keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Reward System

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676731/oxytocin-functions-as-a-spatiotemporal-filter-for-excitatory-synaptic-inputs-to-vta-dopamine-neurons
#1
Lei Xiao, Michael F Priest, Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy
The experience of rewarding or aversive stimuli is encoded by distinct afferents to dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several neuromodulatory systems including oxytocin regulate DA neuron excitability and synaptic transmission that process socially meaningful stimuli. We and others have recently characterized oxytocinergic modulation of activity in mouse VTA DA neurons, but the mechanisms underlying oxytocinergic modulation of synaptic transmission in DA neurons remain poorly understood...
April 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675582/multifunctional-opioid-ligands
#2
Jessica P Anand, Deanna Montgomery
The opioid receptor system plays a major role in the regulation of mood, reward, and pain. The opioid receptors therefore make attractive targets for the treatment of many different conditions, including pain, depression, and addiction. However, stimulation or blockade of any one opioid receptor type often leads to on-target adverse effects that limit the clinical utility of a selective opioid agonist or antagonist. Literature precedent suggests that the opioid receptors do not act in isolation and that interactions among the opioid receptors and between the opioid receptors and other proteins may produce clinically useful targets...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673924/food-additives-food-and-the-concept-of-food-addiction-is-stimulation-of-the-brain-reward-circuit-by-food-sufficient-to-trigger-addiction
#3
REVIEW
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo
In the last few years, the concept of 'food addiction' has continued to gain popularity, with human and animal studies demonstrating the differential effects of foods that are high in fat, sugar or protein on appetite, satiety, eating behaviour and the development of food addiction. However, a number of studies have disputed the occurrence of food addiction in humans. Questions have also arisen regarding the possible impacts that food additives may have on the development of food addiction or eating disorders...
April 12, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673134/evaluation-of-patient-and-medical-staff-satisfaction-regarding-healthcare-services-in-wuhan-public-hospitals
#4
Runtang Meng, Jingjing Li, Yunquan Zhang, Yong Yu, Yi Luo, Xiaohan Liu, Yanxia Zhao, Yuantao Hao, Ying Hu, Chuanhua Yu
Satisfaction evaluation is widely used in healthcare systems to improve healthcare service quality to obtain better health outcomes. The aim of this study was to measure employee work satisfaction and patient satisfaction status in Wuhan, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 medical institutions. The final valid sample comprised a total of 696 medical staff and 668 patients. The overall satisfaction levels of medical staff and patients were 58.28 ± 14.60 (10.47–100.00) and 65...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672668/distinct-effects-of-apathy-and-dopamine-on-effort-based-decision-making-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Campbell Le Heron, Olivia Plant, Sanjay Manohar, Yuen-Siang Ang, Matthew Jackson, Graham Lennox, Michele T Hu, Masud Husain
Effort-based decision-making is a cognitive process crucial to normal motivated behaviour. Apathy is a common and disabling complication of Parkinson's disease, but its aetiology remains unclear. Intriguingly, the neural substrates associated with apathy also subserve effort-based decision-making in animal models and humans. Furthermore, the dopaminergic system plays a core role in motivating effortful behaviour for reward, and its dysfunction has been proposed to play a crucial role in the aetiology of apathy in Parkinson's disease...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672074/reciprocal-associations-between-positive-emotions-and-motivation-in-daily-life-network-analyses-in-anhedonic-individuals-and-healthy-controls
#6
Eeske van Roekel, Vera E Heininga, Charlotte Vrijen, Evelien Snippe, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Anhedonia reflects a dysfunction in the reward system, which can be manifested in an inability to enjoy pleasurable situations (i.e., lack of positive emotions), but also by a lack of motivation to engage in pleasurable activities (i.e., lack of motivation). Little is known about the interrelations between positive emotions and motivation in daily life, and whether these associations are altered in anhedonic individuals. In the present study, we used a network approach to explore the reciprocal, lagged associations between positive emotions and motivation in anhedonic individuals (N = 66) and controls (N = 68)...
