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Sensory Processing Disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244813/a-different-view-on-the-necker-cube-differences-in-multistable-perception-dynamics-between-asperger-and-non-asperger-observers
#1
Jürgen Kornmeier, Rike Wörner, Andreas Riedel, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
BACKGROUND: During observation of the Necker cube perception becomes unstable and alternates repeatedly between a from-above-perspective ("fap") and a from-below-perspective ("fbp") interpretation. Both interpretations are physically equally plausible, however, observers usually show an a priori top-down bias in favor of the fap interpretation. Patients with Autism spectrum disorder are known to show an altered pattern of perception with a focus on sensory details. In the present study we tested whether this altered perceptual processing affects their reversal dynamics and reduces the perceptual bias during Necker cube observation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240517/sensory-processing-patterns-in-autism-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-typical-development
#2
Lauren M Little, Evan Dean, Scott Tomchek, Winnie Dunn
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine sensory processing in children ages 3-14 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typical development (TD) using the Sensory Profile 2nd Edition (Dunn, 2014). METHODS: Participants included 239 children (ASD = 77; ADHD = 78; TD = 84) matched on age and gender. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare the extent to which the three grsoups differed on sensory processing patterns (i...
December 14, 2017: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234300/temporal-discrimination-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-adult-onset-dystonia
#3
REVIEW
Antonella Conte, Eavan M McGovern, Shruti Narasimham, Rebecca Beck, Owen Killian, Sean O'Riordan, Richard B Reilly, Michael Hutchinson
Temporal discrimination is the ability to determine that two sequential sensory stimuli are separated in time. For any individual, the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the minimum interval at which paired sequential stimuli are perceived as being asynchronous; this can be assessed, with high test-retest and inter-rater reliability, using a simple psychophysical test. Temporal discrimination is disordered in a number of basal ganglia diseases including adult-onset dystonia, of which the two most common phenotypes are cervical dystonia and blepharospasm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#4
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230189/structural-covariance-of-sensory-networks-the-cerebellum-and-amygdala-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Garrett J Cardon, Susan Hepburn, Donald C Rojas
Sensory dysfunction is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and abnormalities with sensory responsivity and processing can be extremely debilitating to ASD patients and their families. However, relatively little is known about the underlying neuroanatomical and neurophysiological factors that lead to sensory abnormalities in ASD. Investigation into these aspects of ASD could lead to significant advancements in our general knowledge about ASD, as well as provide targets for treatment and inform diagnostic procedures...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229703/orai1-plays-a-crucial-role-in-central-sensitization-by-modulating-neuronal-excitability
#6
Yannong Dou, Jingsheng Xia, Ruby Gao, Xinghua Gao, Frances M Munoz, Dongyu Wei, Yuzhen Tian, James E Barrett, Seena Ajit, Olimpia Meucci, James W Putney, Yue Dai, Huijuan Hu
Pathological pain is a common and debilitating condition that is often poorly managed. Central sensitization is an important mechanism underlying pathological pain. However, candidate molecules involved in central sensitization remain unclear. Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) mediate important calcium signals in non-excitable and excitable cells. SOCs have been implicated in a wide variety of human pathophysiological conditions including immunodeficiency, occlusive vascular diseases and cancer. However, the role of SOCs in central nervous system (CNS) disorders has been relatively unexplored...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#7
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228834/quality-of-life-and-its-related-factors-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Ling-Yi Lin, Pai-Chuan Huang
PURPOSE: Improved quality of life is an important outcome for adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, little research has examined factors associated with quality of life among adults with autism spectrum disorder. METHOD: This study comparing 66 adults with autism spectrum disorder (intelligence quotient > 70) aged 20-38 years with neuro-typical adults investigated their quality of life and related factors. All the participants were interviewed with questionnaires by a registered occupational therapist...
