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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352472/the-bioequivalence-of-a-single-intravenous-administration-of-the-anesthetic-alfaxalone-in-cyclodextrin-versus-alfaxalone-in-cyclodextrin-plus-preservatives-in-cats
#1
K Pasloske, M G Ranasinghe, S Sauer, J Hare
To demonstrate the bioequivalence of alfaxalone in cyclodextrin (Reference Product) to a formulation of alfaxalone in cyclodextrin also containing the preservatives ethanol, chlorocresol, and benzethonium chloride (Test Product) when administered for the purpose of inducing anesthesia in the cat. Blinded, single-dose, randomized, two-period, two-sequence, cross-over bioequivalence study with a 7-day washout period between treatments. Twenty-four (12 neutered males and 12 intact females), healthy, adult cats weighing 4...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352405/virus-particle-detection-by-convolutional-neural-network-in-transmission-electron-microscopy-images
#2
Eisuke Ito, Takaaki Sato, Daisuke Sano, Etsuko Utagawa, Tsuyoshi Kato
A new computational method for the detection of virus particles in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is presented. Our approach is to use a convolutional neural network that transforms a TEM image to a probabilistic map that indicates where virus particles exist in the image. Our proposed approach automatically and simultaneously learns both discriminative features and classifier for virus particle detection by machine learning, in contrast to existing methods that are based on handcrafted features that yield many false positives and require several postprocessing steps...
January 19, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351945/concurrent-endocrine-neoplasias-in-dogs-and-cats-a-retrospective-study-2004-2014
#3
Laura Beatrice, Felicitas Schär Boretti, Nadja S Sieber-Ruckstuhl, Claudia Mueller, Claudia Kümmerle-Fraune, Monika Hilbe, Paula Grest, Claudia E Reusch
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is a well-known syndrome in human medicine, whereas only a few cases of concurrent endocrine neoplasias have been reported in dogs and cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of concurrent endocrine neoplasias in dogs and cats at our clinic, identify possible breed and sex predispositions and investigate similarities with MEN syndromes in humans. Postmortem reports of 951 dogs and 1155 cats that died or were euthanased at the Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, University of Zurich, between 2004 and 2014 were reviewed, and animals with at least two concurrent endocrine neoplasias and/or hyperplasias were included...
January 19, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351768/overweight-in-adult-cats-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Malin Öhlund, Malin Palmgren, Bodil Ström Holst
BACKGROUND: Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors...
January 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351740/population-size-may-shape-the-accumulation-of-functional-mutations-following-domestication
#5
Jianhai Chen, Pan Ni, Xinyun Li, Jianlin Han, Ivan Jakovlić, Chengjun Zhang, Shuhong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Population genetics theory predicts an important role of differences in the effective population size (N e ) among species on shaping the accumulation of functional mutations by regulating the selection efficiency. However, this correlation has never been tested in domesticated animals. RESULTS: Here, we synthesized 62 whole genome data in eight domesticated species (cat, dog, pig, goat, sheep, chicken, cattle and horse) and compared domesticates with their wild (or ancient) relatives...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351466/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-protects-against-angiotensin-ii-induced-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction
#6
Karima Ait-Aissa, Andrew O Kadlec, Joseph Hockenberry, David D Gutterman, Andreas M Beyer
A rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to cardiovascular disease by reducing nitric oxide (NO) levels, leading to loss of NO's vasodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. Although primarily studied in the larger conduit arteries, excess ROS release and a corresponding loss of NO also occurs in the smaller resistance arteries of the microcirculation, but underlying mechanisms and therapeutic targets have not been fully characterized. We examined whether either of the two subunits of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) or telomerase RNA component (TERC), affect microvascular ROS production and peak vasodilation at baseline and in response to in vivo administration to angiotensin II (ANG II)...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351230/comparison-of-antioxidative-effects-of-insect-tea-and-its-raw-tea-kuding-tea-polyphenols-in-kunming-mice
#7
Xin Zhao, Jia-Le Song, Ruokun Yi, Guijie Li, Peng Sun, Kun-Young Park, Huayi Suo
Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351226/curcumin-attenuates-on-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice-via-modulation-of-the-nrf2-ho-1-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway
#8
Xinyan Peng, Chongshan Dai, Quanwen Liu, Junke Li, Jingru Qiu
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced acute liver injury in a mouse model, and to explain the underlying mechanism. Curcumin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day were administered orally once daily for seven days prior to CCl₄ exposure. At 24 h, curcumin-attenuated CCl₄ induced elevated serum transaminase activities and histopathological damage in the mouse's liver. Curcumin pre-treatment at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly ameliorated CCl₄-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) formations, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) content, followed by a decrease in caspase-9 and -3 activities...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350588/arguments-against-the-role-of-cortical-spreading-depression-in-migraine
#9
Piet Borgdorff
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a wave of increased electrocortical activity and vasodilation, followed by sustained decreased activity and prolonged vasoconstriction. Although the discovery of CSD has been ascribed to Leão, rather than vasoconstriction, he only observed a depression of neural activity combined with vasodilation, with much weaker stimulation than used by his followers. There is a longstanding belief that CSD underlies migraine aura, with its positive symptoms such as mosaic patterns and its negative symptoms such as scotoma, and a similar propagation speed and vasoreaction pattern...
