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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228718/current-concepts-on-the-physiopathological-relevance-of-dopaminergic-receptors
#1
REVIEW
Ada Ledonne, Nicola B Mercuri
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter modulating essential functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like voluntary movement, reward, several cognitive functions and goal-oriented behaviors. The factual relevance of DAergic transmission can be well appreciated by considering that its dysfunction is recognized as a core alteration in several devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and associated movement disorders, as well as, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227834/development-of-semi-chronic-microdrive-system-for-large-scale-circuit-mapping-in-macaque-mesolimbic-and-basal-ganglia-systems
#2
Shaoyu Qiao, Kevin A Brown, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Bijan Pesaran, Shaoyu Qiao, Kevin A Brown, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Bijan Pesaran, Shaoyu Qiao, Amy L Orsborn, Breonna Ferrentino, Kevin A Brown, Bijan Pesaran
The development of novel neurotechnologies for treating refractory neuropsychiatry disorders depends on understanding and manipulating the dynamics of neural circuits across large-scale brain networks. The mesolimbic pathway plays an essential role in reward processing and mood regulation and disorders of this pathway underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present the design of a customized semi-chronic microdrive array that precisely targets the anatomical structures of non-human primate (NHP) mesolimbic and basal ganglia systems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225034/simulating-future-value-in-intertemporal-choice
#3
Alec Solway, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The laboratory study of how humans and other animals trade-off value and time has a long and storied history, and is the subject of a vast literature. However, despite a long history of study, there is no agreed upon mechanistic explanation of how intertemporal choice preferences arise. Several theorists have recently proposed model-based reinforcement learning as a candidate framework. This framework describes a suite of algorithms by which a model of the environment, in the form of a state transition function and reward function, can be converted on-line into a decision...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224681/modeling-human-methamphetamine-use-patterns-in-mice-chronic-and-binge-methamphetamine-exposure-reward-function-and-neurochemistry
#4
James P Kesby, Ariel Chang, Athina Markou, Svetlana Semenova
Different methamphetamine use patterns in human subjects may contribute to inconsistent findings regarding the effects of methamphetamine abuse on brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether human-derived chronic and binge methamphetamine use patterns have differential effects on reward and neurochemistry in mice. Brain reward function in mice was evaluated during acute/prolonged withdrawal, and in response to methamphetamine challenge using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure. Brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic neurochemistry was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography...
February 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224183/modelling-depression-in-animals-at-the-interface-of-reward-and-stress-pathways
#5
REVIEW
D A Slattery, J F Cryan
RATIONALE: Despite substantial research efforts the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains poorly understood, which is due in part to the heterogeneity of the disorder and the complexity of designing appropriate animal models. However, in the last few decades, a focus on the development of novel stress-based paradigms and a focus on using hedonic/anhedonic behaviour have led to renewed optimism in the use of animal models to assess aspects of MDD. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, in this review article, dedicated to Athina Markou, we summarise the use of stress-based animal models for studying MDD in rodents and how reward-related readouts can be used to validate/assess the model and/or treatment...
February 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223912/diet-induced-obesity-and-circadian-disruption-of-feeding-behavior
#6
REVIEW
Aurea Blancas-Velazquez, Jorge Mendoza, Alexandra N Garcia, Susanne E la Fleur
Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223337/functional-expression-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-is-regulated-by-tetraspanin-7-mediated-postendocytic-trafficking
#7
Seol-Ae Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Saebom Lee, Jaehoon Jeong, Soo Jeong Kim, So Jung Kim, Sang Ki Park
The dopaminergic system plays an essential role in various functions of the brain, including locomotion, memory, and reward, and the deregulation of dopaminergic signaling as a result of altered functionality of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is implicated in multiple neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Tetraspanin-7 (TSPAN7) is expressed to variable degrees in different tissues, with the highest level in the brain, and multiple mutations in TSPAN7 have been implicated in intellectual disability. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TSPAN7 may be a binding partner of DRD2 that is involved in the regulation of its functional activity...