December 11, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218455/the-primary-cilium-once-a-rudimentary-organelle-that-is-now-a-ubiquitous-sensory-cellular-structure-involved-in-many-pathological-disorders
#9
Denys N Wheatley
This article looks mostly at the steps that have led to the primary cilium finding its place in our understanding of cell biology, developmental biology, and medical syndromes due to its aberrations. It is a personal account that stresses, if nothing else, the value of the adage "stick to your guns". My obsession with this organelle, following on from fascination with the centriole, has led to a whole career devoted to determining the nature and role of primary cilia in basic cell biology, which has proved much more important than had been appreciated for almost a century...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212538/a-pilot-investigation-of-audiovisual-processing-and-multisensory-integration-in-patients-with-inherited-retinal-dystrophies
#10
Mark H Myers, Alessandro Iannaccone, Gavin M Bidelman
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined audiovisual (AV) processing in normal and visually impaired individuals who exhibit partial loss of vision due to inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs). METHODS: Two groups were analyzed for this pilot study: Group 1 was composed of IRD participants: two with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP), two with autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CORD), and two with the related complex disorder, Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS); Group 2 was composed of 15 non-IRD participants (controls)...
December 7, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204664/-central-and-peripheral-aspects-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#11
REVIEW
D Basta, M Gröschel, A Ernst
Noise is an important socioeconomic problem in industrialized countries. Development of efficient treatment options for the audiological phenomena resulting from noise-induced hearing loss requires in-depth understanding of the underlying damage mechanisms causing peripheral and central nervous changes. Mechanical damage, ischemia and excitotoxicity are mainly responsible for noise-induced cell death and biophysical changes in the cochlea. Auditory synaptopathy is an additional consequence. Besides these cochlear pathologies, noise exposure leads to extensive changes within the central auditory pathway...
December 4, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204259/early-development-of-infants-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-case-series
#12
Anna May Kolesnik, Emily Jane Harrison Jones, Shruti Garg, Jonathan Green, Tony Charman, Mark Henry Johnson
Background: Prospective studies of infants at familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded insights into the earliest signs of the disorder but represent heterogeneous samples of unclear aetiology. Complementing this approach by studying cohorts of infants with monogenic syndromes associated with high rates of ASD offers the opportunity to elucidate the factors that lead to ASD. Methods: We present the first report from a prospective study of ten 10-month-old infants with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a monogenic disorder with high prevalence of ASD or ASD symptomatology...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202385/sensory-over-responsivity-in-trichotillomania-hair-pulling-disorder
#13
Martha J Falkenstein, Christine A Conelea, Lauryn E Garner, David A F Haaga
OBJECTIVE: This study was an initial investigation of sensory-over responsivity (SOR) to external sensations among individuals with trichotillomania (TTM). METHODS: Adults endorsing DSM-5 TTM criteria (N = 609) and a non-affected comparison sample (N = 268) completed a self-report survey. RESULTS: The majority of the TTM group endorsed SOR symptoms; three-quarters endorsed at least mild tactile and auditory SOR. About 15% endorsed SOR symptoms in the severe to extreme range...
