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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458075/lateral-inhibition-in-the-autism-spectrum-an-ssvep-study-of-visual-cortical-lateral-interactions
#1
Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Myles Jones, Vance Zemon, Elizabeth Milne
Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder (Geschwind 2009; Port et al. 2014). An important mediator of circuit level brain activity is lateral inhibition, and a number of authors have suggested that lateral inhibition may be atypical in ASD. However, evidence regarding putative atypical lateral connections in ASD is mixed. Here we employed a steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm to further investigate lateral connections within a group of high functioning adults with ASD...
February 16, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455947/the-neural-exploitation-hypothesis-and-its-implications-for-an-embodied-approach-to-language-and-cognition-insights-from-the-study-of-action-verbs-processing-and-motor-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Vittorio Gallese, Valentina Cuccio
As it is widely known, Parkinson's disease is clinically characterized by motor disorders such as the loss of voluntary movement control, including resting tremor, postural instability, and bradykinesia (Bocanegra et al., 2015; Helmich, Hallett, Deuschl, Toni, & Bloem, 2012; Liu et al., 2006; Rosin, Topka, & Dichgans, 1997). In the last years, many empirical studies (e.g., Bocanegra et al., 2015; Spadacenta et al., 2012) have also shown that the processing of action verbs is selectively impaired in patients affected by this neurodegenerative disorder...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453959/indices-of-repetitive-behaviour-are-correlated-with-patterns-of-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
J M Traynor, K A R Doyle-Thomas, L C Hanford, N E Foster, A Tryfon, K L Hyde, E Anagnostou, A C Evans, L Zwaigenbaum, G B C Hall, NeuroDevNet Asd Imaging Group
The purpose of the current study was to examine how repetitive behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in a number of large-scale, neural networks. Resting-state fMRI scans from thirty subjects with ASD and thirty-two age-matched, typically developing control subjects were analysed. Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity analyses were used to examine resting-state connectivity in a number of cortical and subcortical neural networks. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between repetitive behaviour scores from the Repetitive Behaviour Scale - Revised and intrinsic functional connectivity in ASD subjects...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453439/working-memory-and-brain-tissue-microstructure-white-matter-tract-integrity-based-on-multi-shell-diffusion-mri
#4
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Xiuyuan Wang, Charles J Morton, Dmitry S Novikov, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
Working memory is a complex cognitive process at the intersection of sensory processing, learning, and short-term memory and also has a general executive attention component. Impaired working memory is associated with a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but very little is known about how working memory relates to underlying white matter (WM) microstructure. In this study, we investigate the association between WM microstructure and performance on working memory tasks in healthy adults (right-handed, native English speakers)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438595/effects-of-early-alcohol-exposure-on-functional-organization-and-microstructure-of-a-visual-tactile-integrative-circuit
#5
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436853/electrophysiological-response-during-auditory-gap-detection-biomarker-for-sensory-and-communication-alterations-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Katherine K M Stavropoulos, James C McPartland, Mark T Wallace, Wendy L Stone, Alexandra P Key
Sensory symptoms, including auditory processing deficits, are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Processing of temporal aspects of auditory input is understudied; yet, deficits in this domain could contribute to language-related impairments. In children with ASD and well-matched controls, this study examined electrophysiological response to silent gaps in auditory stimuli. Results revealed attenuated amplitude of the P2 event-related potential (ERP) component in ASD. The P2 amplitude reduction was also associated with sensory, language, and diagnostic features...
2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427866/laterality-recognition-of-images-motor-performance-and-aspects-related-to-pain-in-participants-with-and-without-wrist-hand-disorders-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#7
René Pelletier, Johanne Higgins, Daniel Bourbonnais
OBJECTIVE: Musculoskeletal disorders are associated with altered sensory, proprioceptive and cognitive processes. Sensory processes affect the internal cortical representation of the body in space, the body schema, which in turn influences motor control. The purpose of this study was to determine if participants with wrist/hand disorders had impaired performance on a task associated with the body schema, the Left/Right Judgement Task (LRJT) and secondly how LRJT performance, motor performance, disability, pain and related aspects are associated...
