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Post traumatic encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042562/cis-p-tau-is-induced-in-clinical-and-preclinical-brain-injury-and-contributes-to-post-injury-sequelae
#1
Onder Albayram, Asami Kondo, Rebekah Mannix, Colin Smith, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Chenyu Li, Megan K Herbert, Jianhua Qiu, Michael Monuteaux, Jane Driver, Sandra Yan, William Gormley, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Julian Bailes, William Meehan, Mark Zeidel, Kun Ping Lu, Xiao Zhen Zhou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by acute neurological dysfunction and associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and Alzheimer's disease. We previously showed that cis phosphorylated tau (cis P-tau), but not the trans form, contributes to tau pathology and functional impairment in an animal model of severe TBI. Here we found that in human samples obtained post TBI due to a variety of causes, cis P-tau is induced in cortical axons and cerebrospinal fluid and positively correlates with axonal injury and clinical outcome...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981345/injury-cascades-in-tbi-related-neurodegeneration
#2
Steven T DeKosky, Breton M Asken
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a widely recognized risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the state of the science related to injury cascades in TBI-related neurodegeneration. Acute and chronic pathological outcomes of TBI are similar to those seen in several neurodegenerative conditions, suggesting common linking pathways. Initial research described severe TBI patients with post-mortem identification of abnormal proteins, such as amyloid deposits. History of mild TBI (mTBI) is less consistently associated with heightened risk of neurodegenerative outcomes, but specific populations with complicated medical histories and comorbidities may be more susceptible...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950005/ccl11-is-increased-in-the-cns-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-but-not-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jonathan D Cherry, Thor D Stein, Yorghos Tripodis, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand R Huber, Rhoda Au, Patrick T Kiernan, Daniel H Daneshvar, Jesse Mez, Todd M Solomon, Michael L Alosco, Ann C McKee
CCL11, a protein previously associated with age-associated cognitive decline, is observed to be increased in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) compared to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a cohort of 23 deceased American football players with neuropathologically verified CTE, 50 subjects with neuropathologically diagnosed AD, and 18 non-athlete controls, CCL11 was measured with ELISA in the dorsolateral frontal cortex (DLFC) and CSF. CCL11 levels were significantly increased in the DLFC in subjects with CTE (fold change = 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937952/modeling-the-long-term-consequences-of-repeated-blast-induced-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries
#4
Denes V Agoston
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) caused by playing collision sports or by exposure to blasts during military operations can lead to late onset, chronic diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative condition that manifests in increasingly severe neuropsychiatric abnormalities years after the last injury. Currently, because of the heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, confirmation of a CTE diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of the brain. The hallmarks of CTE are abnormal accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein, TDP-43 immunoreactive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions, and astroglial abnormalities, but the pathomechanism leading to these terminal findings remains unknown...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920887/the-chronic-and-evolving-neurological-consequences-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
REVIEW
Lindsay Wilson, William Stewart, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Lindsay Horton, David K Menon, Suzanne Polinder
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have lifelong and dynamic effects on health and wellbeing. Research on the long-term consequences emphasises that, for many patients, TBI should be conceptualised as a chronic health condition. Evidence suggests that functional outcomes after TBI can show improvement or deterioration up to two decades after injury, and rates of all-cause mortality remain elevated for many years. Furthermore, TBI represents a risk factor for a variety of neurological illnesses, including epilepsy, stroke, and neurodegenerative disease...
