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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691766/characterization-of-the-hemodynamic-wall-shear-stresses-in-human-umbilical-vessels-from-normal-and-intrauterine-growth-restricted-pregnancies
#1
Shier Nee Saw, Yu Wei Poh, Dawn Chia, Arijit Biswas, Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar, Choon Hwai Yap
Significant reductions in blood flow and umbilical diameters were reported in pregnancies affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from placental insufficiency. However, it is not known if IUGR umbilical blood vessels experience different hemodynamic wall shear stresses (WSS) compared to normal umbilical vessels. As WSS is known to influence vasoactivity and vascular growth and remodeling, which can regulate flow rates, it is important to study this parameter. In this study, we aim to characterize umbilical vascular WSS environment in normal and IUGR pregnancies, and evaluate correlation between WSS and vascular diameter, and gestational age...
April 24, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691244/cross-sectional-study-on-the-prevalence-and-predictors-of-pregnancy-among-women-living-in-hiv-discordant-relationships-in-a-rural-rakai-cohort-uganda
#2
Lydia Jacenta Nakiganda, Anette Agardh, Benedict Oppong Asamoah
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the prevalence of pregnancy in serodiscordant couples and identifies predictors associated with pregnancy in rural Rakai, Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the RCCS survey round 17 (2015-2016), which included 488 women in serodiscordant relationships. This study was conducted in Rakai district, located in south-western Uganda...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691102/how-baby-s-first-shot-determines-the-development-of-maternal-attitudes-towards-vaccination
#3
Cornelia Betsch, Birte Bödeker, Philipp Schmid, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: The attitude towards vaccination is a major determinant of vaccination behavior; this also includes parents' attitudes towards the immunization of their child. Negative attitudes have been associated with vaccine hesitancy and outbreaks of infectious diseases throughout the globe. This study aimed to assess how and why attitudes become more pro-vaccine or vaccine-skeptical over time, and which sources are especially influential in this process. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with measurements at time of recruitment during pregnancy and at +3, +6 and +14 months after childbirth with cross-sectional control groups...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690917/health-consequences-for-mother-and-baby-of-substantial-pre-conception-weight-loss-in-obese-women-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Sarah Price, Alison Nankervis, Michael Permezel, Luke Prendergast, Priya Sumithran, Joseph Proietto
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the management of obesity in women planning pregnancy suggest lifestyle modification before conception. However, there is little evidence that lifestyle modification alters pregnancy outcomes. Bariatric surgery results in significant weight loss. This appears to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for the mother but may increase the risk of adverse outcomes for the infant. In order to reduce the risks of obesity-related adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and offspring, alternative approaches to the management of obesity in women planning pregnancy are needed...
April 24, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689749/the-association-between-alcohol-outlet-accessibility-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
J A Seabrook, N Woods, A Clark, B de Vrijer, D Penava, J Gilliland
BACKGROUND: Alcohol outlet accessibility is positively associated with alcohol consumption, although this relationship has not been thoroughly examined in pregnant women. The present study examines the relationship between proximity and density of alcohol outlets and risk for low birth weight (LBW: <2,500 grams) and preterm birth (PTB: <37 weeks gestational age), and is the first Canadian study to investigate this association. METHODS: Maternal accessibility to alcohol outlets was specified using a gravity-type measure of accessibility, which provides the amount of accessibility that a given household has to liquor stores within 30-minutes of their home...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689322/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-hyperglycaemia-in-pregnancy-a-narrative-review-and-results-from-a-prospective-danish-cohort-study
#6
REVIEW
Camilla Viola Buskbjerg Palm, Dorte Glintborg, Henriette Boye Kyhl, H David McIntyre, Richard Christian Jensen, Tina Kold Jensen, Dorte Møller Jensen, Marianne Andersen
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS may be associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). OBJECTIVES: To 1) review literature regarding PCOS and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and 2) present original data from Odense Child Cohort (OCC) regarding GDM in PCOS. METHODS: Literature search including original studies from 2000-18. OCC included 2,548 pregnant women, 9.5 % (n=241) had PCOS...
April 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689321/gestational-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-among-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Daphna Komem, Lina Salman, Eyal Krispin, Nissim Arbib, Ron Bardin, Arnon Wiznitzer, Eran Hadar
AIMS: To assess the association of gestational weight gain or loss with adverse pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Retrospective study of all women diagnosed with GDM, from July 2012 to December 2016, stratified by gestational weight change according to the institute of medicine recommendations. Primary maternal outcome was glycemic control and primary neonatal outcome was large or small for gestational age (LGA or SGA)...
