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Aging & pregnancy

Mary A M Cleaton, Claire L Dent, Mark Howard, Jennifer A Corish, Isabelle Gutteridge, Ulla Sovio, Francesca Gaccioli, Nozomi Takahashi, Steven R Bauer, D Steven Charnock-Jones, Theresa L Powell, Gordon C S Smith, Anne C Ferguson-Smith, Marika Charalambous
Pregnancy is a state of high metabolic demand. Fasting diverts metabolism to fatty acid oxidation, and the fasted response occurs much more rapidly in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. The product of the imprinted DLK1 gene (delta-like homolog 1) is an endocrine signaling molecule that reaches a high concentration in the maternal circulation during late pregnancy. By using mouse models with deleted Dlk1, we show that the fetus is the source of maternal circulating DLK1. In the absence of fetally derived DLK1, the maternal fasting response is impaired...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
(no author information available yet)
Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness. Data have shown that not all programs are equally effective for all ages, races and ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, and geographic areas. Studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourse), sexually transmitted infections, and adolescent pregnancy. One key component of an effective program is encouraging community-centered efforts...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
Current sexuality education programs vary widely in the accuracy of content, emphasis, and effectiveness. Data have shown that not all programs are equally effective for all ages, races and ethnicities, socioeconomic groups, and geographic areas. Studies have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education programs reduce the rates of sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of partners and unprotected intercourse), sexually transmitted infections, and adolescent pregnancy. One key component of an effective program is encouraging community-centered efforts...
November 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Eliza C Miller, Hajere J Gatollari, Gloria Too, Amelia K Boehme, Lisa Leffert, Mitchell S V Elkind, Joshua Z Willey
Importance: Older age is associated with increased risk of pregnancy-associated stroke (PAS). Data are limited on age-specific incidence ratios of PAS compared with stroke risk in nonpregnant women. Objectives: To assess the risk of stroke by age group in pregnant and postpartum women compared with their nonpregnant contemporaries and to compare risk factors across age groups in the exposed (pregnant/postpartum) and unexposed (nonpregnant) populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, billing codes from the calendar year 2003-2012 New York State Department of Health inpatient database and population data were used to identify all women aged 12 to 55 years with cerebrovascular events, including transient ischemic attack, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, and nonspecified PAS...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Joel E Gallant, Graeme Moyle, Juan Berenguer, Peter Shalit, Huyen Cao, Ya-Pei Liu, Joel Myers, Lisa Rosenblatt, Lingfeng Yang, Javier Szwarcberg
OBJECTIVES: Cobicistat (COBI) enhances atazanavir (ATV) pharmacokinetic parameters similarly to ritonavir (RTV) in both healthy volunteers and HIV-infected adults. Primary efficacy and safety outcomes of this Phase 3, international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve adults (GS-US-216-0114/NCT01108510) demonstrated that ATV+COBI was non-inferior to ATV+RTV, each in combination with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), at Weeks 48 and 144, with high rates of virologic success for both regimens (85...
October 21, 2016: Current HIV Research
Jonas F Ludvigsson, Benjamin Lebwohl, Anders Ekbom, Ravi Kiran, Peter Hr Green, Jonas Höijer, Olof Stephansson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoscopy is an integral part of the investigation and management of gastrointestinal disease. We aimed to examine outcomes of pregnancies for women who underwent endoscopy during their pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (for births from 1992 through 2011) with those from the Swedish Patient Registry. We identified 3052 pregnancies exposed to endoscopy (2025 upper endoscopies, 1109 lower endoscopies, 58 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies)...
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
Fiona Reid, Pippa Oakeshott, Sarah R Kerry, Phillip E Hay, Jorgen S Jensen
OBJECTIVES: Serological case-control studies suggest that certain chlamydia-related bacteria (Chlamydiales) which cause cows to abort may do the same in humans. Chlamydiales include Waddlia chondrophila, Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia trachomatis. Data on prevalence of Chlamydiales in pregnancy are sparse. Using stored urine samples from a carefully characterised cohort of 847 newly pregnant women recruited from 37 general practices in London UK, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of Chlamydiales infections...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Alison M El Ayadi, Corinne H Rocca, Julia E Kohn, Denisse Velazquez, Maya Blum, Sara J Newmann, Cynthia C Harper
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are highly effective at preventing pregnancy but do not protect against sexually transmitted infection (STI). Recent efforts to improve access to intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants have raised concerns about STI prevention and reduced condom use, particularly among teenagers and young women. We evaluated whether a provider-targeted intervention to increase LARC access negatively impacted dual method use and STI incidence among an at-risk patient population...
October 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Lisa I Iezzoni, Amy J Wint, Suzanne C Smeltzer, Jeffrey L Ecker
BACKGROUND: Although growing numbers of women with mobility disability are becoming pregnant and desiring motherhood, relatively little is known about their pregnancy experiences or what they might recommend to other women with mobility disability contemplating pregnancy. METHODS: Using a semistructured, open-ended interview protocol, we conducted 2-hour telephone interviews with 22 women who had a significant mobility disability before becoming pregnant and had delivered babies within the prior 10 years...
