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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656530/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-review-of-more-than-2000-cases
#1
Cybele Lara R Abad, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a common pathogen worldwide, and it may cause significant infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed all reported TB cases to provide an update on its epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome after SOT. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID were reviewed from January 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2016 using key words tuberculosis and solid organ transplant or transplantation. RESULTS: There were 187 publications reporting 2082 cases of TB among kidney (n=1719), liver (n=253), heart (n=77), lung (n=25), and kidney-pancreas (n=8) recipients...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656063/updates-on-antibody-functions-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-their-relevance-for-developing-a-vaccine-against-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Jacqueline M Achkar, Rafael Prados-Rosales
A more effective vaccine to control tuberculosis (TB), a major global public health problem, is urgently needed. Current vaccine candidates focus predominantly on eliciting cell-mediated immunity but other arms of the immune system also contribute to protection against TB. We review here recent studies that enhance our current knowledge of antibody-mediated functions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings, which contribute to the increasing evidence that antibodies have a protective role against TB, include demonstrations that firstly distinct human antibody Fc glycosylation patterns, found in latent M...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655835/risk-of-serious-and-opportunistic-infections-associated-with-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#3
Julien Kirchgesner, Magali Lemaitre, Fabrice Carrat, Mahmoud Zureik, Md Franck Carbonnel, Rosemary Dray-Spira
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of infection associated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNF) and thiopurines (combination therapy) is uncertain. We assessed the risk of serious and opportunistic infections in patients with IBD treated with thiopurine monotherapy, anti-TNF monotherapy, or combination therapy in a large cohort of patients in France. METHODS: We performed a nationwide population-based study of patients (18 years or older) with a diagnosis of IBD in the French national health insurance database; we collected data from January 1, 2009 until December 31, 2014...
April 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655632/ag85a-specific-cd4-t-cell-lines-derived-after-boosting-bcg-vaccinated-cattle-with-ad5-85a-possess-both-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#4
Hannah J Metcalfe, Lucia Biffar, Sabine Steinbach, Efrain Guzman, Tim Connelley, Ivan Morrison, H Martin Vordermeier, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos
There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655556/in-vitro-bioassessment-of-the-immunomodulatory-activity-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-components-using-bovine-macrophages-and-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis
#5
Z Li, H Kang, Q You, F Ossa, P Mead, M Quinton, N A Karrow
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its components are used for the prevention and treatment of enteric disease in different species; therefore, they may also be useful for preventing Johne's disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The objective of this study was to identify potential immunomodulatory S. cerevisiae components using a bovine macrophage cell line (BOMAC). The BOMAC phagocytic activity, reactive oxygen species production, and immune-related gene (IL6, IL10, IL12p40, IL13, IL23), transforming growth factor β, ARG1, CASP1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression were investigated when BOMAC were cocultured with cell wall components from 4 different strains (A, B, C, and D) and 2 forms of dead yeast from strain A...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653190/evaluation-of-whole-genome-sequencing-and-software-tools-for-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Janko van Beek, Marjo Haanperä, Pieter W Smit, Silja Mentula, Hanna Soini
OBJECTIVES: Culture-based assays are currently the gold standard for drug susceptibility testing (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They provide good sensitivity and specificity, but are time-consuming. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether whole genome sequencing (WGS), combined with software tools for data analysis, can replace routine culture based assays for drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. METHODS: M. tuberculosis cultures sent to the Finnish mycobacterial reference laboratory in 2014 (n=211) were phenotypically tested by Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for first line drug susceptibilities...
April 10, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653033/organometallic-conjugates-of-the-drug-sulfadoxine-for-combatting-antimicrobial-resistance
#7
Peter J Sadler, Prinessa Chellan, Vicky Avery, Sandra Duffy, James Triccas, Gayathri Nagalingam, Christina Tam, Luisa Cheng, Jenny Liu, Kirkwood Land, Guy Clarkson, Isolda Romero
Fourteen novel arene RuII, and cyclopentadienyl (Cpx) RhIII and IrIII complexes containing an N,N'-chelated pyridylimino- or quinolylimino ligand functionalized with the antimalarial drug sulfadoxine have been synthesized and characterized, including three by x-ray crystallography. Rhodium and iridium complexes exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 0.10 - 2.0 µM in either all, or one of the three Plasmodium falciparum assays (3D7 chloroquine sensitive, Dd2 chloroquine resistant and NF54 sexual late stage gametocytes), but were only moderately active towards Trichomonas vaginalis...
