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Psychiatry review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158581/improved-ethical-guidance-for-the-return-of-results-from-psychiatric-genomics-research
#1
G Lázaro-Muñoz, M S Farrell, J J Crowley, D M Filmyer, R A Shaughnessy, R C Josiassen, P F Sullivan
There is an emerging consensus that genomic researchers should, at a minimum, offer to return to individual participants clinically valid, medically important and medically actionable genomic findings (for example, pathogenic variants in BRCA1) identified in the course of research. However, this is not a common practice in psychiatric genetics research. Furthermore, psychiatry researchers often generate findings that do not meet all of these criteria, yet there may be ethically compelling arguments to offer selected results...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156942/book-review-shrinks-the-untold-story-of-psychiatry-shrinks-the-untold-story-of-psychiatry-lieberman-jeffrey-a-with-ogas-ogi-weidenfeld-nicolson-2015-342-pp
#2
Rajesh Maheshwari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155799/risk-of-prevalent-and-incident-dementia-associated-with-insulin-like-growth-factor-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3
#3
O P Almeida, G J Hankey, B B Yeap, S A Paul Chubb, J Gollege, L Flicker
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) influences cell proliferation and survival. In the extracellular environment, IGF-1 circulates bound to proteins (IGF-binding proteins; IGFBP), some of which have physiological effects that seem independent of IGF-1, including the brain (for example, IGFBP-3). We completed a systematic review of the association between dementia and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, and a cross-sectional and longitudinal study designed to investigate if lower plasma concentration of these proteins increased the risk of prevalent and incident dementia...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155608/history-of-lobotomy-in-poland
#4
Kinga Jęczmińska
In Poland, there were 176 cases of prefrontal leucotomy performed by Moniz's method between 1947 and 1951. There were also several cases in which alternative psychosurgical techniques were used: prefrontal topectomy by Bilikiewicz and colleagues, and prefrontal topischemia by Ziemnowicz. This article analyses the following: publications by Choróbski, who performed lobotomy in Poland, and by Korzeniowski, who assessed its short-term results; a report by Bornsztajn, who reviewed general results of the method; and clinical research by Broszkiewicz and by Konieczyńska, who assessed Polish patients in terms of long-term results of lobotomy...
November 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151192/impact-of-oral-ketamine-augmentation-on-hospital-admissions-in-treatment-resistant-depression-and-ptsd-a-retrospective-study
#5
John Hartberg, Simone Garrett-Walcott, Angelo De Gioannis
RATIONALE: Depressive episodes are the leading cause of mental health-related hospital admissions in Australia, and 44% of those admitted have a previous history of hospitalisations for depression (Admitted patient mental health-related care: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Aust Hospital Stat 2011-12, 2013). Despite numerous available antidepressant treatments, many patients do not respond to conventional therapy, having what is called 'treatment resistance' (Fava Biol Psychiatry 53:649-659, 2003)...
November 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150144/atypical-depression-and-non-atypical-depression-is-hpa-axis-function-a-biomarker-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Mario F Juruena, Mariia Bocharova, Bruno Agustini, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: The link between the abnormalities of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and depression has been one of the most consistently reported findings in psychiatry. At the same time, multiple studies have demonstrated a stronger association between the increased activation of HPA-axis and melancholic, or endogenous depression subtype. This association has not been confirmed for the atypical subtype, and some researchers have suggested that as an antinomic depressive subtype, it may be associated with the opposite type, i...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133955/chemokines-in-depression-in-health-and-in-inflammatory-illness-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
S P Leighton, L Nerurkar, R Krishnadas, C Johnman, G J Graham, J Cavanagh
Inflammatory illness is associated with depression. Preclinical work has shown that chemokines are linked with peripheral-central crosstalk and may be important in mediating depressive behaviours. We sought to establish what evidence exists that differences in blood or cerebrospinal fluid chemokine concentration discriminate between individuals with depression and those without. Following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched Embase, PsycINFO and Medline databases. We included participants with physical illness for subgroup analysis, and excluded participants with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133952/engaging-homeostatic-plasticity-to-treat-depression
#8
E R Workman, F Niere, K F Raab-Graham
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous mood disorder, making it difficult to develop a generalized, pharmacological therapy that is effective for all who suffer from MDD. Through the fortuitous discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as effective antidepressants, we have gained key insights into how antidepressant effects can be produced at the circuit and molecular levels. NMDAR antagonists act as rapid-acting antidepressants such that relief from depressive symptoms occurs within hours of a single injection...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128270/low-serum-testosterone-in-outpatient-psychiatry-clinics-addressing-challenges-to-the-screening-and-treatment-of-hypogonadism
#9
REVIEW
Justin B Smith, Jordan Rosen, Adam Colbert
INTRODUCTION: The symptoms of low testosterone frequently overlap with psychiatric complaints including depression and fatigue. Testosterone repletion has been shown to improve mood symptoms in men with low testosterone, although this finding has not been consistent across all studies. Despite the potential importance of low testosterone for psychiatry, the prevalence of low testosterone in men who present to psychiatric clinics with mental health complaints is unknown. AIM: To provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the psychiatric complications of male hypogonadism, the challenges of screening for hypogonadism in a psychiatric population, and the potential mental health treatment implications of hypogonadism...
