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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728275/-changes-and-differences-of-dna-methylation-in-human-macrophages-infected-with-virulent-and-avirulent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
L N Lyu, H Y Jia, Z H Li, Z Q Liu, Z D Zhang
Objective: To profile DNA methylation and compare differentially methylated region (DMR) of macrophages infected with virulent and avirulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Methods: PMA(50 ng/ml) treated THP-1 macrophages were left uninfected or infected with the virulent H37Rv(THP-1/Rv) or avirulent H37Ra(THP-1/Ra). The genomic DNA was then extracted and DNA methylation was profiled via Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing (RRBS). The DNA methylation pattern and DMRs between the tested samples were indentified...
July 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727774/inhibitors-of-mycobacterium-marinum-virulence-identified-in-a-dictyostelium-discoideum-host-model
#2
Hajer Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Sébastien Kicka, Gianpaolo Chiriano, Christopher F Harrison, Hubert Hilbi, Leonardo Scapozza, Thierry Soldati, Pierre Cosson
Tuberculosis remains one of the major threats to public health worldwide. Given the prevalence of multi drug resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, there is a strong need to develop new anti-mycobacterial drugs with modes of action distinct from classical antibiotics. Inhibitors of mycobacterial virulence might target new molecular processes and may represent a potential new therapeutic alternative. In this study, we used a Dictyostelium discoideum host model to assess virulence of Mycobacterium marinum and to identify compounds inhibiting mycobacterial virulence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727453/formation-of-developmentally-toxic-phenanthrene-metabolite-mixtures-by-mycobacterium-sp-elw1
#3
Jill E Schrlau, Amber L Kramer, Anna Chlebowski, Lisa Truong, Robert L Tanguay, Staci L Massey Simonich, Lewis Semprini
Mycobacterium sp. ELW1 co-metabolically degraded up to 1.8 μmol of phenanthrene (PHE) in ∼48 h, and hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPHE) metabolites, including 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE), 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OHPHE), 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (4-OHPHE), 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-OHPHE), 9,10-dihydroxyphenanthrene (1,9-OHPHE), and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (trans-9,10-OHPHE), were identified and quantified over time. The monooxygenase responsible for co-metabolic transformation of PHE was inhibited by 1-octyne...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725053/cyclic-di-gmp-regulates-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistance-to-ethionamide
#4
Hai-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Wei Xu, He-Wei Jiang, Fan-Lin Wu, Xiang He, Yin Liu, Shu-Juan Guo, Yang Li, Li-Jun Bi, Jiao-Yu Deng, Xian-En Zhang, Sheng-Ce Tao
Tuberculosis is still on the top of infectious diseases list on both mobility and mortality, especially due to drug-resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Ethionamide (ETH) is one of effective second line anti-TB drugs, a synthetic compound similar to isoniazid (INH) structurally, with existing severe problem of ETH resistance. ETH is a prodrug, which is activated by Etha inside M.tb, and etha is transcriptionally repressed by Ethr. We found that c-di-GMP could bind Ethr, enhanced the binding of Ethr to the promoter of etha, and then repressed the transcription of etha, thus caused resistance of M...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724962/novel-transcriptional-signatures-for-sputum-independent-diagnostics-of-tuberculosis-in-children
#5
John Espen Gjøen, Synne Jenum, Dhanasekaran Sivakumaran, Aparna Mukherjee, Ragini Macaden, Sushil K Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Marielle C Haks, Timothy Mark Doherty, Christian Ritz, Harleen M S Grewal
Pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is challenging to diagnose, confirmed by growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at best in 40% of cases. The WHO has assigned high priority to the development of non-sputum diagnostic tools. We therefore sought to identify transcriptional signatures in whole blood of Indian children, capable of discriminating intra-thoracic TB disease from other symptomatic illnesses. We investigated the expression of 198 genes in a training set, comprising 47 TB cases (19 definite/28 probable) and 36 asymptomatic household controls, and identified a 7- and a 10-transcript signature, both including NOD2, GBP5, IFITM1/3, KIF1B and TNIP1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724903/co-expression-network-analysis-of-toxin-antitoxin-loci-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-reveals-key-modulators-of-cellular-stress
#6
Amita Gupta, Balaji Venkataraman, Madavan Vasudevan, Kiran Gopinath Bankar
Research on toxin-antitoxin loci (TA loci) is gaining impetus due to their ubiquitous presence in bacterial genomes and their observed roles in stress survival, persistence and drug tolerance. The present study investigates the expression profile of all the seventy-nine TA loci found in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacterium was subjected to multiple stress conditions to identify key players of cellular stress response and elucidate a TA-coexpression network. This study provides direct experimental evidence for transcriptional activation of each of the seventy-nine TA loci following mycobacterial exposure to growth-limiting environments clearly establishing TA loci as stress-responsive modules in M...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724694/role-of-long-chain-acyl-coas-in-the-regulation-of-mycolic-acid-biosynthesis-in-mycobacteria
#7
Yi Ting Tsai, Valentina Salzman, Matías Cabruja, Gabriela Gago, Hugo Gramajo
One of the dominant features of the biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and other mycobacteria, is the mycobacterial cell envelope with its exceptional complex composition. Mycolic acids are major and very specific components of the cell envelope and play a key role in its architecture and impermeability. Biosynthesis of mycolic acid (MA) precursors requires two types of fatty acid synthases, FAS I and FAS II, which should work in concert in order to keep lipid homeostasis tightly regulated. Both FAS systems are regulated at their transcriptional level by specific regulatory proteins...