April 19, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670112/stable-representation-of-sounds-in-the-posterior-striatum-during-flexible-auditory-decisions
#7
Lan Guo, William I Walker, Nicholas D Ponvert, Phoebe L Penix, Santiago Jaramillo
The neuronal pathways that link sounds to rewarded actions remain elusive. For instance, it is unclear whether neurons in the posterior tail of the dorsal striatum (which receive direct input from the auditory system) mediate action selection, as other striatal circuits do. Here, we examine the role of posterior striatal neurons in auditory decisions in mice. We find that, in contrast to the anterior dorsal striatum, activation of the posterior striatum does not elicit systematic movement. However, activation of posterior striatal neurons during sound presentation in an auditory discrimination task biases the animals' choices, and transient inactivation of these neurons largely impairs sound discrimination...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669266/the-strength-of-reward-related-learning-depends-on-the-degree-of-activation-of-ventral-tegmental-area-dopamine-neurons
#8
E Galaj, R Ranaldi
We tested whether (1) the capacity of a reward-associated conditioned stimulus (CS) to cause conditioned activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons is associated with its capacity to elicit conditioned approach responses and (2) whether the acquisition of these capacities by a CS requires N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor stimulation. Rats were trained to emit a conditioned approach response to a light CS that was previously paired with food and were treated systemically with scopolamine (a mACh receptor antagonist) or MK-801 a (NMDA receptor antagonist) either prior to each conditioning session (during which animals experienced paired CS and food presentations) or prior to the conditioned approach (CS-only)...
April 15, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664313/voluntary-wheel-running-induces-exercise-seeking-behavior-in-male-rats-a-behavioral-study
#9
Mojtaba Naghshvarian, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast, Seyedeh Fatemeh Sajjadi
BACKGROUND: Research evidence shows that exercise is associated with positive physical and mental health. Moreover, exercise and wheel running in rats activate overlapping neural systems and reward system. The most commonly used models for the study of rewarding and aversive effects of exercise involve using treadmill and wheel running paradigms in mice or rats. The purpose of our experiment was to study the influence of continuous voluntary exercise on exercise-seeking behavior. METHODS: In this experimental study, we used 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 275-300 g on average...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663017/cyclic-nucleotide-phosphodiesterases-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Rui-Ting Wen, Fang-Fang Zhang, Han-Ting Zhang
Alcohol use disorder (AUD), which combines the criteria of both alcohol abuse and dependence, contributes as an important causal factor to multiple health and social problems. Given the limitation of current treatments, novel medications for AUD are needed to better control alcohol consumption and maintain abstinence. It has been well established that the intracellular signal transduction mediated by the second messengers cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) crucially underlies the genetic predisposition, rewarding properties, relapsing features, and systemic toxicity of compulsive alcohol consumption...
April 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662447/neural-mechanisms-underlying-time-perception-and-reward-anticipation
#11
Nihal Apaydın, Sertaç Üstün, Emre H Kale, İpek Çelikağ, Halise D Özgüven, Bora Baskak, Metehan Çiçek
Findings suggest that the physiological mechanisms involved in the reward anticipation and time perception partially overlap. But the systematic investigation of a potential interaction between time and reward systems using neuroimaging is lacking. Eighteen healthy volunteers (all right-handed) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that employs a visual paradigm that consists monetary reward to assess whether the functional neural representations of time perception and reward prospection are shared or distinct...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662095/%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-system-mediates-reward-processing-in-humans
#12
Lauri Nummenmaa, Tiina Saanijoki, Lauri Tuominen, Jussi Hirvonen, Jetro J Tuulari, Pirjo Nuutila, Kari Kalliokoski
The endogenous μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system regulates motivational and hedonic processing. We tested directly whether individual differences in MOR are associated with neural reward responses to food pictures in humans. We scanned 33 non-obese individuals with positron emission tomography (PET) using the MOR-specific radioligand [11 C]carfentanil. During a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, the subjects viewed pictures of appetizing versus bland foods to elicit reward responses. MOR availability was measured in key components of the reward and emotion circuits and used to predict BOLD-fMRI responses to foods...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660735/the-anorexigenic-neural-pathways-of-oxytocin-and-its-clinical-implication
#13
Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Kenju Shimomura
<br>Oxytocin was discovered in 1906 as a peptide that promotes delivery and milk ejection; however, its additional physiological functions were determined 100 years later. Many recent articles have reported newly discovered effects of oxytocin on social communication, bonding, reward-related behavior, adipose tissue, and muscle and food intake regulation. Because oxytocin neurons project to various regions in the brain that contribute to both feeding reward (hedonic feeding) and the regulation of energy balance (homeostatic feeding), the mechanisms of oxytocin on food intake regulation are complicated and largely unknown...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660439/activation-of-5-ht-1b-receptors-in-the-lateral-habenula-attenuates-the-anxiogenic-effects-of-cocaine
#14
Adam K Klein, Erin M Purvis, Kathy Ayala, Lisette Collins, Jacob T Krug, Matthew S Mayes, Aaron Ettenberg
Recent work has implicated the Lateral Habenula (LHb) in the production of anxiogenic and aversive states. It is innervated by all the major monoamine neurotransmitter systems and has projections that have been shown to modulate the activity of both dopaminergic and serotonergic brain regions. Cocaine is a stimulant drug of abuse that potentiates neurotransmission in these monoamine systems and recent research suggests that the drug's behavioral effects may be related in part to its actions within the LHb. The present research was therefore devised to test the hypothesis that alterations in serotonin (5-HT) function within the LHb can affect the behavioral response to cocaine...
