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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036870/development-and-validation-of-a-new-safety-climate-scale-for-petrochemical-industries
#1
Mohammad Javad Jafari, Davood Eskandari, Firouz Valipour, Yadollah Mehrabi, Hossein Charkhand, Mostafa Mirghotbi
BACKGROUND: While a considerable body of research has studied safety climate and its role as a leading indicator of organizational safety, much of this work has been conducted with Western manufacturing samples. OBJECTIVE: The current study puts emphasis on the cross-validation of a safety climate model in the non-Western industrial context of Iranian petrochemical industries. METHODS: The current study was performed in one petrochemical company in Iran...
October 8, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034482/deep-reinforcement-learning-for-automated-radiation-adaptation-in-lung-cancer
#2
Huan-Hsin Tseng, Yi Luo, Sunan Cui, Jen-Tzung Chien, Randall K Ten Haken, Issam El Naqa
PURPOSE: To investigate deep reinforcement learning (DRL) based on historical treatment plans for developing automated radiation adaptation protocols for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that aim to maximize tumor local control at reduced rates of radiation pneumonitis grade 2 (RP2). METHODS: In a retrospective population of 114 NSCLC patients who received radiotherapy, a 3-component neural networks framework was developed for deep reinforcement learning (DRL) of dose fractionation adaptation...
October 16, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034263/modeling-causal-relationships-among-brain-areas-in-the-mesocorticolimbic-system-during-resting-state-in-cocaine-users-utilizing-a-graph-theoretic-approach
#3
Suchismita Ray, Bharat B Biswal, Ashley Aya, Suril Gohel, Aradhana Srinagesh, Catherine Hanson, Stephen J Hanson
OBJECTIVE: While effective connectivity (EC, causal interaction) between brain areas has been investigated in chronic users of cocaine as they view cocaine pictures cues, no study has examined EC while they take part in a resting-state scan. This resting-state fMRI study aims to investigate the causal interaction among brain areas in the mesocorticolimbic system (MCLS), which is involved in reward and motivation, in cocaine users (vs. controls). METHOD: Twenty cocaine users and 17 healthy controls finished a structural and a resting-state scan...
August 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033801/heavy-drinking-in-college-students-is-associated-with-accelerated-gray-matter-volumetric-decline-over-a-2-year-period
#4
Shashwath A Meda, Alecia D Dager, Keith A Hawkins, Howard Tennen, Sarah Raskin, Rebecca M Wood, Carol S Austad, Carolyn R Fallahi, Godfrey D Pearlson
Background: Heavy and/or harmful alcohol use while in college is a perennial and significant public health issue. Despite the plethora of cross-sectional research suggesting deleterious effects of alcohol on the brain, there is a lack of literature investigating the longitudinal effects of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain. We aim to probe the longitudinal effects of college drinking on gray matter change in students during this crucial neurodevelopmental period. Methods: Data were derived from the longitudinal Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students (BARCS) study of whom a subset underwent brain MRI scans at two time points 24 months apart...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032292/glimpses-into-the-transition-world-new-graduate-nurses-written-reflections
#5
Jo Ann Walton, Natalie Lindsay, Caz Hales, Helen Rook
BACKGROUND: This study was born out of our reflections as educators responsible for helping new graduate nurses transition into their first year of professional practice through a formal education programme. Finding ourselves wondering about many of the questions the students raised with us, we set about looking more closely at what could be gleaned from the students' experience, captured in their written work over the course of a year. OBJECTIVES: To identify the challenges and learning experiences revealed in reflective assignments written by new graduate nurses undertaking a postgraduate course as part of their transition to registered nurse practice...
October 6, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031945/assessing-colour-preference-in-aldabra-giant-tortoises-geochelone-gigantea
#6
Caterina Spiezio, Carola Leonardi, Barbara Regaiolli
Tortoises perceive different colours and rely on the visual system to find food. However, few studies have considered colour preference in tortoises, especially in land species. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Aldabra giant tortoises (Geochelone gigantea) housed in Parco Natura Viva (VR), an Italian zoological garden, show a specific colour preference in their social context. The study was divided into two different periods in which red and yellow balls of the same size were scattered around in the outdoor enclosure...