November 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117269/assessing-reporting-quality-of-randomized-controlled-trial-abstracts-in-psychiatry-adherence-to-consort-for-abstracts-a-systematic-review
#10
Seung Yeon Song, Boyeon Kim, Inhye Kim, Sungeun Kim, Minjeong Kwon, Changsu Han, Eunyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Reporting quality of randomized controlled trial (RCT) abstracts is important as readers often make their first judgments based on the abstracts. This study aims to assess the reporting quality of psychiatry RCT abstracts published before and after the release of Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials for Abstracts (CONSORT-A) guidelines. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed search was conducted to identify psychiatric RCTs published during 2005-2007 (pre-CONSORT) and 2012-2014 (post-CONSORT)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112196/understanding-the-roles-of-mutations-in-the-amyloid-precursor-protein-in-alzheimer-disease
#11
REVIEW
S Hunter, C Brayne
Many models of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been proposed to help guide experimental design and aid the interpretation of results. Models focussing on the genetic evidence include the amyloid cascade (ACH) and presenilin (PSH) hypotheses and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) matrix approach (AMA), of which the ACH has held a dominant position for over two decades. However, the ACH has never been fully accepted and has not yet delivered on its therapeutic promise. We review the ACH, PSH and AMA in relation to levels of APP proteolytic fragments reported from AD-associated mutations in APP...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112195/face-and-predictive-validity-of-the-clock%C3%AE-19-mouse-as-an-animal-model-for-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
M Kristensen, A A Nierenberg, S D Østergaard
Mice carrying the circadian locomotor output cycles Kaput delta 19 N-ethyl-N-nitrosoure (ENU) mutation (ClockΔ19) are used as an animal model for bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to systematically review the face validity (phenotypical and pathophysiological resemblance with BD) and predictive validity (responsiveness to treatments used in BD) of this model in adherence with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. We carried out a systematic search of the databases PubMed and Embase, combining search terms covering BD and ClockΔ19...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110776/psychiatric-syndromes-other-than-dementia
#13
Karl Bechter, Florian Deisenhammer
There is wide variability in how psychiatry guidelines and textbooks address the question of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diagnostics in the screening of psychiatric disorders. A United States-based textbook confirms that there is no consensus about which laboratory investigation should be routinely performed in psychiatric patients, but with respect to CSF diagnostics, the differences are even more striking. A survey among European experts showed a wide variety of opinions regarding clinical use and criteria in various countries of Europe and worldwide: some psychiatrists, mostly university hospital-based, recommended performing CSF diagnostics in every patient first experiencing severe mental illness (SMI), but especially in patients from the schizophrenia spectrum, whereas others almost never perform CSF examinations themselves and usually refer patients to neurology departments if necessary...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107461/vignettes-and-viewpoints-from-a-professional-autobiography
#14
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey M Lyness
In this professional autobiography, the author describes factors contributing to important decisions in his academic geriatric psychiatry career. Major inflection points included embarking on clinical research and later deciding to focus more on leadership roles in education and in faculty affairs. The discussion then examines themes that have emerged in reviewing this career arc, including the value of: the variety and social connectedness inherent in the academic life; cultivation of interpersonal relationships and best efforts as much as possible; an open mind ready to (collegially) seize new opportunities; and family, friends, and avocational pursuits as complements to one's profession...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107401/-map-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-dementias-in-spain-mapea-project
#15
Pablo Martínez-Lage, Manuel Martín-Carrasco, Enrique Arrieta, Jesús Rodrigo, Francesc Formiga
INTRODUCTION: In the current context of increased life expectancy and progressive aging of the population a very significant increase in the number of people with cognitive impairment and dementia is expected. Consequently, Spain will face an enormous social and health problem in the next decades. The Mapa de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias en España project aims to analyse plans, prevention and early diagnosis activities, process of care and resources available across the 17 Spanish regions for the management of cognitive impairment and dementia in order to identify improvement areas, as well as to provide a list of recommendations...
