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Behrouz Golichenari, Rahim Nosrati, Aref Farokhi-Fard, Khalil Abnous, Farzam Vaziri, Javad Behravan
Tuberculosis is a major global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex. According to WHO reports, 53 million TB patients died from 2000 to 2016. Therefore, early diagnosis of the disease is of great importance for global health care programs. The restrictions of traditional methods have encouraged the development of innovative methods for rapid, reliable, and cost-effective diagnosis of tuberculosis. In recent years, aptamer-based biosensors or aptasensors have drawn great attention to sensitive and accessible detection of tuberculosis...
June 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Muhammad Hasan, Alice E R Fayter, Matthew I Gibson
All modern molecular biology and microbiology is underpinned not only by the tools to handle and manipulate microorganisms, but also those to store, bank and transport them. Glycerol is the current gold-standard cryoprotectant but it is intrinsically toxic to most micro-organisms: only a fraction of cells survive freezing and the presence of glycerol can impact down-stream applications and assays. Extremophile organisms survive repeated freeze/thaw cycles by producing antifreeze proteins which are potent ice recrystallization inhibitors...
June 22, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Mitsunori Yoshida, Hanako Fukano, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Yuko Kazumi, Satoshi Mitarai, Tetsuya Hayashi, Yoshihiko Hoshino
Mycobacterium shigaense is a slowly growing scotochromogenic species and a member of the Mycobacterium simiae complex group. Here, we report the complete sequence of its genome, comprising a 5.2-Mb chromosome. The sequence will represent the essential data for future phylogenetic and comparative genome studies of the Mycobacterium simiae complex group.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Ana Laura Guillén-Nepita, Andrea Monserrat Negrete-Paz, Gerardo Vázquez-Marrufo, Andrés Cruz-Hernández, Pablo Fresia, Hugo Naya, Ma Soledad Vázquez-Garcidueñas
Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain MYC004 was isolated from a Mexican patient with tuberculous meningitis, the most aggressive form of tuberculosis. The draft genome sequence is the first of a meningeal strain of M. tuberculosis reported from Latin America and consists of 4,411,530 bp, including 4,251 protein-encoding genes.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Swarupa M Hatolkar, Rabindra N Misra, Rajesh Mahato, Savita Jadhav
Whole-genome sequencing has emerged as a powerful tool to map genetic diversity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and identify the genomic signatures associated with drug resistance, pathogenesis, and disease transmission. Isolate LJ319 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC)-Beijing genotype circulating in Maharashtra, India, which was obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of an immunocompetent patient, was subjected to whole-genome sequencing.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Jumpei Uchiyama, Keijiro Mizukami, Koji Yahara, Shin-Ichiro Kato, Hironobu Murakami, Tadahiro Nasukawa, Naoya Ohara, Midori Ogawa, Toshio Yamazaki, Shigenobu Matsuzaki, Masahiro Sakaguchi
Using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155, 12 siphoviruses were recovered from long-term archival stocks stored in Japan. Their genome sequences were 46.0 to 61.3 kbp with 63 to 68% G+C contents, which allowed them to be categorized within cluster W and subclusters A1, A2, B3, A7, I1, and K4.
June 21, 2018: Genome Announcements
Hong-Tae Park, Hyun-Eui Park, Woo Bin Park, Suji Kim, Young-Hoon Jung, Han Sang Yoo
The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) obtained from individual cows in Korea. Twelve MAP-positive fecal DNA samples and 19 MAP isolates were obtained from 10 cattle herds located in 5 provinces in Korea. In addition to this, 5 MAP isolates were obtained from the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and 3 were from Australia were used for typing to compare with the domestic isolates. The most prevalent strains in Korea were the "bison-type" genotype (23 out of the 31 fecal DNA/isolates) and distributed nationwide...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
Prachi Kulkarni, Nathan D Olson, Joseph N Paulson, Mihai Pop, Cynthia Maddox, Emma Claye, Rachel E Rosenberg Goldstein, Manan Sharma, Shawn G Gibbs, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Amy R Sapkota
Water recycling continues to expand across the United States, from areas that have access to advanced, potable-level treated reclaimed water, to those having access only to reclaimed water treated at conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants. This expansion makes it important to further characterize the microbial quality of these conventionally-treated water sources. Therefore, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize total bacterial communities present in differentially-treated wastewater and reclaimed water (n = 67 samples) from four U...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Eusondia Arnett, Ashlee M Weaver, Kiersten C Woodyard, Maria J Montoya, Michael Li, Ky V Hoang, Andrew Hayhurst, Abul K Azad, Larry S Schlesinger
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ is a global transcriptional regulator associated with anti-inflammatory actions. It is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages (AMs), which are unable to clear the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Although M.tb infection induces PPARγ in human macrophages, which contributes to M.tb growth, the mechanisms underlying this are largely unknown. We undertook NanoString gene expression analysis to identify novel PPARγ effectors that condition macrophages to be more susceptible to M...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
V A Zinserling, M M Agapov, A N Orlov
Carbol fuchsin (Ziehl-Neelsen) staining is a major method used since the late nineteenth century to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the tissues. At the same time, the number of mycobacteria does not frequently show a clinical and morphological correspondence to the activity of the infectious process. OBJECTIVE: To reveal the morphological characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with long-lasting tuberculosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four autopsies of verified fibrous-cavernous tuberculosis were examined...