October 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920532/the-impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-on-later-life-effects-on-normal-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Grace S Griesbach, Brent E Masel, Richard E Helvie, Mark J Ashley
The acute and chronic effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been widely described; however, there is limited knowledge on how a TBI sustained during early adulthood or mid-adulthood will influence aging. Epidemiological studies have explored whether TBI poses a risk for dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. We will discuss the influence of TBI and resulting medical comorbidities such as endocrine, sleep, and inflammatory disturbances on age-related gray and white matter changes and cognitive decline...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706860/targeted-temperature-management-in-neurological-intensive-care-unit
#7
REVIEW
Sombat Muengtaweepongsa, Winchana Srivilaithon
Targeted temperature management (TTM) shows the most promising neuroprotective therapy against hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In addition, TTM is also useful for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). HIE and elevated ICP are common catastrophic conditions in patients admitted in Neurologic intensive care unit (ICU). The most common cause of HIE is cardiac arrest. Randomized control trials demonstrate clinical benefits of TTM in patients with post-cardiac arrest. Although clinical benefit of ICP control by TTM in some specific critical condition, for an example in traumatic brain injury, is still controversial, efficacy of ICP control by TTM is confirmed by both in vivo and in vitro studies...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664614/evolving-concepts-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-as-a-neuropathological-entity
#8
Helen Ling, James W Neal, Tamas Revesz
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a long-term neurodegenerative consequence of repetitive head impacts which can only be definitively diagnosed in post-mortem. Recently, the consensus neuropathological criteria for the diagnosis of CTE was published requiring the presence of the accumulation of abnormal tau in neurons and astroglia distributed around small blood vessels at the depths of cortical sulci in an irregular pattern as the mandatory features. The clinical diagnosis and antemortem prediction of CTE pathology remain challenging if not impossible due to the common co-existing underlying neurodegenerative pathologies and the lack of specific clinical pointers and reliable biomarkers...
June 30, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649875/potential-benefits-of-zolpidem-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#9
REVIEW
Afsaneh Noormandi, Maryam Shahrokhi, Hossein Khalili
It has been suggested that zolpidem may arouse patients with decreased level of consciousness. Zolpidem may partially or even completely reverse abnormal cell metabolism following brain damage. In this article, available evidences regarding effects of zolpidem on disorders of consciousness were reviewed. Areas covered: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar as online databases...
September 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637381/role-of-caspase-3-mediated-apoptosis-in-chronic-caspase-3-cleaved-tau-accumulation-and-blood-brain-barrier-damage-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#10
Olena Y Glushakova, Andriy O Glushakov, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a significant risk factor for development of neurodegenerative disorders such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), and Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Chronic TBI is associated with several pathological features that are also characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, including tau pathologies, caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and microvascular alterations. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes following TBI in cleaved-caspase-3 and caspase-3-cleaved tau truncated at Asp421, and their relationships to cellular markers potentially associated with inflammation and blood-brain (BBB) barrier damage...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620825/flow-cytometric-characterization-of-t-cell-subsets-and-microglia-after-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#11
Ruojing Bai, Huabin Gao, Zhaoli Han, Shan Huang, Xintong Ge, Fanglian Chen, Ping Lei
Although, there is growing awareness in the progressive neurodegeneration of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, changes of immune reactions remain equivocal at best. Thus, in a clinically relevant rat repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) model, some immunologic cells (T cell subsets, microglia) in the injured brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In the injured brain, CD3(+) T cells showed a bimodal increase during 42 days post-injury (dpi). CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells firstly increased and then decreased, while CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells had reversed tendency...
June 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524178/transcriptome-analyses-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-show-alterations-in-protein-phosphatase-expression-associated-with-tauopathy
#12
Jeong-Sun Seo, Seungbok Lee, Jong-Yeon Shin, Yu Jin Hwang, Hyesun Cho, Seong-Keun Yoo, Yunha Kim, Sungsu Lim, Yun Kyung Kim, Eun Mi Hwang, Su Hyun Kim, Chong-Hyun Kim, Seung Jae Hyeon, Ji-Young Yun, Jihye Kim, Yona Kim, Victor E Alvarez, Thor D Stein, Junghee Lee, Dong Jin Kim, Jong-Il Kim, Neil W Kowall, Hoon Ryu, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with repetitive head injury and has distinctive neuropathological features that differentiate this disease from other neurodegenerative diseases. Intraneuronal tau aggregates, although they occur in different patterns, are diagnostic neuropathological features of CTE, but the precise mechanism of tauopathy is not known in CTE. We performed whole RNA sequencing analysis of post-mortem brain tissue from patients with CTE and compared the results to normal controls to determine the transcriptome signature changes associated with CTE...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478818/the-multi-factorial-origins-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte-symptomology-in-post-career-athletes-the-athlete-post-career-adjustment-ap-ca-model