October 12, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031813/song-practice-as-a-rewarding-form-of-play-in-songbirds
#7
REVIEW
Lauren V Riters, Jeremy A Spool, Devin P Merullo, Allison H Hahn
In adult songbirds, the primary functions of song are mate attraction and territory defense; yet, many songbirds sing at high rates as juveniles and outside these primary contexts as adults. Singing outside primary contexts is critical for song learning and maintenance, and ultimately necessary for breeding success. However, this type of singing (i.e., song "practice") occurs even in the absence of immediate or obvious extrinsic reinforcement; that is, it does not attract mates or repel competitors. Here we review studies that support the hypothesis that song practice is stimulated and maintained by intrinsic reward mechanisms (i...
October 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030593/fish-perform-like-mammals-and-birds-in-inhibitory-motor-control-tasks
#8
Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Elia Gatto, Angelo Bisazza
Inhibitory control is an executive function that positively predicts performance in several cognitive tasks and has been considered typical of vertebrates with large and complex nervous systems such as primates. However, evidence is growing that some fish species have evolved complex cognitive abilities in spite of their relatively small brain size. We tested whether fish might also show enhanced inhibitory control by subjecting guppies, Poecilia reticulata, to the motor task used to test warm-blooded vertebrates...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028836/affected-pathways-and-transcriptional-regulators-in-gene-expression-response-to-an-ultra-marathon-trail-global-and-independent-activity-approaches
#9
Maria Maqueda, Emma Roca, Daniel Brotons, Jose Manuel Soria, Alexandre Perera
Gene expression (GE) analyses on blood samples from marathon and half-marathon runners have reported significant impacts on the immune and inflammatory systems. An ultra-marathon trail (UMT) represents a greater effort due to its more testing conditions. For the first time, we report the genome-wide GE profiling in a group of 16 runners participating in an 82 km UMT competition. We quantified their differential GE profile before and after the race using HuGene2.0st microarrays (Affymetrix Inc., California, US)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027228/high-mobility-group-box-1-protein-orchestrates-responses-to-tissue-damage-via-inflammation-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-and-tissue-repair
#10
REVIEW
Marco E Bianchi, Massimo P Crippa, Angelo A Manfredi, Rosanna Mezzapelle, Patrizia Rovere Querini, Emilie Venereau
A single protein, HMGB1, directs the triggering of inflammation, innate and adaptive immune responses, and tissue healing after damage. HMGB1 is the best characterized damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP), proteins that are normally inside the cell but are released after cell death, and allow the immune system to distinguish between antigens that are dangerous or not. Notably, cells undergoing severe stress actively secrete HMGB1 via a dedicated secretion pathway: HMGB1 is relocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and then to secretory lysosomes or directly to the extracellular space...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027111/excessive-d1-dopamine-receptor-activation-in-the-dorsal-striatum-promotes-autistic-like-behaviors
#11
Yunjin Lee, Hannah Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jin-Young Park, Juli Choi, Jung-Eun Lee, Eun-Hwa Lee, Pyung-Lim Han
The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023720/a-field-test-of-the-use-of-pop-off-data-storage-tags-in-freshwater-fishes
#12
G D Raby, T B Johnson, S T Kessel, T J Stewart, A T Fisk
In the present study, pop-off data storage tags (pDST) without any transmitting capabilities were attached to 118 adult salmonids in a 19 000 km(2) freshwater system (Lake Ontario). The 9·3 cm long cylindrical tags were externally attached to fishes using a backpack-style harness, set to record pressure (dBar ≈ depth in m) and temperature every 70 s (and at some key times, every 5 s) and programmed to release from the harness and float to the surface after c. 1 year. Recapture of the bright-orange tags for data retrieval relied on members of the public finding tags on shore, or on anglers capturing fishes with tags attached and using the contact information displayed on each tag to mail tags to the research team in exchange for a monetary reward...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023537/development-and-validation-of-a-nursing-professionalism-evaluation-model-in-a-career-ladder-system
#13
Yeon Hee Kim, Young Sun Jung, Ja Min, Eun Young Song, Jung Hui Ok, Changwon Lim, Kyunghee Kim, Ji-Su Kim
BACKGROUND: The clinical ladder system categorizes the degree of nursing professionalism and rewards and is an important human resource tool for managing nursing. AIM: We developed a model to evaluate nursing professionalism, which determines the clinical ladder system levels, and verified its validity. METHODS: Data were collected using a clinical competence tool developed in this study, and existing methods such as the nursing professionalism evaluation tool, peer reviews, and face-to-face interviews to evaluate promotions and verify the presented content in a medical institution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#14