January 19, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350377/melatonin-exhibits-supportive-effects-on-oxidants-and-anastomotic-healing-during-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#10
Namık Özkan, Ömer Faik Ersoy, Zeki Özsoy, Ebru Çakır
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on intestinal anastomosis after intestinal ischemia/ reperfusion injury (IRI). METHODS: Thirty Wistar albino rats of both sexes were divided into 3 groups: sham, control, and treatment. IRI was performed by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 30 minutes, followed by reperfusion. The sham rats received only manipulation of the SMA. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) was administered to the treatment group, and the control group was given a vehicle injection...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349677/mercuric-chloride-induced-ovarian-oxidative-stress-by-suppressing-nrf2-keap1-signal-pathway-and-its-downstream-genes-in-laying-hens
#11
Yan Ma, Mingkun Zhu, Liping Miao, Xiaoyun Zhang, Xinyang Dong, Xiaoting Zou
The present study evaluated the effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) on follicular atresia rate, sex hormone secretion, and ovarian oxidative stress in laying hens. Antioxidant enzyme genes and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) signal pathway were further studied to uncover the molecular mechanism. A total of 768 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated to four treatments with eight pens per treatment and 24 hens of each pen...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348067/physiological-response-and-transcription-profiling-analysis-reveals-the-role-of-h2s-in-alleviating-excess-nitrate-stress-tolerance-in-tomato-roots
#12
Zhaolai Guo, Yuanlin Liang, Jinping Yan, En Yang, Kunzhi Li, Huini Xu
Soil secondary salinization caused by excess nitrate addition is one of the major obstacles in greenhouse vegetable production. Excess nitrate inhibited the growth of tomato plants, while application of 100 μM H2S donor NaHS efficiently increased the plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, root length, endogenous H2S contents and L-cysteine desulfhydrases activities. NaHS altered the oxidative status of nitrate-stressed plants as inferred by changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and lipid peroxidation accompanied by regulation of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX)...
January 11, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347954/a-reverse-vaccinology-approach-to-the-identification-and-characterization-of-ctenocephalides-felis-candidate-protective-antigens-for-the-control-of-cat-flea-infestations
#13
Marinela Contreras, Margarita Villar, Sara Artigas-Jerónimo, Lidiia Kornieieva, Sergіі Mуtrofanov, José de la Fuente
BACKGROUND: Despite the abundance of the domestic cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché, 1835) and disease risks associated with them, flea control is difficult and requires the development of new control interventions such as vaccines. In this study, a reverse vaccinology approach was designed to achieve a rational selection of cat flea candidate protective antigens. METHODS: Based on transcriptomics and proteomics data from unfed adult fleas it was possible to select more specific candidate protective antigens based on highly represented and functionally relevant proteins present in the predicted exoproteome...
January 18, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347940/domestic-feline-contribution-in-the-transmission-of-sporothrix-in-rio-de-janeiro-state-brazil-a-comparison-between-infected-and-non-infected-populations
#14
Pãmella A Macêdo-Sales, Simone R L S Souto, Carolina A Destefani, Ricardo P Lucena, Ricardo Luiz D Machado, Marcia R Pinto, Anderson M Rodrigues, Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Elisabeth M S Rocha, Andréa Regina S Baptista
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by pathogenic fungi belonging to the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In Rio de Janeiro state, this disease reached an epidemic status with over 4700 domestic felines and around 4000 humans affected since the mid-90s. The present study evaluated clinical and epidemiological aspects and also the frequency of colonization and infection by these fungi in healthy cats and among those with suspicious cutaneous lesions, inhabiting four Rio de Janeiro state distinct areas...
