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Reward System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651213/reward-related-frontostriatal-activity-and-smoking-behavior-among-adolescents-in-treatment-for-smoking-cessation
#1
Kathleen A Garrison, Sarah W Yip, Iris M Balodis, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. METHODS: The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n=14)...
June 3, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648984/whole-body-biodistribution-of-the-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-ligand-18-f-mk-9470-in-the-rat
#2
H G Buchholz, K Uebbing, S Maus, S Pektor, N Afahaene, V Weyer-Elberich, B Lutz, M Schreckenberger, I Miederer
The endocannabinoid system participates in many processes in the body, including memory, reward, pain, motor activity, food intake, energy metabolism, and gastrointestinal functions. [(18)F]MK-9470 is a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand that binds with high affinity and selectivity to the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. In order to fully characterize ligand behavior, tracer uptake measured using in vivo microPET was compared with results from ex vivo tissue dissection. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three subgroups and scanned over time periods of 10min, 30min and 90min using PET...
June 15, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647669/-engage-therapy-prediction-of-change-of-late-life-major-depression
#3
George S Alexopoulos, Robert O'Neil, Samprit Banerjee, Patrick J Raue, Lindsay W Victoria, Jennifer N Bress, Cristina Pollari, Patricia A Arean
OBJECTIVE: Engage grew out of the need for streamlined psychotherapies that can be accurately used by community therapists in late-life depression. Engage was based on the view that dysfunction of reward networks is the principal mechanism mediating depressive symptoms. Accordingly, Engage uses "reward exposure" (exposure to meaningful activities) and assumes that repeated activation of reward networks will normalize these systems. This study examined whether change in a behavioral activation scale, an index of reward system function, predicts change in depressive symptomatology...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643885/a-critical-assessment-of-the-direct-catalytic-oxidation-of-methane-to-methanol
#4
Manoj Ravi, Marco Ranocchiari, Jeroen A van Bokhoven
Despite the emerging number of disparate approaches for the direct selective partial oxidation of methane, none of them has translated into an industrial process. The oxidation of methane to methanol is a difficult yet intriguing and rewarding task as it has the potential to eliminate the prevalent natural gas flaring by providing novel routes to its valorisation. This review considers the synthesis of methanol and methanol derivatives from methane by homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways. In establishing the severe limitations related to the direct catalytic synthesis of methanol from methane, we highlight the vastly superior performance of systems, which produce methanol derivatives or incorporate specific measures such as the use of multi-component catalysts to stabilise methanol...
June 23, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#6
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640825/olfactory-learning-without-the-mushroom-bodies-spiking-neural-network-models-of-the-honeybee-lateral-antennal-lobe-tract-reveal-its-capacities-in-odour-memory-tasks-of-varied-complexities
#7
HaDi MaBouDi, Hideaki Shimazaki, Martin Giurfa, Lars Chittka
The honeybee olfactory system is a well-established model for understanding functional mechanisms of learning and memory. Olfactory stimuli are first processed in the antennal lobe, and then transferred to the mushroom body and lateral horn through dual pathways termed medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). Recent studies reported that honeybees can perform elemental learning by associating an odour with a reward signal even after lesions in m-ALT or blocking the mushroom bodies. To test the hypothesis that the lateral pathway (l-ALT) is sufficient for elemental learning, we modelled local computation within glomeruli in antennal lobes with axons of projection neurons connecting to a decision neuron (LHN) in the lateral horn...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639382/preferred-intervention-strategies-to-improve-dietary-and-physical-activity-behaviors-among-african-american-mothers-and-daughters
#8
Monique Reed, Wrenetha Julion, Diane McNaughton, JoEllen Wilbur
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify cultural- and age-appropriate intervention strategies to improve dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviors in African-American adolescent daughters and their mothers. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: A convergent parallel mixed methods design with interactive quantitative and qualitative measures was used. Twenty-four 9th- and 10th-grade African-American daughters from a large urban high school and their mothers participated...