February 7, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423131/oscillatory-rhythm-of-reward-anticipation-and-processing-of-rewards-in-children-with-and-without-autism
#8
Katherine Kuhl-Meltzoff Stavropoulos, Leslie J Carver
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and multiple theories have emerged concerning core social deficits. While the social motivation hypothesis proposes that deficits in the social reward system cause individuals with ASD to engage less in social interaction, the overly intense world hypothesis (sensory over-responsivity) proposes that individuals with ASD find stimuli to be too intense and may have hypersensitivity to social interaction, leading them to avoid these interactions...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421544/deregulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-autism
#9
REVIEW
C Hansel
A puzzling observation in the study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mouse models has been the deregulation of long-term synaptic depression (LTD), a form of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity, across brain areas and across syndromic and non-syndromic forms of autism. This review attempts to approach this phenomenon from a largely, but not exclusively, cerebellar perspective. Three potential consequences of LTD deregulation are discussed that are relevant for ASD phenotypes: resulting impairment of proper developmental synaptic pruning, impairment of motor coordination and motor learning, and impairment of the processing of sensory input...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419657/neuroinflammation-of-the-spinal-cord-and-nerve-roots-in-chronic-radicular-pain-patients
#10
Daniel Albrecht, Shihab Ahmed, Norman Kettner, Ronald Borra, Julien Cohen-Adad, Hao Deng, Timothy Houle, Arissa Opalacz, Sarah Roth, Marcos Vidal Melo, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao, Jacob Hooker, Marco L Loggia, Yi Zhang
Numerous preclinical studies support the role of spinal neuroimmune activation in the pathogenesis of chronic pain, and targeting glia (e.g., microglia/astrocyte)- or macrophage-mediated neuroinflammatory responses effectively prevents or reverses the establishment of persistent nocifensive behaviors in laboratory animals. However, thus far the translation of those findings into novel treatments for clinical use has been hindered by the scarcity of data supporting the role of neuroinflammation in human pain...
February 5, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417435/evaluating-sensory-processing-in-fragile-x-syndrome-psychometric-analysis-of-the-brain-body-center-sensory-scales-bbcss
#11
Jacek Kolacz, Melissa Raspa, Keri J Heilman, Stephen W Porges
Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), face many sensory processing challenges. However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a parent/caregiver report, the Brain-Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS), based on Polyvagal Theory. Parents/guardians reported on 333 individuals with FXS, 41% with ASD features. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417432/sensory-subtypes-in-preschool-aged-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Scott D Tomchek, Lauren M Little, John Myers, Winnie Dunn
Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413437/prenatal-exposure-to-methadone-or-buprenorphine-early-childhood-developmental-outcomes
#13
Karol Kaltenbach, Kevin E O'Grady, Sarah H Heil, Amy L Salisbury, Mara G Coyle, Gabriele Fischer, Peter R Martin, Susan Stine, Hendrée E Jones
BACKGROUND: Methadone and buprenorphine are recommended to treat opioid use disorders during pregnancy. However, the literature on the relationship between longer-term effects of prenatal exposure to these medications and childhood development is both spare and inconsistent. METHODS: Participants were 96 children and their mothers who participated in MOTHER, a randomized controlled trial of opioid-agonist pharmacotherapy during pregnancy. The present study examined child growth parameters, cognition, language abilities, sensory processing, and temperament from 0 to 36 months of the child's life...
February 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411638/the-role-of-the-brainstem-in-migraine-potential-brainstem-effects-of-cgrp-and-cgrp-receptor-activation-in-animal-models
#14
Philip Robert Holland, Chonlawan Saengjaroentham, Marta Vila-Pueyo
Background Migraine is a severe debilitating disorder of the brain that is ranked as the sixth most disabling disorder globally, with respect to disability adjusted life years, and there remains a significant unmet demand for an improved understanding of its underlying mechanisms. In conjunction with perturbed sensory processing, migraine sufferers often present with diverse neurological manifestations (premonitory symptoms) that highlight potential brainstem involvement. Thus, as the field moves away from the view of migraine as a consequence of purely vasodilation to a greater understanding of migraine as a complex brain disorder, it is critical to consider the underlying physiology and pharmacology of key neural networks likely involved...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408162/sensory-and-motor-differences-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-and-developmental-coordination-disorder-in-children-a-cross-syndrome-study
#15
Penny Hannant, Sarah Cassidy, Rosaline Van de Weyer, Sophia Mooncey
Recent research has shown that Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) can present with some similar symptomology as Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). This paper therefore explored the similarities and differences in coordination and sensory responsivity between DCD and ASC. 77 children took part: 42 (35 male, 7 female) with ASC (ages 7-21: mean age 12.23 years), 26 (19 male, 7 female) with DCD (ages 7-21; mean age 11.07 years) and 9 (2 male, 7 female) with ASC and DCD (ages 8-15; mean age 12.27). All groups completed a battery of validated parent report measures online that included motor coordination (DCDQ), sensory responsivity (SPC-R) and social communication measures (AQ)...