February 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223097/the-roles-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-via-the-habenula-in-non-reward-and-depression-and-in-the-responses-of-serotonin-and-dopamine-neurons
#8
Edmund T Rolls
Cortical regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex involved in reward and in non-reward and which are implicated in depression, and the amygdala, are connected to the habenula via the striatum and pallidum, and via subcortical limbic structures. The habenula in turn projects to the raphe nuclei, the source of the serotonin-containing neurons that project to the forebrain. It is proposed that this provides a route for cortical signals related to reward, and to not obtaining expected rewards, to influence the serotonin-containing neuronal system that is influenced by many antidepressant treatments...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223096/the-habenula-in-psychiatric-disorders-more-than-three-decades-of-translational-investigation
#9
REVIEW
Marc Fakhoury
The habenula is an epithalamic structure located at the center of the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, a pathway involved in linking forebrain to midbrain regions. Composed of a medial and lateral subdivisions, the habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia mainly through the stria medullaris (SM), and projects to midbrain regions through the fasciculus retroflexus (FR). An increasing number of studies have also implicated this structure in psychiatric disorders associated with dysregulated reward circuitry function, notably mood disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorder...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220089/emotion-regulation-therapy-a-mechanism-targeted-treatment-for-disorders-of-distress
#10
Megan E Renna, Jean M Quintero, David M Fresco, Douglas S Mennin
"Distress disorders," which include generalized anxiety disorder and major depression are often highly comorbid with each other and appear to be characterized by common temperamental features that reflect heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss. Further, individuals with distress disorders tend to utilize self-referential processes (e.g., worry, rumination, self-criticism) in a maladaptive attempt to respond to motivationally relevant distress, often resulting in suboptimal contextual learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219376/cooperate-a-paradigm-shift-for-health-equity
#11
REVIEW
Wei-Ching Chang, Joy H Fraser
The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217446/the-dangers-of-sexual-enhancement-supplements-and-counterfeit-drugs-to-treat-erectile-dysfunction
#12
REVIEW
Jason Chiang, Faysal A Yafi, Philip J Dorsey, Wayne J G Hellstrom
Counterfeit phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are an increasing problem. Already in widespread use, the market for PDE-5i is steadily growing as the population ages. Counterfeiters are taking advantage of this growing market by developing illicit and counterfeit PDE-5i products. Many factors are contributing to the rapid growth of the illicit market, such as the low risk of prosecution, potentially high financial reward, and ease of distribution via Internet pharmacies. Consumers of illicit PDE-5i often do not realize they are using counterfeit products and placing themselves at an unnecessary health risk...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216062/nalmefene-reduces-reward-anticipation-in-alcohol-dependence-an-experimental-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#13
Darren R Quelch, Inge Mick, John McGonigle, Anna C Ramos, Remy S A Flechais, Mark Bolstridge, Eugenii Rabiner, Matthew B Wall, Rexford D Newbould, Björn Steiniger-Brach, Franz van den Berg, Malcolm Boyce, Dorrit Østergaard Nilausen, Lasse Breuning Sluth, Didier Meulien, Christoph von der Goltz, David Nutt, Anne Lingford-Hughes
BACKGROUND: Nalmefene is a µ- and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, κ-opioid receptor partial agonist that has recently been approved in Europe for treating alcohol dependence. It offers a treatment approach for alcohol-dependent individuals with "high-risk drinking levels" to reduce their alcohol consumption. However, the neurobiological mechanism underpinning its effects on alcohol consumption remains to be determined. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design we aimed to determine the effect of a single dose of nalmefene on striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change during anticipation of monetary reward using the monetary incentive delay task following alcohol challenge...
January 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212464/oxytocin-reduces-ethanol-self-administration-in-mice
#14
Courtney E King, William C Griffin, Lauryn N Luderman, Malcolm M Kates, Jacqueline F McGinty, Howard C Becker
BACKGROUND: Excessive ethanol consumption remains an important health concern and effective treatments are lacking. The central oxytocin system has emerged as a potentially important therapeutic target for alcohol and drug addiction. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxytocin reduces ethanol consumption. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to ethanol (20% v/v) using a model of binge-like drinking ("drinking-in-the-dark") that also included the use of lickometer circuits to evaluate the temporal pattern of intake as well as 2-bottle choice drinking in the home cage...