April 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689109/maternal-vitamin-d-deficiency-increases-the-risk-of-adverse-neonatal-outcomes-in-the-chinese-population-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Yuanliu Wang, Honghui Li, Min Zheng, Yubi Wu, Ting Zeng, Jinjian Fu, Dingyuan Zeng
BACKGROUND: Although vitamin D (vitD) deficiency is a common problem in pregnant women, in China, few studies have focused on the relationship between maternal vitD deficiency throughout the three trimesters and subsequent neonatal outcomes in China. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, maternal serum and neonate cord blood samples were collected from 1978 mother-neonate pairs from Liuzhou city. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitD (25(OH)D) were 16...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688863/infection-status-of-human-parvovirus-b19-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex-virus-1-2-in-women-with-first-trimester-spontaneous-abortions-in-chongqing-china
#9
Ya-Ling Gao, Zhan Gao, Miao He, Pu Liao
BACKGROUND: Infection with Parvovirus B19 (B19V), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex Virus-1/2 (HSV-1/2) may cause fetal loses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. Few comprehensive studies have investigated first-trimester spontaneous abortions caused by virus infections in Chongqing, China. Our study intends to investigate the infection of B19V, CMV and HSV-1/2 in first-trimester spontaneous abortions and the corresponding immune response...
April 23, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688772/methodology-and-baseline-results-from-the-evaluation-of-a-sexuality-education-activity-in-mpumalanga-and-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#10
Ilene S Speizer, Mahua Mandal, Khou Xiong, Aiko Hattori, Ndinda Makina-Zimalirana, Faith Kumalo, Stephen Taylor, Muzi S Ndlovu, Mathata Madibane, Andy Beke
In South Africa, adolescents and young adults (ages 15-24) are at risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. Recently, the Department of Basic Education has revised its sexuality education content and teaching strategies (using scripted lessons plans) as part of its life orientation curriculum. This paper presents the methodology and baseline results from the evaluation of the scripted lesson plans and supporting activities. A rigorous cluster-level randomized design with random assignment of schools as clusters is used for the evaluation...
April 2018: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688390/tripolar-chromosome-segregation-drives-the-association-between-maternal-genotype-at-variants-spanning-plk4-and-aneuploidy-in-human-preimplantation-embryos
#11
Rajiv C McCoy, Louise J Newnham, Christian S Ottolini, Eva R Hoffmann, Katerina Chatzimeletiou, Omar E Cornejo, Qiansheng Zhan, Nikica Zaninovic, Zev Rosenwaks, Dmitri A Petrov, Zachary P Demko, Styrmir Sigurjonsson, Alan H Handyside
Aneuploidy is prevalent in human embryos and is the leading cause of pregnancy loss. Many aneuploidies arise during oogenesis, increasing with maternal age. Superimposed on these meiotic aneuploidies are frequent errors occurring during early mitotic divisions, contributing to widespread chromosomal mosaicism. Here we reanalyzed a published dataset comprising preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy in 24,653 blastomere biopsies from day-3 cleavage-stage embryos, as well as 17,051 trophectoderm biopsies from day-5 blastocysts...
April 24, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688261/prenatal-exposure-to-acetaminophen-and-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autistic-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#12
Reem Masarwa, Hagai Levine, Einat Gorelik, Shimon Reif, Amichai Perlman, Ilan Matok
Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic during pregnancy. Evidence of neuro-disruptive properties is accumulating. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in the offspring of women exposed to acetaminophen during pregnancy. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane up to January 2017. Data were independently extracted and assessed by two researchers. Seven eligible retrospective cohorts included 132,738 mother and child pairs and with a follow-up period of 3-11 years...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688184/-psychotropic-drugs-in-pregnancy
#13
Zsuzsa Valasinyovszki, Alexander Kancsev
According to the statistics, there is an increased number of pregnant women taking psychotropic medication. For each clinical decision, or change in therapy that affect women of reproductive age, one has to consider the available information on the reproductive safety of psychiatric drugs. Due to ethical considerations, there are no randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, hence no unequivocal evidence addressing this topic. When used during pregnancy, there might be potential adverse effects of psychotropic drugs in regards to the following: teratogenicity, pregnancy outcome, obstetrical complications, neonatal toxicity and withdrawal syndrome, breastfeeding, and the offspring's long-term intellectual, behavioral, emotional development...
2018: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687743/clinical-outcomes-of-treatment-with-filgrastim-versus-a-filgrastim-biosimilar-and-febrile-neutropenia-associated-costs-among-patients-with-nonmyeloid-cancer-undergoing-chemotherapy
#14
Lee S Schwartzberg, Lincy S Lal, Sanjeev Balu, Kim Campbell, Lee Brekke, Andrew DeLeon, Caitlin Elliott, Stephanie Korrer
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors such as filgrastim are used to decrease the incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) among patients with nonmyeloid cancers undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Although the biosimilar filgrastim-sndz has been approved in the United States since 2015, limited real-world comparisons of filgrastim-sndz versus reference filgrastim (filgrastim-ref) have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To compare FN incidence and assess overall FN-related health care resource utilization and medical costs among U...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687477/obstetric-interventions-trends-and-drivers-of-change-a-20-year-population-based-study-from-iceland
#15
Emma M Swift, Gunnar Tomasson, Helga Gottfreðsdóttir, Kristjana Einarsdóttir, Helga Zoega
BACKGROUND: Population data on obstetric interventions is often limited to cesarean delivery. We aimed to provide a more comprehensive overview of trends in use of several common obstetric interventions over the past 2 decades. METHODS: The study was based on nationwide data from the Icelandic Medical Birth Register. Incidence of labor induction, epidural analgesia, cesarean, and instrumental delivery was calculated for all births in 1995-2014. Change over time was expressed as relative risk (RR), using Poisson regression with 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for several maternal and pregnancy-related characteristics...