#13
Michael Gaetz
CTE has two prominent components: the pathophysiology that is detected in the brain postmortem and the symptomology that is present in the interval between retirement and end of life. CTE symptomology has been noted to include memory difficulties, aggression, depression, explosivity, and executive dysfunction at early stages progressing to problems with attention, mood swings, visuospatial difficulties, confusion, progressive dementia, and suicidality (e.g. McKee et al. (2012), Omalu et al. (2010a-c), McKee et al...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434268/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-uch-l1-as-a-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-target-in-neurodegeneration-neurotrauma-and-neuro-injuries
#14
REVIEW
Kevin K Wang, Zhihui Yang, George Sarkis, Isabel Torres, Vijaya Raghavan
Since its discovery as a major CNS-abundant protein 25 years ago, Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has emerged as an important enzyme in regulating brain protein metabolism, by coupling to the proteasome pathway of protein degradation. Areas covered: UCH-L1 is implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson disease and other chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Also, UCH-L1 has been recently emerging as a biofluid-based biomarker for various forms of acute neurotrauma and CNS injury. Expert opinion: The loss of UCH-L1 activity coupled with the gain of proteinopathy function are linked to neurodegeneration such as Parkinsonism and Alzheimer's disease...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413156/exposure-of-the-amino-terminus-of-tau-is-a-pathological-event-in-multiple-tauopathies
#15
Benjamin Combs, Nicholas M Kanaan
Pathological changes to the tau protein, including conformational changes and aggregation, are major hallmarks of a group of neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies. Among the conformational changes are alterations involving the extreme amino terminus of the protein, known as the phosphatase-activating domain (PAD). Aberrant PAD exposure induces a signaling cascade that leads to disruption of axonal transport, a critical function for neuronal survival. Conformational display of PAD is an early marker of pathological tau in Alzheimer disease (AD), but its role in other tauopathies has yet to be firmly established...
June 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347679/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-the-cellular-sequela-to-repetitive-brain-injury
#16
REVIEW
Alexander R Vile, Leigh Atkinson
This review aims to integrate current literature on the pathogenic mechanisms of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) to create a multifactorial understanding of the disease. CTE is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, classed as a tauopathy, although it appears the pathogenic mechanisms are more complex than this. It affects those with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. Currently, there are no treatments for CTE and the disease can only be affirmatively diagnosed in post mortem. Understanding the pathogenesis of the disease will provide an avenue to explore possible treatment and diagnostic modalities...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338593/clinical-correlates-to-assist-with-cte-diagnosis-insights-from-a-novel-rodent-repeat-concussion-model
#17
Gretchen M Thomsen, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Annie Ma, Livia Wyss, Patricia Haro, Jean-Philippe Vit, Pablo Avalos, Navpreet Dhillon, Noell Cho, Oksana Shelest, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease linked to repetitive head injuries. CTE symptoms include changes in mood, behavior, cognition and motor function, however CTE is only currently diagnosed post-mortem. Using a rat model of recurrent traumatic brain injury (TBI) we demonstrate rodent deficits that predict the severity of CTE-like brain pathology. METHODS: Bilateral, closed skull, mild TBI was administered once per week to 35 WT rats, 8 rats received 2 injuries ('2xTBI'), 27 rats received 5 injuries ('5xTBI') and 13 rats were sham controls...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#18
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 1, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275351/botulinum-toxin-is-effective-in-the-management-of-neurogenic-dysphagia-clinical-electrophysiological-findings-and-tips-on-safety-in-different-neurological-disorders
#19
Enrico Alfonsi, Domenico A Restivo, Giuseppe Cosentino, Roberto De Icco, Giulia Bertino, Antonio Schindler, Massimiliano Todisco, Mauro Fresia, Andrea Cortese, Paolo Prunetti, Matteo C Ramusino, Arrigo Moglia, Giorgio Sandrini, Cristina Tassorelli
Background and Aims: Neurogenic dysphagia linked to failed relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) can be treated by injecting botulinum toxin (BTX) into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle. We compared the effects of this treatment in different neurological disorders with dysphagia, to evaluate its efficacy over time including the response to a second injection. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with neurogenic dysphagia associated with incomplete or absent opening of the UES (24 with brainstem or hemispheric stroke, 21 with parkinsonian syndromes, 12 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 with spastic-dystonic syndromes secondary to post-traumatic encephalopathy) were treated with the injection of IncobotulinumtoxinA (dose 15-20 U) into the CP muscle under electromyographic guidance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214960/axonal-disruption-in-white-matter-underlying-cortical-sulcus-tau-pathology-in-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#20
Laurena Holleran, Joong Hee Kim, Mihika Gangolli, Thor Stein, Victor Alvarez, Ann McKee, David L Brody
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology...
March 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
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