July 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724491/comparison-of-antemortem-and-environmental-samples-for-zebrafish-health-monitoring-and-quarantine
#8
Marcus J Crim, Christian Lawrence, Robert S Livingston, Andrei Rakitin, Shane J Hurley, Lela K Riley
Molecular diagnostic assays offer both exquisite sensitivity and the ability to test a wide variety of sample types. Various types of environmental sample, such as detritus and concentrated water, might provide a useful adjunct to sentinels in routine zebrafish health monitoring. Similarly, antemortem sampling would be advantageous for expediting zebrafish quarantine, without euthanasia of valuable fish. We evaluated the detection of Mycobacterium chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, and Pseudoloma neurophilia in zebrafish, detritus, pooled feces, and filter membranes after filtration of 1000-, 500-, and 150-mL water samples by real-time PCR analysis...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724483/using-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-infectious-disease-research
#9
Mitchell V Palmer, Rebecca J Cox, W Ray Waters, Tyler C Thacker, Diana L Whipple
Between 1940 and 2004, more than 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported in the scientific literature. The majority (60%) of these events involved zoonoses, most of which (72%) were of wildlife origin or had an epidemiologically important wildlife host. Because this trend of increasing emerging diseases likely will continue, understanding the pathogenesis, transmission, and diagnosis of these diseases in the relevant wildlife host is paramount. Achieving this goal often requires using wild animals as research subjects, which are vastly different from the traditional livestock or laboratory animals used by most universities and institutions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723969/matrixlysis-an-improved-sample-preparation-method-for-recovery-of-mycobacteria-from-animal-tissue-material
#10
Christoph Leth, Ashok Varadharajan, Patrick Mester, Marlis Fischaleck, Peter Rossmanith, Friedrich Schmoll, Maria Fink
Mycobacterium caprae, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is the main causative agent of bovine tuberculosis in alpine regions. Bacterial culture is the gold standard in bovine tuberculosis diagnostic but takes up to twelve weeks. This increases the time and costs for stocks affected with bovine tuberculosis. Hence this study focused on the implementation of a fast and precise mycobacterial detection method and compared it with currently used methods. Matrix lysis is a chemical lysis using high concentrations of urea to solubilize bovine and red deer tissue and was used to detect even smallest amounts or non-visible lesions of mycobacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723869/chronic-disseminated-salmonellosis-in-a-patient-with-interleukin-12p40-deficiency
#11
Emadia Mohammad Alaki, Fahad Aljobair, Faisal Alaklobi, Mobarak Al Shamrani, Fahad Al-Zahim, Aziza Dongues, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Interleukin (IL)-12 is composed of p35 and p40 subunit, in this case IL-12p40 deficiency is a rare genetic etiology of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Salmonellosis has been reported in almost half of these patients and mostly present in recurrent extra intestinal form. In this report, we described an 18 month old boy with absence of IL12p40 production suffering from chronic disseminated non-typhoidal salmonellosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case.
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723785/asymptomatic-congenital-tuberculosis-a-case-report
#12
Patrick M Meyer Sauteur, Ewerton Marques-Maggio, Christa Relly, Peter M Keller, Christian F Clarenbach, Christoph Berger
RATIONALE: Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is described as a rare, but severe disease. In contrast to the cases with severe symptoms reported so far, we describe a child with asymptomatic congenital TB. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 8-week-old girl was investigated because of newly diagnosed TB in her mother, which complained about cough since 21 weeks gestation. Lung biopsy tissue specimens of the mother revealed necrotizing granuloma with a single acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was detected by polymerase chain reaction...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723103/synthesis-of-a-tiacumicin-b-protected-aglycone
#13
Louis Jeanne-Julien, Guillaume Masson, Eloi Astier, Grégory Genta-Jouve, Vincent Servajean, Jean-Marie Beau, Stéphanie Norsikian, Emmanuel Roulland
Tiacumicin B is an antibiotic endowed with the remarkable ability to interact with a new biological target, giving it an inestimable potential in the context of the ever-growing and worrisome appearance of resistances of bacteria and mycobacteria to antibiotics. The synthesis of an aglycone of tiacumicin B ready for glycosylation is reported. The key steps of this approach are a [2,3]-Wittig rearrangement, a Pd/Cu-catalyzed allene-alkyne cross-coupling, a E-selective cross-metathesis, and a final ring-size selective macrolactonization...