April 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652259/structures-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-glpx-protein-class-ii-fructose-1-6-bisphosphatase-implications-for-the-active-oligomeric-state-catalytic-mechanism-and-citrate-inhibition
#8
Nina M Wolf, Hiten J Gutka, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh, Celerino Abad-Zapatero
The crystal structures of native class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPaseII) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 2.6 Å resolution and two active-site protein variants are presented. The variants were complexed with the reaction product fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). The Thr84Ala mutant is inactive, while the Thr84Ser mutant has a lower catalytic activity. The structures reveal the presence of a 222 tetramer, similar to those described for fructose-1,6/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase from Synechocystis (strain 6803) as well as the equivalent enzyme from Thermosynechococcus elongatus...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651283/mirnas-in-tuberculosis-new-avenues-for-diagnosis-and-host-directed-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Naveed Sabir, Tariq Hussain, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Antonio Peramo, Deming Zhao, Xiangmei Zhou
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most fatal infectious diseases and a leading cause of mortality, with 95% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), has a well-established ability to circumvent the host's immune system for its intracellular survival. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs having an important function at the post-transcriptional level and are involved in shaping immunity by regulating the repertoire of genes expressed in immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651181/extracellular-synthesis-and-characterization-of-gold-nanoparticles-using-mycobacterium-sp-brs2a-ar2-isolated-from-the-aerial-roots-of-the-ghanaian-mangrove-plant-rhizophora-racemosa
#10
Mustafa Camas, Anil Sazak Camas, Kwaku Kyeremeh
Through the use of genomes that have undergone millions of years of evolution, marine Actinobacteria are known to have adapted to rapidly changing environmental pressures. The result is a huge chemical and biological diversity among marine Actinobacteria . It is gradually becoming a known fact that, marine Actinobacteria have the capability to produce nanoparticles which have reasonable sizes and structures with possible applications in biotechnology and pharmacology. Mycobacterium sp. BRS2A-AR2 was isolated from the aerial roots of the mangrove plant Rhizophora racemosa ...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650575/genome-sequences-of-five-mycobacterium-bovis-strains-isolated-from-farmed-animals-and-wildlife-in-canada
#11
Olga Andrievskaia, Marc-Olivier Duceppe, Dara Lloyd
Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, an infectious disease that affects both animals and humans and thus presents a risk to public health and the livestock industry. Here, we report the genome sequences of five Mycobacterium bovis strains that represent major genotype clusters observed in farmed animals and wildlife in Canada.
April 12, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650461/towards-designing-a-synthetic-antituberculosis-vaccine-the-rv3587c-peptide-inhibits-mycobacterial-entry-to-host-cells
#12
Mary Lilian Carabali-Isajar, Marisol Ocampo, Deisy Carolina Rodriguez, Magnolia Vanegas, Hernando Curtidor, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered one of the most successful pathogens in the history of mankind, having caused 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The amount of resistant and extensively resistant strains has increased; BCG has been the only vaccine to be produced in more than 100 years though it is still unable to prevent the disease's most disseminated form in adults; pulmonary tuberculosis. The search is thus still on-going for candidate antigens for an antituberculosis vaccine. This paper reports the use of a logical and rational methodology for finding such antigens, this time as peptides derived from the Rv3587c membrane protein...
April 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649975/characterising-resuscitation-promoting-factor-fluorescent-fusions-in-mycobacteria
#13
Iria Uhía, Nitya Krishnan, Brian D Robertson
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation promoting factor proteins (Rpfs) are peptidoglycan glycosidases capable of resuscitating dormant mycobacteria, and have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. However, the specific roles and localisation of each of the 5 Rpfs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain mostly unknown. In this work our aim was to construct fluorescent fusions of M. tuberculosis Rpf proteins as tools to investigate their function. RESULTS: We found that Rpf-fusions to the fluorescent protein mCherry are functional and able to promote cell growth under different conditions...
