human faces, a basic process in social bonding, and whether this process is mediated by variation in mu-OP (OPRM1) and OXT (rs53576) receptor genes. Participants viewed affectively-neutral human faces, half of which were paired with a brief soft brushing on the forearm as an unconditioned stimulus (US)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tara Arbab, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Francesco P Battaglia
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an X-chromosome linked intellectual disability and the most common known inherited single gene cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Building upon demonstrated deficits in neuronal plasticity and spatial memory in FXS, we investigated how spatial information processing is affected in vivo in an FXS mouse model (Fmr1-KO). Healthy hippocampal neurons (so-called place cells) exhibit place-related activity during spatial exploration, and their firing fields tend to remain stable over time...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anusha Mohan, Dirk De Ridder, Rajith Idiculla, Clisha DSouza, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a phantom sound characterized behaviorally by a loudness and a distress component. Although a wealth of information is available about the relationship between these behavioral correlates and changes in static functional connectivity, its relationship with dynamic changes in network connectivity is yet unexplored. The aim of the current study is thus to investigate changes in the flexibility and stability of temporal variability in tinnitus and its relation to loudness and distress using continuous resting state EEG...
June 10, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
P Giacardy, M Viellard, C Chatel, E Jourdan, E Avenel, S Elissalde, P Grandgeorge, V Murdymootoo, J Guivarch, L Boyer, F Poinso
INTRODUCTION: People suffering from autism spectrum disorders (ASD) provide atypical responses to sensorial stimulations, indicating specific sensory processing. These responses vary from one another and within the same individual with ASD, resulting in maladaptive functional capacities in everyday life. Factors explaining those specificities are poorly defined and need to be better identified. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between sensory modulation symptoms (SMSs) and maladaptive behaviors in a group of children with ASD...
June 7, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Yann Auxéméry
BACKGROUND: People who witness a horrific event are at risk of suffering from acute psychological disorders, potentially leading to chronic post-traumatic symptoms and severe medico-psycho-social complications. Traumatised individuals suffer from psychological damage that is initially indescribable: they are often unable to ask for care in the immediate aftermath of an event. Afterwards, traumatic events and their post-traumatic consequences are still often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc...
June 7, 2018: L'Encéphale
Yi Huey Lim, Hoe C Lee, Torbjörn Falkmer, Garry T Allison, Tele Tan, Wee Lih Lee, Susan L Morris
Sensory processing difficulties affect the development of sensorimotor skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the effect of sensory information on postural control is unclear in the ASD adult population. The present study examined the effect of visual information on postural control as well as the attentional demands associated with postural control in fourteen adults with ASD and seventeen typically developed adults. The results showed that postural sway and attention demands of postural control were larger in adults with ASD than in typically developed adults...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jing Fang, Selver Demic, Sen Cheng
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an impairment of episodic memory, but the mechanisms underlying this deficit remain unclear. Animal models of MDD find impaired adult neurogenesis (AN) in the dentate gyrus (DG), and AN in DG has been suggested to play a critical role in reducing the interference between overlapping memories through pattern separation. Here, we study the effect of reduced AN in MDD on the accuracy of episodic memory using computational modeling. We focus on how memory is affected when periods with a normal rate of AN (asymptomatic states) alternate with periods with a low rate (depressive episodes), which has never been studied before...