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021746/lever-insertion-as-a-salient-stimulus-promoting-insensitivity-to-outcome-devaluation
#15
Youna Vandaele, Heather J Pribut, Patricia H Janak
Flexible and efficient decision-making in complex environments can be achieved through constant interactions between the goal-directed and habitual systems. While goal-directed behavior is considered dependent upon Response-Outcome (R-O) associations, habits instead rely on Stimulus-Response (S-R) associations. However, the stimuli that support the S-R association underlying habitual responding in typical instrumental procedures are poorly defined. To resolve this issue, we designed a discrete-trials procedure, in which rats must wait for lever insertion and complete a sequence of five lever presses to obtain a reward (20% sucrose or grain-based pellets)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021739/effect-of-error-augmentation-on-brain-activation-and-motor-learning-of-a-complex-locomotor-task
#16
Laura Marchal-Crespo, Lars Michels, Lukas Jaeger, Jorge López-Olóriz, Robert Riener
Up to date, the functional gains obtained after robot-aided gait rehabilitation training are limited. Error augmenting strategies have a great potential to enhance motor learning of simple motor tasks. However, little is known about the effect of these error modulating strategies on complex tasks, such as relearning to walk after a neurologic accident. Additionally, neuroimaging evaluation of brain regions involved in learning processes could provide valuable information on behavioral outcomes. We investigated the effect of robotic training strategies that augment errors-error amplification and random force disturbance-and training without perturbations on brain activation and motor learning of a complex locomotor task...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020867/activation-of-the-behavioral-immune-system-putting-the-brakes-on-affiliation
#17
Natsumi Sawada, Emilie Auger, John E Lydon
Evolutionary psychologists propose that humans evolved a first line of defense against pathogens: the behavioral immune system (BIS). The BIS is thought to be functionally flexible such that the likelihood and magnitude of BIS activation depends on the individual's perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD). Because conspecifics are sources of infection, the BIS has implications for affiliation. By priming and measuring chronic levels of PVD, we examined PVD's relation to affiliation in zero-acquaintance situations in the laboratory, online, and during speed-dating events...
October 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019076/starting-a-medical-technology-venture-as-a-young-academic-innovator-or-student-entrepreneur
#18
REVIEW
Amir Manbachi, Katlin Kreamer-Tonin, Philipp Walch, Nao J Gamo, Parastoo Khoshakhlagh, Yu Shrike Zhang, Charles Montague, Soumyadipta Acharya, Elizabeth A Logsdon, Robert H Allen, Nicholas J Durr, Mark G Luciano, Nicholas Theodore, Henry Brem, Youseph Yazdi
Following the footprints of Bill Gates, Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg, there has been a misconception that students are better off quitting their studies to bring to life their ideas, create jobs and monetize their inventions. Having historically transitioned from manpower to mind power, we live in one of the most rapidly changing times in human history. As a result, academic institutions that are supposed to be pioneers and educators of the next generations have started to realize that they need to adapt to a new system, and change their policies to be more flexible towards patent ownership and commercialization...
October 10, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018377/perceptual-sensitivity-and-response-to-strong-stimuli-are-related
#19
Anna C Bolders, Mattie Tops, Guido P H Band, Pieter Jan M Stallen
To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994796/the-knob-supination-task-a-semi-automated-method-for-assessing-forelimb-function-in-rats
#20
Samuel D Butensky, Thelma Bethea, Joshua Santos, Anil Sindhurakar, Eric Meyers, Andrew M Sloan, Robert L Rennaker, Jason B Carmel
Tasks that accurately measure dexterity in animal models are critical to understand hand function. Current rat behavioral tasks that measure dexterity largely use video analysis of reaching or food manipulation. While these tasks are easy to implement and are robust across disease models, they are subjective and laborious for the experimenter. Automating traditional tasks or creating new automated tasks can make the tasks more efficient, objective, and quantitative. Since rats are less dexterous than primates, central nervous system (CNS) injury produces more subtle deficits in dexterity, however, supination is highly affected in rodents and crucial to hand function in primates...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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