April 12, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649431/diagnosis-and-management-of-children-with-mycobacterium-abscessus-infections-in-the-head-and-neck
#14
Justine Moe, Roy Rajan, Shelley Caltharp, Shelly Abramowicz
PURPOSE: Controversy exists regarding the most appropriate treatment strategy for children with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervical lymphadenitis. Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) is an uncommon cause of NTM cervical lymphadenitis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate diagnosis, management, and treatment outcomes in children with MAB-associated cervical lymphadenitis resulting from a pulpotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of children with NTM lymphadenitis of the head and neck caused by MAB treated at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta hospitals (Atlanta, GA)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649339/pathogenic-factors-associated-with-development-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulopathy-dic-in-a-tertiary-academic-hospital-in-south-africa
#15
Elizabeth S Mayne, Anthony L H Mayne, Susan J Louw
INTRODUCTION: Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a thrombotic microangiopathy arising from consumption of both coagulation factors and platelets. DIC is triggered by a number of clinical conditions including severe infection, trauma and obstetric complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition is paramount. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to ensure that patients at risk of developing DIC are appropriately investigated. METHODS: In order to establish the clinical conditions most frequently associated with DIC, we reviewed all DIC screens received at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa over a 1 year period...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649213/new-insights-into-the-transposition-mechanisms-of-is6110-and-its-dynamic-distribution-between-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-lineages
#16
Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio, Irene Pérez, Nacho Aguiló, Santiago Uranga, Ana Picó, Carlos Lampreave, Alberto Cebollada, Isabel Otal, Sofía Samper, Carlos Martín
The insertion Sequence IS6110, only present in the pathogens of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC), has been the gold-standard epidemiological marker for TB for more than 25 years, but biological implications of IS6110 transposition during MTBC adaptation to humans remain elusive. By studying 2,236 clinical isolates typed by IS6110-RFLP and covering the MTBC, we remarked a lineage-specific content of IS6110 being higher in modern globally distributed strains. Once observed the IS6110 distribution in the MTBC, we selected representative isolates and found a correlation between the normalized expression of IS6110 and its abundance in MTBC chromosomes...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649196/diagnosis-of-abdominal-tuberculosis-in-christchurch-new-zealand-a-case-series
#17
James Bevin, Simon Dalton, Chris Wakeman, Will Perry
AIM: Abdominal tuberculosis presents with non-specific symptoms, including generalised abdominal pain. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical to improving outcomes and avoiding complications. We conducted a retrospective review of cases of abdominal tuberculosis presenting to Christchurch Hospital to explore the epidemiology, clinical features and diagnostic modalities used. METHOD: Cases were identified by searching for relevant ICD discharge codes from January 1996 to January 2016...
April 13, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648787/measuring-the-global-substrate-specificity-of-mycobacterial-serine-hydrolases-using-a-library-of-fluorogenic-ester-substrates
#18
Braden Bassett, Brent Waibel, Alex White, Heather Hansen, Dominique Stephens, Andrew Koelper, Erik M Larsen, Charles Kim, Adam Glanzer, Luke D Lavis, Geoffrey C Hoops, R Jeremy Johnson
Among the proteins required for lipid metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are a significant number of uncharacterized serine hydrolases, especially lipases and esterases. Using a streamlined synthetic method, a library of immolative fluorogenic ester substrates was expanded to better represent the natural lipidomic diversity of Mycobacterium. This expanded fluorogenic library was then used to rapidly characterize the global structure activity relationship (SAR) of mycobacterial serine hydrolases in M. smegmatis under different growth conditions...
April 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648588/influence-of-three-dimensional-lung-epithelial-cells-and-interspecies-interactions-on-antibiotic-efficacy-against-mycobacterium-abscessus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Graciela Rodríguez-Sevilla, Charlotte Rigauts, Eva Vandeplassche, Lisa Ostyn, Ignacio Mahíllo-Fernández, Jaime Esteban, Concepción Pérez-Jorge Peremarch, Tom Coenye, Aurélie Crabbé
Mycobacterium abscessus lung infection is a major health problem for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Understanding the in vivo factors that influence the outcome of therapy may help addressing the poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo antibiotic efficacy. We evaluated the influence of interspecies interactions and lung epithelial cells on antibiotic efficacy. Therefore, single and dual species biofilms of M. abscessus and a major CF pathogen (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were cultured on a plastic surface or on in vivo-like three-dimensional (3-D) lung epithelial cells, and the activity of antibiotics (colistin, amikacin, clarithromycin, ceftazidime) in inhibiting biofilm formation was evaluated...
April 10, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643949/high-secretion-of-interleukin-6-and-increased-mincle-receptor-expression-upon-exposure-to-mycobacterial-cord-factor-analog-trehalose-6-6-dibehenate-tdb-in-patients-with-takayasu-arteritis
#20
Nikhil Gupta, Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss, Hindhumathi Mohan, Ruchika Goel, Debashish Danda
Introduction: Suspicion on the association between Takayasu Arteritis (TA) and Tubcerculosis (TB) has been in vogue for years. Prevalence of TB in TA is reported to be higher. We aimed to study innate immune responses in patients with TA on exposure to Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB), a synthetic analogue of Trehalose-6,6-Dimycolate (TDM, also known as mycobacterial cord factor) in comparison with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Patients with type V TA, satisfying 1990 ACR criteria, and age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
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