June 22, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639132/identifying-the-neural-substrates-of-intrinsic-motivation-during-task-performance
#9
Woogul Lee, Johnmarshall Reeve
Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams)...
June 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633048/affective-traits-and-history-of-depression-are-related-to-ventral-striatum-connectivity
#10
Sophie R DelDonno, Lisanne M Jenkins, Natania A Crane, Robin Nusslock, Kelly A Ryan, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
INTRODUCTION: Studying remitted Major Depressive Disorder (rMDD) facilitates a better understanding of neural mechanisms for risk, given that confounding effects of active symptoms are removed. Disrupted functional connectivity has been reported in multiple networks in MDD. However, no study to date of rMDD has specifically examined connectivity of the ventral striatum (VS), a region highly implicated in reward and motivation. We investigated functional connectivity of the VS in individuals with and without a history of MDD, and in relation to affective personality traits...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632018/exploring-the-learnability-and-usability-of-a-near-field-communication-based-application-for-semantic-enrichment-in-children-with-language-disorders
#11
Maria Luisa Lorusso, Emilia Biffi, Massimo Molteni, Gianluigi Reni
Recently, a few software applications (apps) have been developed to enhance vocabulary and conceptual networks to address the needs of children with language impairments (LI), but there is no evidence about their impact and their usability in therapy contexts. Here, we try to fill this gap presenting a system aimed at improving the semantic competence and the structural knowledge of children with LI. The goal of the study is to evaluate learnability, usability, user satisfaction and quality of the interaction between the system and the children...
February 13, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630254/reward-selectively-modulates-the-lingering-neural-representation-of-recently-attended-objects-in-natural-scenes
#12
Clayton Hickey, Marius Peelen
Theories of reinforcement learning and approach behaviour suggest that reward can increase the perceptual salience of environmental stimuli, ensuring that potential predictors of outcome are noticed in the future. But outcome commonly follows visual processing of the environment, occurring even when potential reward cues have long disappeared. How can reward feedback retroactively cause now-absent stimuli to become attention-drawing in the future? One possibility is that reward and attention interact to prime lingering visual representations of attended stimuli that sustain through the interval separating stimulus and outcome...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629779/are-dopaminergic-genotypes-risk-factors-for-eating-behavior-and-obesity-in-adults
#13
Orcun Avsar, Aysegul Kuskucu, Seda Sancak, Ece Genc
Dopamine (DA) is the main modulator of the brain reward system and significantly regulates food intake. The idea that obesity is a neurobiological disease rather than a metabolic disorder, is the basis of the study. Changes in dopamine neurotransmission affect the brain reward system in a direct way. Furthermore, changes in the reward system influence the eating behavior in human. The enzymes monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) terminate the DA function by metabolizing it. In our study, the control group which included 214 individuals and 234 subjects with obesity were investigated for MAOA-u VNTR and COMT (rs4680) polymorphisms...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628945/precise-spike-timing-dynamics-of-hippocampal-place-cell-activity-sensitive-to-cholinergic-disruption
#14
Ehren L Newman, Sarah Jo C Venditto, Jason R Climer, Elijah A Petter, Shea N Gillet, Sam Levy
New memory formation depends upon both the hippocampus and modulatory effects of acetylcholine. The mechanism by which acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus enable new encoding remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cholinergic modulation supports memory formation by leading to structured spike timing in the hippocampus. Specifically, we tested if phase precession in dorsal CA1 was reduced under the influence of a systemic cholinergic antagonist. Unit and field potential was recorded from the dorsal CA1 of rats as they completed laps on a circular track for food rewards before and during the influence of the systemically administered acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine...