February 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206689/working-memory-ability-and-early-drug-use-progression-as-predictors-of-adolescent-substance-use-disorders
#15
Atika Khurana, Daniel Romer, Laura M Betancourt, Hallam Hurt
AIMS: To test a neurobehavioral model of adolescent substance use disorder (SUD) resulting from an imbalance between a hyperactive reward motivation system and a hypoactive executive control system. Specifically, we tested (1) if early weakness in working memory (WM) and associated imbalance indicators of acting-without-thinking (AWT) and delay discounting (DD) predict SUD in late adolescence, and (2) if early drug use progression mediates this relation. DESIGN: Five waves of longitudinal data collected annually from 2005-2010, with a final follow-up in 2012...
February 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203636/i-want-to-media-multitask-and-i-want-to-do-it-now-individual-differences-in-media-multitasking-predict-delay-of-gratification-and-system-1-thinking
#16
Dan Schutten, Kirk A Stokes, Karen M Arnell
Media multitasking, the concurrent use of multiple media forms, has been shown to be related to greater self-reported impulsivity and less self-control. These measures are both hallmarks of the need for immediate gratification which has been associated with fast, intuitive 'system-1' decision making, as opposed to more deliberate and effortful 'system-2' decision making. In Study 1, we used the Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) to examine whether individuals who engage heavily in media multitasking differ from those who are light media multitaskers in their degree of system-1 versus system-2 thinking...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202786/dopamine-modulates-adaptive-prediction-error-coding-in-the-human-midbrain-and-striatum
#17
Kelly M J Diederen, Hisham Ziauddeen, Martin D Vestergaard, Tom Spencer, Wolfram Schultz, Paul C Fletcher
Learning to optimally predict rewards requires agents to account for fluctuations in reward value. Recent work suggests that individuals can efficiently learn about variable rewards through adaptation of the learning rate, and coding of prediction errors relative to reward variability. Such adaptive coding has been linked to midbrain dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates, and evidence in support for a similar role of the dopaminergic system in humans is emerging from fMRI data. Here, we sought to investigate the effect of dopaminergic perturbations on adaptive prediction error coding in humans, using a between-subject, placebo-controlled pharmacological fMRI study with a dopaminergic agonist (bromocriptine) and antagonist (sulpiride)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202653/argentine-ants-linepithema-humile-use-adaptable-transportation-networks-to-track-changes-in-resource-quality
#18
Tanya Latty, Michael J Holmes, James C Makinson, Madeleine Beekman
Transportation networks play a crucial role in human and animal societies. For a transportation network to be efficient, it must have adequate capacity to meet traffic demand. Network design becomes increasingly difficult in situations where traffic demand can change unexpectedly. In humans, network design is often constrained by path dependency because it is difficult to move a road once it is built. A similar issue theoretically faces pheromone-trail-laying social insects; once a trail has been laid, positive feedback makes re-routing difficult because new trails cannot compete with continually reinforced pre-existing trails...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198964/a-qualitative-exploration-of-facilitators-and-inhibitors-influencing-nurses-intention-to-leave-clinical-nursing
#19
Leyla Alilu, Leila Valizadeh, Vahid Zamanzadeh, Hosein Habibzadeh, Mark Gillespie
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the barriers and facilitators shaping the development of an intent to leave the nursing profession, from the perspective of Iran's clinical nurses. METHOD: The study was completed using qualitative content analysis And included 21 Participants who were clinical nurses with a variety of work experience across a range of clinical posts. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data and data obtained from the interviews were analyzed and interpreted utilizing a content analysis method...
November 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198915/personality-traits-anger-and-psychiatric-symptoms-related-to-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-digestive-system-cancer
#20
Noemi Peres Honorato, Luciene Vaccaro de Morais Abumusse, Daniel Pereira Coqueiro, Vanessa de Albuquerque Citero
BACKGROUND: The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual's personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas ), Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF...
February 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
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