November 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198270/contributions-to-understanding-the-neuropsychology-of-alcoholism-an-ins-legacy
#14
Edith V Sullivan
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been a major cause of family, social, and personal strife for centuries, with current prevalence estimates of 14% for 12-month and 29% lifetime AUD. Neuropsychological testing of selective cognitive, sensory, and motor functions complemented with in vivo brain imaging has enabled tracking the consequences of AUD, which follows a dynamic course of development, maintenance, and recovery or relapse. Controlled studies of alcoholism reviewed herein provide evidence for disruption of selective functions involving executive, visuospatial, mnemonic, emotional, and attentional processes, response inhibition, prosody, and postural stability and brain systems supporting these functions...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186196/the-integration-of-probabilistic-information-during-sensorimotor-estimation-is-unimpaired-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#15
Claire Chambers, Taegh Sokhey, Deborah Gaebler-Spira, Konrad P Kording
BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the motor deficits of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Our understanding of this motor disorder can be enriched by computational models of motor control. One crucial stage in generating movement involves combining uncertain information from different sources, and deficits in this process could contribute to reduced motor function in children with CP. Healthy adults can integrate previously-learned information (prior) with incoming sensory information (likelihood) in a close-to-optimal way when estimating object location, consistent with the use of Bayesian statistics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183827/complex-environmental-rearing-enhances-social-salience-and-affects-hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-crhr-1-crhr2-expression-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#16
Amanda C Kentner, Erika Lima, Mattia M Migliore, Junyoung Shin, Stephanie Scalia
Methods for understanding the neurocircuitry of ethologically relevant behaviors have advanced substantially; however renovations to standard animal laboratory housing, in the form of enhanced enrichment, have lagged behind. This is despite evidence that environmental enrichment (EE) reduces stress, stereotypy, and promotes healthy species typical behaviors. While many scientists express interest for increased EE as a standard for animal caging systems, there are concerns that its effects on brain, behavior, and cognition are not well characterized...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182947/low-level-neural-auditory-discrimination-dysfunctions-in-specific-language-impairment-a-review-on-mismatch-negativity-findings
#17
REVIEW
Teija Kujala, Miika Leminen
In specific language impairment (SLI), there is a delay in the child's oral language skills when compared with nonverbal cognitive abilities. The problems typically relate to phonological and morphological processing and word learning. This article reviews studies which have used mismatch negativity (MMN) in investigating low-level neural auditory dysfunctions in this disorder. With MMN, it is possible to tap the accuracy of neural sound discrimination and sensory memory functions. These studies have found smaller response amplitudes and longer latencies for speech and non-speech sound changes in children with SLI than in typically developing children, suggesting impaired and slow auditory discrimination in SLI...
October 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176367/rare-nav1-7-variants-associated-with-painful-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#18
Iulia Blesneac, Andreas C Themistocleous, Carl Fratter, Linus J Conrad, Juan D Ramirez, James J Cox, Solomon Tesfaye, Pallai R Shillo, Andrew S C Rice, Stephen J Tucker, David L H Bennett
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common disabling complication of diabetes. Almost half of DPN patients develop neuropathic pain for which current analgesic treatments are inadequate. Understanding the role of genetic variability in the development of painful DPN is needed for improved understanding of pain pathogenesis, for better patient stratification in clinical trials and to target therapy more appropriately. Here we examined the relationship between variants in the voltage gated sodium channel Nav1...
November 22, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172193/-hypersensitivity-as-extraordinary-high-temporal-processing-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Masakazu Ide, Ayako Yaguchi, Takeshi Atsumi, Keiichi Yasu, Makoto Wada
Most individuals with autism-spectrum disorders have hypersensitivity/hyposensitivity to various types of sensory stimuli. Although several hypotheses such as higher sensitivity to stimuli, alterations in brain structure and function, and dysfunction of inhibitory systems at the molecular level have been suggested, there is no convincing evidence. We found that individuals with high temporal resolution tended to have strong hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli and vice versa. In addition, we focused on a case with extraordinarily high temporal resolution across the tactile, auditory, and audio-tactile domains...
November 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168091/postural-and-cortical-responses-following-visual-occlusion-in-adults-with-and-without-asd
#20
Kwang Leng Goh, Susan Morris, Richard Parsons, Alexander Ring, Tele Tan
Autism is associated with differences in sensory processing and motor coordination. Evidence from electroencephalography suggests individual perturbation evoked response (PER) components represent specific aspects of postural disturbance processing; P1 reflects the detection and N1 reflects the evaluation of postural instability. Despite the importance of these cortical responses to postural control, PERs to a perturbation in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yet to be reported. The aim was to compare PERs to visual perturbation under varied postural stability conditions in adults with and without ASD...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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