April 24, 2018: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687161/obstetric-patients-perspectives-on-functional-magnetic-neuroimaging-research-in-pregnant-women
#16
Rebecca L Newmark, Michelle L Zaydlin, Amy Yang, Kelcie Kuchenrither, Katherine L Wisner, Suena H Massey
Magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) studies of healthy pregnant women could identify key mechanisms of spontaneous health behavior changes observed in expectant mothers as novel intervention targets, but are currently unprecedented. As balancing potential benefits of research with unknown risks, including participant perceptions of risk, is foundational to ethical conduct, we surveyed a convenience obstetric sample to understand pregnant women's perspectives on this issue. Respondents were 76 pregnant women (modal age of 30-39 years; 64% multiparous) presenting for obstetric care from April to June 2016 at privately and publicly funded clinics at an urban academic medical center in the Midwestern USA...
April 23, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686779/valproic-acid-exposure-of-pregnant-rats-during-organogenesis-disturbs-pancreas-development-in-insulin-synthesis-and-secretion-of-the-offspring
#17
Komariah Komariah, Wasmen Manalu, Bambang Kiranadi, Adi Winarto, Ekowati Handharyani, M Orliando Roeslan
Valproic acid (VPA) plays a role in histone modifications that eventually inhibit the activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC), and will affect the expressions of genes Pdx1, Nkx6.1, and Ngn3 during pancreatic organogenesis. This experiment was designed to study the effect of VPA exposure in pregnant rats on the activity of HDAC that controls the expression of genes regulating the development of beta cells in the pancreas to synthesize and secrete insulin. This study used 30 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into 4 groups, as follows: (1) a control group of pregnant rats without VPA administration, (2) pregnant rats administered with 250 mg VPA on day 10 of pregnancy, (3) pregnant rats administered with 250 mg VPA on day 13 of pregnancy, and (4) pregnant rats administered with 250 mg VPA on day 16 of pregnancy...
April 2018: Toxicological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686379/maternal-early-pregnancy-obesity-and-related-pregnancy-and-pre-pregnancy-disorders-associations-with-child-developmental-milestones-in-the-prospective-predo-study
#18
Polina Girchenko, Soile Tuovinen, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Jari Lahti, Katri Savolainen, Kati Heinonen, Riikka Pyhälä, Rebecca M Reynolds, Esa Hämäläinen, Pia M Villa, Eero Kajantie, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Hannele Laivuori, Katri Räikkönen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have linked maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ) with suboptimal neurodevelopment in her offspring; however, the literature is not entirely consistent. Whether these effects are muddled by maternal self-reports of pre-pregnancy weight and height, or are driven or amplified by the well often comorbid hypertensive and diabetic pregnancy and pre-pregnancy disorders, remains unclear. We examined whether maternal early pregnancy obesity is associated with developmental delay in her offspring, and if the associations are driven or amplified by diabetic and hypertensive pregnancy and pre-pregnancy disorders...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686036/valproate-and-epilepsy-for-women-as-well-as-men
#19
Charlotte Lawthom
Sodium valproate remains the best drug for idiopathic generalised epilepsy. For men with the latter diagnosis, this is the drug of choice. Sodium valproate has an unacceptably high level of major fetal malformation and also causes learning disabilities in many children exposed to the drug in utero. Women of reproductive age should not normally be offered this drug. There are many women with refractory epilepsy who would benefit from this drug and who are not planning pregnancy. Individualised epilepsy care is the gold standard, not blanket bans on drug choice based on gender...
April 23, 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686016/neurofilament-as-neuronal-injury-blood-marker-in-preeclampsia
#20
Katrina Suzanne Evers, Andrew Atkinson, Christian Barro, Urs Fisch, Marc Pfister, Evelyn A Huhn, Olav Lapaire, Jens Kuhle, Sven Wellmann
Preeclampsia has been shown to be associated with changes in cerebral structure and cognitive function later in life. Nf (neurofilaments) are specific scaffolding proteins of neurons, and their quantification in serum has been proposed as a biomarker for neuroaxonal injury. We performed a prospective, longitudinal, single-center study at the University Hospital of Basel to determine serum Nf concentrations in pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and with high risk of preeclampsia or with early signs of preeclampsia...
April 23, 2018: Hypertension
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