January 26, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406910/immunohistochemistry-and-electrophysiological-findings-in-swine-abattoir-workers-with-immune-mediated-polyradiculoneuropathy
#16
Suraj A Muley, Stacy Holzbauer, Brent Clark, James Sejvar, Ruth Lynfield, Gareth Parry, Aaron S DeVries
IMPORTANCE: Workers exposed to aerosolized brain in a swine-processing plant developed immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy (IP) possibly triggered by an immune response. OBJECTIVE: Immunohistochemistry results were correlated with electrophysiological variables to examine the immunopathogenesis of this disorder. DESIGN/SETTING: Laboratory studies used normal nerve tissue that was exposed to sera from 12 IP patients; 10 exposed controls; and 10 unexposed controls...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402231/the-first-international-conference-on-syngap1-related-brain-disorders-a-stakeholder-meeting-of-families-researchers-clinicians-and-regulators
#17
REVIEW
Monica Weldon, Murat Kilinc, J Lloyd Holder, Gavin Rumbaugh
BACKGROUND: Pathologic mutations in SYNGAP1 cause a genetically defined form of intellectual disability (ID) with comorbid epilepsy and autistic features. While only recently discovered, pathogenicity of this gene is a relatively frequent genetic cause of classically undefined developmental delay that progresses to ID with commonly occurring comorbidities. MAIN BODY: A meeting of 150 people was held that included affected individuals and their caregivers, clinicians that treat this and related brain disorders, neuroscientists that study SYNGAP1 biology or the function of related genes, and representatives from government agencies that fund science and approve new medical treatments...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398218/a-perceptual-inference-mechanism-for-hallucinations-linked-to-striatal-dopamine
#18
Clifford M Cassidy, Peter D Balsam, Jodi J Weinstein, Rachel J Rosengard, Mark Slifstein, Nathaniel D Daw, Anissa Abi-Dargham, Guillermo Horga
Hallucinations, a cardinal feature of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, are known to depend on excessive striatal dopamine. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine dysregulation and the experience of hallucinatory percepts remains elusive. Bayesian models explain perception as an optimal combination of prior expectations and new sensory evidence, where perceptual distortions such as illusions and hallucinations may occur if prior expectations are afforded excessive weight. Such excessive weight of prior expectations, in turn, could stem from a gain-control process controlled by neuromodulators such as dopamine...
February 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392238/complex-regional-pain-syndrome-up-to-date
#19
Frank Birklein, Violeta Dimova
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) was described for the first time in the 19th century by Silas Weir Mitchell. After the exclusion of other causes, CRPS is characterised by a typical clinical constellation of pain, sensory, autonomic, motor, or trophic symptoms which can no longer be explained by the initial trauma. These symptoms spread distally and are not limited to innervation territories. If CRPS is not improved in the acute phase and becomes chronic, the visible symptoms change throughout because of the changing pathophysiology; the pain, however, remains...
November 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392232/gray-matter-alteration-associated-with-pain-catastrophizing-in-patients-6-months-after-lumbar-disk-surgery-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#20
Omar Chehadi, Boris Suchan, Kerstin Konietzny, Odo Köster, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Monika I Hasenbring
Introduction: Pain catastrophizing (PC), the increased attention to harmful aspects of pain (magnification), and the belief of low controllability (helplessness) has been shown to be important in the maintenance of pain. A growing research on structural alterations in chronic pain revealed an association between PC and brain areas that are involved in affective and cognitive pain processing. However, little is known about a differential effect of the components magnification and helplessness...
September 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
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