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Psychiatry review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#1
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#2
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424390/-area-10-38-prospective-functions-in-ba10-and-semantic-hub-in-ba38
#3
Satoshi Umeda
This paper reviews the structural specificities and functional roles in Brodmann areas 10 and 38. A number of studies have focused on both areas through various approaches including neuropsychology, neuroimaging, psychiatry, neurology, and neurosurgery. Both areas 10 and 38 may have a substantially very complex higher-order cognitive functions, which are quite hard to disentangle. Here, I picked up some fundamental perspectives for reviewing previous studies, to provide efficient research orientations for the elucidation of functions in both areas...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420604/a-digital-tool-to-promote-alcohol-and-drug-use-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-skill-translation-a-mobile-app-development-and-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#4
Derek D Satre, Khanh Ly, Maria Wamsley, Alexa Curtis, Jason Satterfield
BACKGROUND: Translation of knowledge and skills from classroom settings to clinical practice is a major challenge in healthcare training, especially for behavioral interventions. For example, screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a highly-promoted approach to identifying and treating individuals at risk for alcohol or drug problems, yet effective, routine use of SBIRT has lagged. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the development, pilot testing, and trial protocol of a mobile app based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to promote SBIRT skill translation and application...
April 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419586/a-review-of-the-nutritional-challenges-experienced-by-people-living-with-severe-mental-illness-a-role-for-dietitians-in-addressing-physical-health-gaps
#5
REVIEW
S B Teasdale, K Samaras, T Wade, R Jarman, P B Ward
People experiencing a severe mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder or depression with psychotic features, have a 20-year mortality gap compared to the general population. This 'scandal of premature mortality' is primarily driven by preventable cardiometabolic disease, and recent research suggests that the mortality gap is widening. Multidisciplinary mental health teams often include psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, specialist mental health nurses, social workers and occupational therapists, offering a range of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments to enhance the recovery of clients who have experienced, or are experiencing a SMI...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413088/a-retrospective-analysis-of-neurocognitive-impairment-in-older-patients-with-burn-injuries
#6
Emily G Holmes, Samuel W Jones, Sarah L Laughon
BACKGROUND: Older adults comprise a growing proportion of the United States population that is at risk for burns. However, few studies have examined cognitive function in this patient population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence and incidence of dementia and delirium in older adults admitted for burn injuries. METHODS: This was an Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study of all patients 65 years and older admitted to the University of North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center from 2005-2015...
March 6, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406368/prn-medication-administration-in-a-geriatric-psychiatric-hospital-chart-review-and-nursing-perspective
#7
Lori Harper, John R Reddon, Courtney J Hunt, Heather Royan
OBJECTIVE: To improve patient care/outcome, an evaluation was conducted of nursing procedures and protocols for pro re nata (PRN) medications. METHODS: A 14-day chart review was conducted for 27 patients with mood and thought disorders (MTD) and for 24 patients with organic disorders (OD) at a geriatric psychiatric hospital, and a questionnaire was completed by 20 nurses. RESULTS: 377 PRNs were administered to patients in the MTD and OD units (240 and 137, respectively)...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403642/book-review-extraordinary-science-and-psychiatry-responses-to-the-crisis-in-mental-health-research-extraordinary-science-and-psychiatry-responses-to-the-crisis-in-mental-health-research-poland-j-tekin-s-editors-cambridge-ma-mit-press-2017-327-p-us-50-cloth
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398818/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-malignant-catatonia-in-child-psychiatry-literature-review-and-a-case-series
#9
Neera Ghaziuddin, Melissa Hendriks, Paresh Patel, Lee E Wachtel, Dirk M Dhossche
OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia (MC) in children and adolescents. BACKGROUND: NMS and MC are life-threatening, neuropsychiatric syndromes, associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. NMS is diagnosed when there is a recent history of treatment with an antipsychotic (AP) medication, while MC is diagnosed when the symptoms resemble NMS but without a history of exposure to an AP agent...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396067/control-conditions-for-randomised-trials-of-behavioural-interventions-in-psychiatry-a-decision-framework
#10
REVIEW
Stefan M Gold, Paul Enck, Helge Hasselmann, Tim Friede, Ulrich Hegerl, David C Mohr, Christian Otte
In psychiatry, comparative analyses of therapeutic options and the aggregation of data from clinical trials across different therapeutic approaches play an important role in clinical decision making, treatment guidelines, and health policy. This approach assumes that trials of pharmacological and behavioural therapies generally produce the same level of evidence when properly designed. However, trial design for behavioural interventions has some unique characteristics and control groups vary widely, which influence the effects observed in any given trial...