2018: PloS One
Luca Ronconi, Simone Gori, Alessandra Federici, Maria Devita, Serena Carna, Maria E Sali, Massimo Molteni, Luca Casartelli, Andrea Facoetti
Neurophysiological findings in the typical population demonstrate that spatial scrutiny for visual selection determines a center-surround profile of the attentional focus, which is the result of recurrent processing in the visual system. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifest several anomalies in their visual selection, with strengths in detail-oriented tasks, but also difficulties in distractor inhibition tasks. Here, we asked whether contradictory aspects of perception in ASD might be due to a different center-surround profile of their attentional focus...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
He Li, Yongdong Song, Zuhong He, Xiaoyun Chen, Xianmin Wu, Xiaofei Li, Xiaohui Bai, Wenwen Liu, Boqin Li, Shanshan Wang, Yuechen Han, Lei Xu, Daogong Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Renjie Chai, Haibo Wang, Zhaomin Fan
Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in humans, and a significant number of cases is due to the ototoxicity of drugs such as cisplatin that cause hair cell (HC) damage. Thus, there is great interest in finding agents and mechanisms that protect HCs from ototoxic drug damage. It has been proposed that epigenetic modifications are related to inner ear development and play a significant role in HC protection and HC regeneration; however, whether the m6 A modification and the ethyl ester form of meclofenamic acid (MA2), which is a highly selective inhibitor of FTO (fatmass and obesity-associated enzyme, one of the primary human demethylases), can affect the process of HC apoptosis induced by ototoxic drugs remains largely unexplored...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Céline Meriaux, Ramona Hohnen, Sandra Schipper, Aryo Zare, Ali Jahanshahi, Lori A Birder, Yasin Temel, Gommert A van Koeveringe
Reflexes, that involve the spinobulbospinal pathway control both storage and voiding of urine. The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG), a pontine structure is part of the micturition pathway. Alteration in this pathway could lead to micturition disorders and urinary incontinence, such as the overactive bladder symptom complex (OABS). Although different therapeutic options exist for the management of OABS, these are either not effective in all patients. Part of the pathology of OABS is faulty sensory signaling about the filling status of the urinary bladder, which results in aberrant efferent signaling leading to overt detrusor contractions and the sensation of urgency and frequent voiding...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tania Vitalis, Jean Mariani
The retinoid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα) is thought to act as a constitutive activator of transcription by binding to the ROR response element (RORE) of target genes. Several mouse models in which RORα is defective have revealed the decisive roles of RORα on the development, maturation and neuroprotection of various cerebral regions including the cerebellar and somatosensory systems. We have recently shown that RORα is needed for accurate thalamic sensory system organization and somatosensory cortex development...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
H Branch Coslett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In part because of their striking clinical presentations, disorders of higher nervous system function figured prominently in the early history of neurology. These disorders are not merely historical curiosities, however. As apraxia, neglect, and agnosia have important clinical implications, it is important to possess a working knowledge of the conditions and how to identify them. RECENT FINDINGS: Apraxia is a disorder of skilled action that is frequently observed in the setting of dominant hemisphere pathology, whether from stroke or neurodegenerative disorders...
June 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
William C Walker, Shawn Hirsch, William Carne, Tracy Nolen, David X Cifu, Elisabeth A Wilde, Harvey S Levin, Timothy W Brearly, Blessen C Eapen, Rick Williams
OBJECTIVES: Compare characteristics and outcomes of combat-exposed military personnel with positive versus negative mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) histories. SETTING: Recruitment was from registration lists and ambulatory clinics at four veterans administration hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Consented veterans and service members completing initial evaluation by September 2016 (n = 492). DESIGN: Observational with cross-sectional analyses...
May 31, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
James R F Hockley, Ewan St John Smith, David C Bulmer
Peripheral sensitisation of nociceptors during disease has long been recognised as a leading cause of inflammatory pain. However, a growing body of data generated over the last decade has led to the increased understanding that peripheral sensitisation is also an important mechanism driving abdominal pain in highly prevalent functional bowel disorders, in particular irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As such, the development of drugs that target pain-sensing nerves innervating the bowel, has the potential to be a successful analgesic strategy for the treatment of abdominal pain in both organic and functional gastrointestinal diseases...
May 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Elysa Jill Marco, Anne Brandes Aitken, Vishnu Prakas Nair, Gilberto da Gente, Molly Rae Gerdes, Leyla Bologlu, Sean Thomas, Elliott H Sherr
BACKGROUND: In children with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD), who do not meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability, the contribution of de novo pathogenic mutation in neurodevelopmental genes is unknown and in need of investigation. We hypothesize that children with SPD may have pathogenic variants in genes that have been identified as causing other neurodevelopmental disorders including ASD. This genetic information may provide important insight into the etiology of sensory processing dysfunction and guide clinical evaluation and care...
May 25, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Danielle M Kabella, Lucinda Flynn, Amanda Peters, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, Julia M Stephen
BACKGROUND: Prior studies indicate that the auditory mismatch response is sensitive to early alterations in brain development in multiple developmental disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to impact early auditory processing. The current study hypothesized alterations in the mismatch response in young children with FASD. METHODS: Participants in this study were 9 children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and 17 control children (Control) aged 3 to 6 years...
May 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Stefano Magon, Till Sprenger, Alexander Otti, Athina Papadopoulou, Harald Gündel, Michael Noll-Hussong
OBJECTIVE: Chronic pain disorder (CPD) has been associated with brain changes, especially in limbic circuits. However, in the majority of patients with chronic pain, depression or anxiety are common comorbidities. In this exploratory and naturalistic study, we investigated brain cortical thickness differences between patients with CPD and healthy controls, with consideration of concurrent psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CPD and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were included in this study...
May 21, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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