July 19, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722603/molecular-characterization-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-with-tb-sprint
#14
Barbara Molina-Moya, Michel Kiréopori Gomgnimbou, Carmen Lafoz, Alicia Lacoma, Cristina Prat, Guislaine Refrégier, Sofia Samper, Jose Dominguez, Christophe Sola
We evaluated Tuberculosis-Spoligo-Rifampicin-Isoniazid Typing (TB-SPRINT), a microbead-based method for spoligotyping and detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For that, 67 M. tuberculosis complex strains were retrospectively selected. Membrane-based spoligotyping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, DNA sequencing/pyrosequencing of rpoB, katG, and inhA promoter, TB-SPRINT, and SNP typing were performed. Concordance between spoligotyping methods was 99.6% (2,785/2,795 spoligotype data points)...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722570/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-close-childhood-contacts-of-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-is-increased-by-secondhand-exposure-to-tobacco
#15
Ifedayo M O Adetifa, Lindsay Kendall, Simon Donkor, Moses D Lugos, Abdulrahman S Hammond, Patrick K Owiafe, Martin O C Ota, Roger H Brookes, Philip C Hill
Tobacco use is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also a risk factor for TB and to a lesser extent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection without disease. We investigated the added risk of M. tuberculosis infection due to SHS exposure in childhood contacts of TB cases in The Gambia. Participants were childhood household contacts aged ≤ 14 years of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. The intensity of exposure to the case was categorized according to whether contacts slept in the same room, same house, or a different house as the case...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721934/contribution-of-brain-ct-in-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-meningitis-a-case-report-from-djibouti
#16
M Garetier, N C Roche, C Longin, P Clapson, A Benois, J Rousset
Tuberculous meningitis, a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity, remains frequent in countries with endemic tuberculosis. Its non-specific presentation often delays the introduction of appropriate treatment. Its definitive diagnosis requires isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from cerebrospinal fluid, although this test may be negative without conclusively ruling out this diagnosis. A presumptive diagnosis should be reached as soon as possible through a body of clinical evidence, including the lumbar puncture findings...
July 19, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721191/small-bowel-obstruction-due-to-mesenteric-abscess-caused-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-in-an-hiv-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
S M Mohar, Saqib Saeed, Alexius Ramcharan, Hector Depaz
Small bowel obstruction in HIV patients is reportedly caused by inflammatory pseudotumor, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptococcal lymphadenopathy and intestinal tuberculosis. The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in HIV patients is 3% for CD4 cell count of 100-199 /mm(3). MAC causing small bowel obstruction is rarely reported in the literature. We report a rare case of MAC causing mesenteric abscess with small bowel obstruction in a HIV patient with a CD4 cell count of 144 /mm(3). Patient was a 35-year-old HIV-positive male on highly active antiretroviral therapy who presented with partial small bowel obstruction secondary to mesenteric abscess...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720801/mapping-and-characterization-of-g-quadruplexes-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-gene-promoter-regions
#18
Rosalba Perrone, Enrico Lavezzo, Erika Riello, Riccardo Manganelli, Giorgio Palù, Stefano Toppo, Roberta Provvedi, Sara N Richter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide in 2015. The recent emergence of strains resistant to all current drugs urges the development of compounds with new mechanisms of action. G-quadruplexes are nucleic acids secondary structures that may form in G-rich regions to epigenetically regulate cellular functions. Here we implemented a computational tool to scan the presence of putative G-quadruplex forming sequences in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and analyse their association to transcription start sites...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720766/predicting-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis-based-on-gene-expression-profiling-in-dendritic-cells
#19
John D Blischak, Ludovic Tailleux, Marsha Myrthil, Cécile Charlois, Emmanuel Bergot, Aurélien Dinh, Gloria Morizot, Olivia Chény, Cassandre Von Platen, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Roland Brosch, Luis B Barreiro, Yoav Gilad
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious disease, which kills millions of people every year. The causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is estimated to have infected up to a third of the world's population; however, only approximately 10% of infected healthy individuals progress to active TB. Despite evidence for heritability, it is not currently possible to predict who may develop TB. To explore approaches to classify susceptibility to TB, we infected with MTB dendritic cells (DCs) from putatively resistant individuals diagnosed with latent TB, and from susceptible individuals that had recovered from active TB...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720750/tuberculous-psoas-abscess-and-worsening-vascular-aneurysm-all-from-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-therapy
#20
Emmanuel Okon, Janelle Stearns, Arun Kumar Durgam
BACKGROUND Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder and for the prophylaxis of primary or recurrent stage Ta and T1 papillary tumors following transurethral resection. Significant systemic complications are rare but have been reported. CASE REPORT We describe this case of Mycobacterium bovis psoas abscess and worsening abdominal aortic aneurysm following BCG therapy for bladder cancer. A 76-year-old male presented with a fever of a few days...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
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