April 7, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393994/-psychiatry-and-occupational-diseases-act-in-chile-historical-and-critical-review-of-a-complex-relationship
#11
Juan C Almonte, Cristián Mena, Sofía Ortiz, Juan P Osorio
The Work Accidents and Occupational Diseases Act exists in Chile since 1968. It uses a single model for the understanding and management of both somatic diseases like silicosis and psychiatric disorders. During the last decade in Chile, the consultation rates due to psychiatric conditions of probable labor origin has rose over 1,000%, a factor that underscored the deficiencies of this model. The aim of this paper is to analyze the consequences of the application of this act in the psychiatric field for almost 50 years after its promulgation...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387208/validation-of-an-instrument-to-assess-the-mental-capacity-to-sign-an-enduring-power-of-attorney
#12
R Sf Ko, V Wc Lui, K C Lai, C Cy Chiu, L Cw Lam
OBJECTIVE: To describe the validation of an instrument to assess the mental capacity of an individual to sign an enduring power of attorney. METHODS: An instrument named Capacity Assessment to Sign an Enduring Power of Attorney (CASEPA) was developed following a literature review, focus group discussions, expert reviews, and pilot testing. Chinese persons aged ≥ 60 years who had a range of cognitive abilities were recruited from elderly care centres in Hong Kong to explore its psychometric properties...
March 2017: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384734/jama-psychiatry-peer-reviewer-list
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384672/jama-psychiatry-2016-year-in-review
#14
Stephan Heckers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378045/-existence-absence-and-power-of-madness-a%C3%A2-critical-review-of-michel-foucault-s-writings-on-the-history-and-philosophy-of-madness
#15
Burkhart Brückner, Lukas Iwer, Samuel Thoma
This article discusses Michel Foucault's main writings on "madness and psychiatry" from his early works up to the 1970s. On the one hand, we reconstruct the overall theoretical and methodological development of his positions over the course of the different periods in his oeuvre. On the other hand, we also take a closer look at Foucault's philosophical considerations regarding the subjects of his investigations. After an initial introduction of our conceptual approach, we draw on the most recent research on Foucault to show to what extent the phenomenological description of the topic at hand and the historical-critical perspective that are reflected in his early writings of 1954 (the Introduction to Binswanger's Dream and Existence and Mental Illness and Personality) laid the ground for his later work...
April 4, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375059/book-review-foundations-of-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-the-bumpy-road-to-specialization-lipsitt-don-r-new-york-routledge-2016-314-pp-isbn-978-113-8906259
#16
Ralf Ilchef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374657/dsm-disorders-and-their-criteria-how-should-they-inter-relate
#17
K S Kendler
While the changes in psychiatric diagnosis introduced by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual third edition (DSM-III) have had major benefits to the field of psychiatry, the reification of its diagnostic criteria and the widespread adoption of diagnostic literalism have been problematic. I argue that, at root, these developments can be best understood by contrasting two approaches to the relationship between DSM disorders and their criteria. In a constitutive relationship, criteria definitively define the disorder...
April 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374455/examining-predictors-of-initial-outpatient-psychiatric-treatment-for-conduct-problems-in-youth-a-records-review
#18
Gabriel C Watson, John S Carlson, Jed Magen
PURPOSE: To investigate predictors of conduct problem (CP) treatment in an outpatient child psychiatry clinic. DESIGN AND METHODS: Medical records (N = 78) of youth with CPs (71% male; mean age = 9.9 years) were analyzed to determine how treatment history, race, gender, travel distance, aggression symptoms, internalizing disorder symptoms, and age of diagnosis influenced initial treatment decisions. FINDINGS: Severity of aggression symptoms and travel distance significantly increased the likelihood that initial treatments included psychotropic medication...
April 4, 2017: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373848/the-current-status-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-psychiatry
#19
REVIEW
Emmanuelle C S Bostock, Kenneth C Kirkby, Bruce V M Taylor
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used in treatment-resistant epilepsy since the 1920s. It has been researched in a variety of neurological conditions in both animal models and human trials. The aim of this review is to clarify the potential role of KD in psychiatry. METHODS: Narrative review of electronic databases PubMED, PsychINFO, and Scopus. RESULTS: The search yielded 15 studies that related the use of KD in mental disorders including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373686/an-update-on-stem-cell-biology-and-engineering-for-brain-development
#20
C J C Parr, S Yamanaka, H Saito
Two recent technologies, induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and direct somatic reprogramming, have shown enormous potential for cell-based therapies against intractable diseases such as those that affect the central nervous system. Already, methods that generate most major cell types of the human brain exist. Whether the cell types are directly reprogrammed from human somatic cells or differentiated from an iPSC intermediate, the overview presented here demonstrates how these protocols vary greatly in their efficiencies, purity and maturation of the resulting cells...
April 4, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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