October 26, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102367/-the-psychiatric-comorbidity-of-anorexia-nervosa-a-comparative-study-in-a-population-of-french-and-greek-anorexic-patients
#16
M Kountza, G Garyfallos, D Ploumpidis, E Varsou, I Gkiouzepas
OBJECTIVE: The current study had two objectives: (1) to access the psychiatric comorbidity in axis I and axis II (according to DSM-IV) of anorexia nervosa in a sample of 60 anorexic patients; (2) to compare the features of the psychiatric comorbidity between the two groups of French and Greek anorexic patients who participated in the study, as well as to compare some psychological and behavioral aspects of their anorectic psychopathology. METHOD: Sixty anorexic patients, thirty French and thirty Greek, aged between 18 and 60 years, referred for evaluation and therapy at the unit of eating disorders at the "Institut national Marcel-Rivière of the MGEN" (hôpital de La Verrière, France) and at the unit of eating disorders of the First Department of Psychiatry of EGINITIO University Psychiatric Hospital in Athens (Greece), were accessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT26), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL90R), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Version 5...
November 1, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096909/-assessment-of-mood-disorders-by-passive-data-gathering-the-concept-of-digital-phenotype-versus-psychiatrist-s-professional-culture
#17
A Bourla, F Ferreri, L Ogorzelec, C Guinchard, S Mouchabac
OBJECTIVES: The search for objective clinical signs is a constant practitioners' and researchers' concern in psychiatry. New technologies (embedded sensors, artificial intelligence) give an easier access to untapped information such as passive data (i.e. that do not require patient intervention). The concept of "digital phenotype" is emerging in psychiatry: a psychomotor alteration translated by accelerometer's modifications contrasting with the usual functioning of the subject, or the graphorrhea of patients presenting a manic episode which is replaced by an increase of SMS sent...
October 30, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093938/forensic-psychiatric-service-provision-in-pakistan-and-its-challenges
#18
Tariq Hassan, Asad Tamizuddin Nizami, M Selim Asmer
In the Islamic Republic of Pakistan the law relating to people who are mentally ill, until 2001, was set out by the Lunacy Act of 1912, which was inherited from the British colonial occupiers. In 2001 the Mental Health Ordinance 2001 took its place but only for this federal law to be superseded in April 2010 with the 18th constitutional amendment. As part of that amendment, provinces have become responsible for (psychiatric) healthcare, including mental health legislation. Forensic psychiatry is practised in Pakistan but is very much in its infancy; it needs to develop and learn from more experienced countries in Europe and North America...
May 2017: BJPsych Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082033/maintenance-efficacy-designs-in-psychiatry-randomized-discontinuation-trials-enriched-but-not-better
#19
REVIEW
S N Ghaemi, Harry P Selker
INTRODUCTION: Although classical randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for proof of drug efficacy, randomized discontinuation trials (RDTs), sometimes called "enriched" trials, are used increasingly, especially in psychiatric maintenance studies. METHODS: A narrative review of two decades of experience with RDTs. RESULTS: RDTs in psychiatric maintenance trials tend to use a dependent variable as a predictor: treatment response...
June 2017: Journal of clinical and translational science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077142/-non-invasive-neurostimulation-in-the-treatment-of-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#20
S van der Meersche, G Lemmens, C Matton, C Baeken
Neurostimulation is a potentially interesting treatment option for children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders.<br/> AIM: To review the efficacy of two non-invasive neurostimulation techniques, namely repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rtms) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tdcs), in the treatment of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.<br/> METHOD: We searched the literature research using PubMed.<br/> RESULTS: There is some evidence that rtms is being used to treat unipolar depression, psychosis, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
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