January 18, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347401/transport-on-intermediate-time-scales-in-flows-with-cat-s-eye-patterns
#15
Patrick Pöschke, Igor M Sokolov, Michael A Zaks, Alexander A Nepomnyashchy
We consider the advection-diffusion transport of tracers in a one-parameter family of plane periodic flows where the patterns of streamlines feature regions of confined circulation in the shape of "cat's eyes," separated by meandering jets with ballistic motion inside them. By varying the parameter, we proceed from the regular two-dimensional lattice of eddies without jets to the sinusoidally modulated shear flow without eddies. When a weak thermal noise is added, i.e., at large Péclet numbers, several intermediate time scales arise, with qualitatively and quantitatively different transport properties: depending on the parameter of the flow, the initial position of a tracer, and the aging time, motion of the tracers ranges from subdiffusive to superballistic...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347316/quantum-and-classical-complexity-in-coupled-maps
#16
Pablo D Bergamasco, Gabriel G Carlo, Alejandro M F Rivas
We study a generic and paradigmatic two-degrees-of-freedom system consisting of two coupled perturbed cat maps with different types of dynamics. The Wigner separability entropy (WSE)-equivalent to the operator space entanglement entropy-and the classical separability entropy (CSE) are used as measures of complexity. For the case where both degrees of freedom are hyperbolic, the maps are classically ergodic and the WSE and the CSE behave similarly, growing to higher values than in the doubly elliptic case. However, when one map is elliptic and the other hyperbolic, the WSE reaches the same asymptotic value than that of the doubly hyperbolic case but at a much slower rate...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346627/severe-and-protracted-sleep-disruptions-in-mouse-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Increasing evidences suggest that the predator threat model is a valid animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, sleep has never been examined in this model. Since sleep disturbances, including insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, are severe and protracted symptoms of PTSD, we hypothesized that mice exposed to predator odor trauma (POT) will display contextual fear conditioning along with severe and protracted sleep disruptions.Adult male C57BL/6J mice, instrumented with wire electrodes [to record hippocampal field potentials (LFP) and nuchal muscle (EMG) activity], were exposed to contextual conditioning using soiled cat litter as unconditional stimulus (US)...
January 13, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346569/controlled-antenatal-thyroid-screening-ii-effect-of-treating-maternal-sub-optimal-thyroid-function-on-child-cognition
#18
Charlotte Hales, Peter N Taylor, Sue Channon, Ruth Paradice, Kirsten McEwan, Lei Zhang, Michael Gyedu, Ameen Bakhsh, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Ilaria Muller, Mohd S Draman, John W Gregory, Colin Dayan, John H Lazarus, D Aled Rees, Marian Ludgate
Context & Objective: The Controlled Antenatal Thyroid Screening (CATS) study investigated treatment for suboptimal gestational thyroid function (SGTF) on childhood cognition and found no difference in IQ at 3 years between children of treated and untreated SGTF mothers. We have measured IQ in the same children at age 9.5-years and included children from normal-GTF mothers. Design, Setting & Participants: One examiner, blinded to participant group, assessed children's IQ (WISC-IV), long-term memory and motor function (NEPSY-II) from children of 119 treated and 98 untreated SGTF mothers plus children of 232 mothers with normal-GTF...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346563/lc3-immunostaining-in-the-inferior-olivary-nuclei-of-cats-with-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-is-associated-with-patterned-purkinje-cell-loss
#19
Brittney L Gurda, Jessica H Bagel, Samantha J Fisher, Mark L Schultz, Andrew P Lieberman, Peter Hand, Charles H Vite, Gary P Swain
The feline model of Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) recapitulates the clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical abnormalities present in children with NPC1. The hallmarks of disease are the lysosomal storage of unesterified cholesterol and multiple sphingolipids in neurons, and the spatial and temporal distribution of Purkinje cell death. In feline NPC1 brain, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) accumulations, indicating autophagosomes, were found within axons and presynaptic terminals...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346439/interspecies-diversity-of-chloride-channel-regulators-calcium-activated-3-genes
#20
Lars Mundhenk, Nancy A Erickson, Nikolai Klymiuk, Achim D Gruber
Members of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family, have been implicated in diverse biomedical conditions, including chronic inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis, the activation of macrophages, and the growth and metastatic spread of tumor cells. Several observations, however, could not be repeated across species boundaries and increasing evidence suggests that select CLCA genes are particularly prone to dynamic species-specific evolvements...
2018: PloS One
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