June 19, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627790/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-opiate-dependence-relates-to-substance-use-and-neuropsychological-performance
#15
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Troy A Murray, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
Neuroimaging of opiate-dependent individuals indicates both altered brain structure and function. Magnetic resonance-based arterial spin labeling has been used to measure noninvasively cerebral blood flow (i.e. perfusion) in alcohol, tobacco and stimulant dependence; only one arterial spin labeling paper in opiate-dependent individuals demonstrated frontal and parietal perfusion deficits. Additional research on regional brain perfusion in opiate dependence and its relationship to cognition and self-regulation (impulsivity, risk taking and decision making) may inform treatment approaches for opiate-dependent individuals...
June 19, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625106/deceptive-pollination-and-insects-learning-a-delicate-balance
#16
Virgilio Vázquez, Ignacio Barradas
In this paper we propose and discuss a simple two-dimensional model describing the interaction between two species: a plant population that gets pollinated by an insect population. The plants attract the insects deceiving them and not delivering any reward. We are interested in analysing the effect of learning by the insect population due to unsuccessfully visiting the deceiving plants. We are especially interested in three elements: conditions for the simultaneous coexistence of both species, their extinction as a function of the biological cost of the deceptiveness for the pollinator, and the appearance of oscillations in the dynamics...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624433/the-highs-and-lows-of-the-human-brain-on-dopaminergics-evidence-from-neuropharmacology
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Martins, Mitul A Mehta, Diana Prata
Rewards are appetitive events that elicit approach. Ground-breaking findings from neurophysiological experiments in animals, alongside neuropharmacology and neuroimaging research in human samples have identified dopamine as the main neurochemical messenger of global reward processing in the brain. However, dopamine's contribution to the different components of reward processing remains to be precisely defined. To facilitate the informed design and interpretation of reward studies in humans, we have systematically reviewed all existing human pharmacological studies investigating how drug manipulation of the dopamine system affects reward-related behaviour and its neural correlates...
June 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624317/modulatory-effects-of-ampicillin-sulbactam-on-glial-glutamate-transporters-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-as-well-as-reinstatement-to-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#18
Alaa M Hammad, Fawaz Alasmari, Yusuf S Althobaiti, Youssef Sari
Glutamatergic system has an important role in cocaine-seeking behavior. Studies have reported that chronic exposure to cocaine induces downregulation of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) in the central reward brain regions. Ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic, restored GLT-1 expression and consequently reduced cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. In this study, we investigated the reinstatement to cocaine (20mg/kg, i.p.) seeking behavior using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620314/orexin-system-the-key-for-a-healthy-life
#19
REVIEW
Sergio Chieffi, Marco Carotenuto, Vincenzo Monda, Anna Valenzano, Ines Villano, Francesco Precenzano, Domenico Tafuri, Monica Salerno, Nicola Filippi, Francesco Nuccio, Maria Ruberto, Vincenzo De Luca, Luigi Cipolloni, Giuseppe Cibelli, Maria P Mollica, Diego Iacono, Ersilia Nigro, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Messina
The orexin-A/hypocretin-1 and orexin-B/hypocretin-2 are neuropeptides synthesized by a cluster of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area. Orexin neurons receive a variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli, and project broadly to the entire CNS. Orexin neurons are "multi-tasking" neurons regulating a set of vital body functions, including sleep/wake states, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, reward systems, cognition and mood. Furthermore, a dysfunction of orexinergic system may underlie different pathological conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620282/a-reward-based-behavioral-platform-to-measure-neural-activity-during-head-fixed-behavior
#20
Andrew H Micallef, Naoya Takahashi, Matthew E Larkum, Lucy M Palmer
Understanding the neural computations that contribute to behavior requires recording from neurons while an animal is behaving. This is not an easy task as most subcellular recording techniques require absolute head stability. The Go/No-Go sensory task is a powerful decision-driven task that enables an animal to report a binary decision during head-fixation. Here we discuss how to set up an Ardunio and Python based platform system to control a Go/No-Go sensory behavior paradigm. Using an Arduino micro-controller and Python-based custom written program, a reward can be delivered to the animal depending on the decision reported...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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