April 13, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658406/designing-a-neurofeedback-device-to-quantify-the-attention-levels-using-coffee-as-a-reward-system
#15
Kok Suen Cheng, Jun Xiang Lee, Poh Foong Lee
PURPOSE: Work performance is closely related to one's attention level. In this study, brain computer interface device that suitable for office usage was chosen to quantify the individual's attention levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A brain-computer interface (BCI) system was adopted to interface brainwave signals to a coffee maker via three ascending levels of laser detectors. The preliminary test with this prototype was to characterize the attention level through the collected coffee amount...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656872/the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-shapes-dopamine-reward-prediction-errors-under-state-uncertainty
#16
Clara Kwon Starkweather, Samuel J Gershman, Naoshige Uchida
Animals make predictions based on currently available information. In natural settings, sensory cues may not reveal complete information, requiring the animal to infer the "hidden state" of the environment. The brain structures important in hidden state inference remain unknown. A previous study showed that midbrain dopamine neurons exhibit distinct response patterns depending on whether reward is delivered in 100% (task 1) or 90% of trials (task 2) in a classical conditioning task. Here we found that inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) affected dopaminergic signaling in task 2, in which the hidden state must be inferred ("will reward come or not?"), but not in task 1, where the state was known with certainty...
April 9, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650698/credit-assignment-in-a-motor-decision-making-task-is-influenced-by-agency-and-not-sensorimotor-prediction-errors
#17
Darius E Parvin, Samuel D McDougle, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
Failures to obtain reward can occur from errors in action selection or action execution. Recently, we observed marked differences in choice behavior when the failure to obtain a reward was attributed to errors in action execution compared to errors in action selection (McDougle et al. , 2016). Specifically, participants appeared to solve this credit assignment problem by discounting outcomes in which the absence of reward was attributed to errors in action execution. Building on recent evidence indicating relatively direct communication between the cerebellum and basal ganglia, we hypothesized that cerebellar-dependent sensory-prediction errors (SPEs), a signal indicating execution failure, could attenuate value updating within a basal-ganglia dependent reinforcement learning system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650499/evaluation-of-research-in-india-are-we-doing-it-right
#18
Muthu Madhan, Subbiah Gunasekaran, Subbiah Arunachalam
The evaluation of performance in scientific research at any level - whether at the individual, institutional, research council or country level - is not easy. Traditionally, research evaluation at the individual and institutional levels has depended largely on peer opinion, but with the rapid growth of science over the last century and the availability of databases and scientometric techniques, quantitative indicators have gained importance. Both peer review and metrics are subject to flaws, more so in India because of the way they are used...
March 23, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643062/a-survey-on-data-reproducibility-and-the-effect-of-publication-process-on-the-ethical-reporting-of-laboratory-research
#19
Delphine R Boulbes, Tracy J Costello, Keith A Baggerly, Fan Fan, Rui Wang, Rajat Bhattacharya, Xiangcang Ye, Lee M Ellis
PURPOSE:  The successful translation of laboratory research into effective therapies is dependent upon the validity of peer-reviewed publications. However, several publications in recent years suggested that published scientific findings could only be reproduced 11-45% of the time. Multiple surveys attempted to elucidate the fundamental causes of data irreproducibility and underscored potential solutions; more robust experimental designs, better statistics, and better mentorship. However, no prior survey has addressed the role of the review and publication process on honest reporting...
April 11, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629384/knowledge-attitudes-and-barriers-toward-research-the-perspectives-of-undergraduate-medical-and-dental-students
#20
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Nan Nitra Than, Htay Lwin, Mila Nu Nu Nu Htay, Khine Lynn Phyu, Adinegara Lutfi Abas
CONTEXT: Scientific research not only promotes health and combats diseases of an individual, but also it can strengthen the effectiveness of health systems. Hence, understanding of scientific methods becomes a crucial component in the medical profession. AIMS: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and barriers toward research among undergraduate medical and dental students. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 295 undergraduate Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) and Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students from a private medical college in Malaysia...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
keyword
keyword
26710
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"