October 20, 2016: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Vasileios Charalampakis, Abd A Tahrani, Ahmed Helmy, Janesh K Gupta, Rishi Singhal
One of the most effective methods to tackle obesity and its related comorbidities is bariatric surgery. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), which are associated with increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, have been identified as potentially new indications for bariatric surgery. PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women in the reproductive age and is associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. EH is a pre-cancerous condition which arises in the presence of chronic exposure to estrogen unopposed by progesterone such as both in PCOS and obesity...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Robert Kramer, Reed Quinn, Agneta Odera, Robert Groom, Nancy Boulanger, Eric Gunnoe, Russell White
Cardiac surgeons traveling to East Africa on humanitarian surgical missions treat a large number of people of all ages with rheumatic heart disease. A patient with severe mitral stenosis with pulmonary edema in the second trimester of pregnancy was treated successfully with closed mitral commissurotomy in a hospital in rural Kenya. An operation from the late 1940s may regain prominence more than 70 years later in areas of the world with a high incidence of rheumatic heart disease and limited cardiology and cardiac surgery resources...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Karolina Bartkute, Dalia Balsyte, Josef Wisser, Juozas Kurmanavicius
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of α-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) as a marker for diverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: The study was based on pregnancy and delivery data from 5520 women between 1999 and 2014 at University Hospital of Zurich (UHZ). INCLUSION CRITERIA: both MS-AFP and pregnancy outcome were known for the same pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes and characteristics such as fetal malformation, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and intrauterine growth retardation as well as maternal age, weight before pregnancy, gestational age (GA) at delivery, newborn weight, length and head circumference were analyzed with respect to the MS-AFP value...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Ching-Fang Lee, I-Chyun Chiang, Fang-Ming Hwang, Li-Kang Chi, Hsien-Ming Lin
OBJECTIVE: the objectives of this study were to use the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in order to determine to what degree pregnant women intended to exercise regularly during pregnancy, and then to evaluate the TPB model fit. DESIGN: this study was based on a cross-sectional survey with a tool which was developed specifically for this study. SETTING: we identified and invited pregnant women from two medical center hospitals and one certified prenatal center in northern Taiwan to participate...
October 5, 2016: Midwifery
Tara C Jatlaoui, Halley E M Riley, Kathryn M Curtis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) by young women and risk of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Popline and the Cochrane Library for articles from inception of database through December 2015. For outcomes specific to IUD use (IUD expulsion and perforation), we examined effect measures for IUD users generally aged 25 years or younger compared with older IUD users. For outcomes of pregnancy, infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and heavy bleeding or anemia, we examined young IUD users compared with young users of other contraceptive methods or no method...
October 19, 2016: Contraception
Pascale Mercier, Sandrine Freret, Karine Laroucau, Marie-Pierre Gautier, Isabelle Brémaud, Claire Bertin, Christelle Rossignol, Armel Souriau, Laurence A Guilloteau
The dynamics between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and the immune response of goats naturally exposed to MAP were studied in a herd where the clinical expression of paratuberculosis had been observed. Four generations of goats were observed over a 33-month period: mothers of three different generations (G1, G2, G3) and their daughters, generation 4 (G4). A MAP infection status was defined according to the combined results of an IFN-γ assay, antibody response, faecal culture and post-mortem examination...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Igor Prpić, Ana Milardović, Inge Vlašić-Cicvarić, Zdravko Špiric, Jelena Radić Nišević, Petar Vukelić, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Milena Horvat
OBJECTIVES: To compare motor, cognitive and language characteristics in children aged 18 months who were prenatally exposed to low-level methyl-mercury (MeHg), and to analyze the eventual differences in these characteristics in relation to cord blood THg concentration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The total number of 205 child-mother pairs was included in the study, and total cord blood mercury was measured in 198 of them. Out of the 198 already measured samples, 47 of them have also been tested for methyl-mercury in cord blood...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Kelsey L Shnaekel, Michael P Wendel, Nader Z Rabie, Everett F Magann
Objective: The aim of this review was to describe the risk factors, clinical and radiographic criteria, and management of this rare complication of pregnancy. Methods: A PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL search was undertaken with no limitations on the number of years searched. Results: There were 60 articles identified, with 53 articles being the basis of this review. Multiple risk factors have been suggested in the literature including retroverted uterus in the first trimester, deep sacral concavity with an overlying sacral promontory, endometriosis, previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, pelvic or uterine adhesions, ovarian cysts, leiomyomas, multifetal gestation, uterine anomalies, uterine prolapse, and uterine incarceration in a prior pregnancy...
October 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Marion I Boldingh, Angelina H Maniaol, Cathrine Brunborg, Harald Weedon-Fekjær, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Chantal M E Tallaksen
OBJECTIVE: To study the risk of clinical onset of myasthenia gravis (MG) in pregnancy and during the first 6 months postpartum because an association between pregnancy or the postpartum period and the onset of autoimmune MG is widely assumed but not proven. METHODS: The design was a cross-sectional population-based cohort study of 2 MG cohorts (Norway and the Netherlands) with 1,038 healthy controls from Norway. Data were obtained on 246 women with MG (age at onset 15-45 years)...
October 21, 2016: Neurology
Christopher Eric McCoy, Angelica Loza-Gomez, James Lee Puckett, Samantha Costantini, Patrick Penalosa, Craig Anderson, Carl Schultz
BACKGROUND: The association between ambulation at the scene of a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and spinal injury has never been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between ambulation and spinal injury in patients involved in a MVC. METHODS: Prospective analytical-observational cohort study. Inclusion: patients sustaining traumatic injury in a MVC. Exclusion: < 18 years old, pregnancy. PRIMARY OUTCOME: spinal injury defined as injury to the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spinal cord, bones, or ligaments...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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