2018: Arkhiv Patologii
Sungweon Ryu, Jeongsoo Lee, Jee Youn Oh, Byeong Ki Kim, Young Kim, Je Hyeong Kim, Chol Shin, Seung Heon Lee
BACKGROUND: The number of immigrants with tuberculosis (TB) increases each year in South Korea. Determining the transmission dynamics based on whole genome sequencing (WGS) to cluster the strains has been challenging. METHODS: WGS, annotation refinement, and orthology assignment for the GenBank accession number acquisition were performed on two clinical isolates from Chinese immigrants. In addition, the genomes of the two isolates were compared with the genomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, from two native Korean and five native Chinese individuals using a phylogenetic topology tree based on the Multiple Alignment of Conserved Genomic Sequence with Rearrangements (Mauve) package...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Andreas U Müller, Frank Imkamp, Eilika Weber-Ban
Mycobacteria exhibit two DNA damage response pathways: the LexA/RecA-dependent SOS response and a LexA/RecA-independent pathway. Using a combination of transcriptomics and genome-wide binding site analysis, we demonstrate that PafBC (proteasome accessory factor B and C), encoded in the Pup-proteasome system (PPS) gene locus, is the transcriptional regulator of the predominant LexA/RecA-independent pathway. Comparison of the resulting PafBC regulon with the DNA damage response of Mycobacterium smegmatis reveals that the majority of induced DNA repair genes are upregulated by PafBC...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Yuqing Wu, Erich Gulbins, Heike Grassmé
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the deadliest and most important infectious diseases worldwide. The sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, which has been shown several times to be a crucial factor in the internalization, processing, and killing of diverse pathogens, also modulates the pro-inflammatory response and the state of mycobacteria in macrophages. Both acid and neutral sphingomyelinases are important in this activity. However, studies of the role of sphingomyelinases in TB are still at an early stage...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Farzad Khademi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Ramezan Ali Taheri
A promising strategy for preventing illness and death caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is vaccination. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the capacity of a multicomponent vaccine comprising HspX/EsxS-fused protein, PLGA (poly (lactide-co-glycolide)) and DOTAP (1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane) in eliciting immune responses against Mtb in BALB/c mice. A preparation of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) containing fused protein and DOTAP adjuvant was made using double emulsion solvent evaporation (w/o/w) and lipid film hydration methods, respectively...
June 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Nathaly Cortez-Bazán, Jennifer R Delgado, Omar Galdos, Luis Huicho
Pott's disease is a health problem in developing countries and its diagnosis in children is a challenge. Here we present the case of a two-year-old boy with Pott's disease involving T1 to T3 thoracic vertebrae. The clinical presentation was characterized by difficulty walking, fever, cough, and dyspnea. At physical examination, kyphosis and bony prominence were observed in the cervicodorsal area. A positive tuberculin test was obtained, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated via culture of the gastric aspiration sample...
January 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Jonathan P Jacobs, Tien S Dong, Vatche Agopian, Venu Lagishetty, Vinay Sundaram, Mazen Noureddin, Walid Ayoub, Francisco Durazo, Jihane Benhammou, Pedram Enayati, David Elashoff, Marc T Goodman, Joseph Pisegna, Shehnaz Hussain
AIM: Cirrhosis is a leading cause of death in the world, yet there are no well-established risk stratifying tools for lethal complications including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with liver cirrhosis undergo routine endoscopic surveillance, providing ready access to duodenal aspirate samples which may be a source for identifying novel biomarkers. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiome and bile acid profiles in duodenal aspirates from patients with liver cirrhosis to demonstrate feasibility of developing biomarkers for HCC risk stratification...
June 20, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Kiran Chawla, Ajay Kumar, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Devendra Singh Chauhan, Pragya Sharma
Background & objectives: Despite high occurrence of tuberculosis in India very little information is available about the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates prevailing in coastal Karnataka, India. Thus, the present study was undertaken to explore the genetic biodiversity of M. tuberculosis isolates prevailing in south coastal region of Karnataka (Udupi District), India. Methods: A total of 111 Mycobacterial isolates were cultured in Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium and after obtaining growth, DNA was extracted and spoligotyping was performed...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Francesco Santoro, Elena Pettini, Dmitri Kazmin, Annalisa Ciabattini, Fabio Fiorino, Gregor D Gilfillan, Ida M Evenroed, Peter Andersen, Gianni Pozzi, Donata Medaglini
Transcriptomic profiling of the immune response induced by vaccine adjuvants is of critical importance for the rational design of vaccination strategies. In this study, transcriptomics was employed to profile the effect of the vaccine adjuvant used for priming on the immune response following re-exposure to the vaccine antigen alone. Mice were primed with the chimeric vaccine antigen H56 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis administered alone or with the CAF01 adjuvant and boosted with the antigen alone. mRNA sequencing was performed on blood samples collected 1, 2, and 7 days after priming and after boosting...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ana Victoria Gutiérrez, Albertus Viljoen, Eric Ghigo, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly-growing species causing a diverse panel of clinical manifestations, ranging from cutaneous infections to severe respiratory disease. Its unique cell wall, contributing largely to drug resistance and to pathogenicity, comprises a vast panoply of complex lipids, among which the glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) have been the focus of intense research. These lipids fulfill various important functions, from sliding motility or biofilm formation to interaction with host cells and intramacrophage trafficking...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sonam Grover, Tarina Sharma, Yadvir Singh, Sakshi Kohli, Manjunath P, Aditi Singh, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Karsten Tedin, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causal organism of tuberculosis (TB), encodes a unique protein family known as the PE/PPE/PGRS family, present exclusively in the genus Mycobacterium and nowhere else in the living kingdom, with largely unexplored functions. We describe the functional significance of the PGRS domain of Rv0297, a member of this family. In silico analyses revealed the presence of intrinsically disordered stretches and putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization signals in the PGRS domain of Rv0297 (Rv0297PGRS)...
June 19, 2018: MBio
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