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Psychiatry review

Taras R Reshetukha, Nazanin Alavi, Eric Prost, Ryan H Kirkpatrick, Saad Sajid, Charmy Patel, Dianne L Groll
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of two interventions on suicide risk assessment within emergency departments (EDs) on improving the documentation of suicide risk factors by emergency medicine and psychiatric physicians during suicide risk assessment. METHOD: An educational intervention on suicide was provided to all emergency medicine and psychiatry physicians and was followed by the placement of a suicide risk assessment prompt within local EDs. The medical charts of all ED patients presenting with suicidal ideation or behaviours were reviewed immediately and six months after the interventions and compared to pre-intervention...
March 2, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
Dost Öngür, Stephan Heckers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
P Zanos, T D Gould
Clinical studies have demonstrated that a single sub-anesthetic dose of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions. Although this finding has been met with enthusiasm, ketamine's widespread use is limited by its abuse potential and dissociative properties. Recent preclinical research has focused on unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of ketamine in an effort to develop novel pharmacotherapies, which will mimic ketamine's antidepressant actions but lack its undesirable effects...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
John W Wax, Amy W An, Nicole Kosier, Timothy E Quill
Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is a deliberate, self-initiated attempt to hasten death in the setting of suffering refractory to optimal palliative interventions or prolonged dying that a person finds intolerable. Individuals who consider VSED tend to be older, have a serious but not always imminently terminal illness, place a high value on independence, and have significant illness burden. VSED can theoretically be performed independent of clinician assistance and therefore avoids many of the ethical and legal concerns associated with physician-assisted dying or other palliative measures of last resort, However, VSED is an intense process fraught with new sources of somatic and emotional suffering for individuals and their caregivers, so VSED is best supervised by an experienced, well-informed clinician who can provide appropriate pre-intervention assessment, anticipatory guidance, medical treatment of symptoms, and emotional support...
March 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Pawan Kumar, Purushottam Jangid, Sujata Sethi
Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent and remains a huge burden on the society. In spite of that persons with mental illness are marginalized and mental health is largely being neglected. There is an acute shortage of mental health professionals in India, and also there is inadequate exposure to psychiatry during the medical undergraduate training in India. Moreover, the perception towards psychiatry and psychiatrists is not favorable among medical fraternity and policy makers. This is reflected in the fact that in spite of clearly deficient undergraduate psychiatry curriculum, no steps have been taken towards improving it and recommendations are not being implemented in true spirit...
March 6, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Mary Coughlin, Catherine Lindsay Goldie, Joan Tranmer, Sarosh Khalid-Khan, Deborah Tregunno
OBJECTIVE: Children and adolescents with a range of psychiatric disorders are increasingly being prescribed atypical or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). While SGAs are effective at treating conduct and behavioural symptoms, they infer significant cardiometabolic risk. This study aims to explore what patient, treatment, and health care utilization variables are associated with adherence to Canadian Alliance for Monitoring Effectiveness and Safety of Antipsychotics in Children (CAMESA) metabolic monitoring guidelines...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Brain activity derives from intrinsic dynamics (due to neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity) in concert with stochastic effects that arise from sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random fluctuations can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs). This article, Part II of a two-part series, reviews applications of SDMs to large-scale neural systems in health and disease. Stochastic models have already elucidated a number of pathophysiological phenomena, such as epilepsy and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, although their use in biological psychiatry remains rather nascent...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
James A Roberts, Karl J Friston, Michael Breakspear
Biological phenomena arise through interactions between an organism's intrinsic dynamics and stochastic forces-random fluctuations due to external inputs, thermal energy, or other exogenous influences. Dynamic processes in the brain derive from neurophysiology and anatomical connectivity; stochastic effects arise through sensory fluctuations, brainstem discharges, and random microscopic states such as thermal noise. The dynamic evolution of systems composed of both dynamic and random effects can be studied with stochastic dynamic models (SDMs)...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Nicolás H Noriega
Anxiety and depression are two important clinical entities associated not only with mental health, but to health and illness in general. However, professionals in most of the non-psychiatric health settings avoid referring to either one. The prime objective of this work is to review publications showing the important correlation between anxiety and depression and various diseases. For the purpose of this study, diseases were divided into specialties, taking into account the bibliographical sources of the articles cited...
July 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
T A M J van Amelsvoort, M C Klaassen, O A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing awareness that the current approach to clinical thought and work in psychiatry in relation to psychiatric diagnosis, treatment and research has its limitations. This necessitates a process to reform both the clinical practice and future scientific research. One way to reform this is the transdiagnostic approach. AIM: To clarify the psychological, biological and therapeutic aspects of a transdiagnostic approach in psychiatry. METHOD: An analysis of new approaches based on recent findings from the recent literature...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Jeffrey P Reiss, Sarah Jarmain, Kamini Vasudev
This position paper has been substantially revised by the Canadian Psychiatric Association's Professional Standards and Practice Committee and approved for republication by the CPA's Board of Directors on August 31, 2016. The original position paper1 was developed by the Professional Standards and Practice Council and approved by the Board of Directors on April 9, 1994.
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Viswas Chhapola, Soumya Tiwari, Bobbity Deepthi, Sandeep Kumar Kanwal
BACKGROUND: Citation analysis provides insights into the history and developmental trajectory of scientific fields. Our objective was to perform an analysis of citation classics in the journals of pediatric specialty and to examine their characteristics. METHODS: Initially, all the journals listed under the category of pediatrics (n = 120) were identified using Journal Citation Reports. Web of science database was then searched (1950-2016) to select the top-100 cited articles in the above identified pediatric journals...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Eric M Plakun
This column compares a clinical perspective on the continuum of care for mental health and substance use disorders with a different perspective derived from publicly available insurance company documents and experience dealing with managed care utilization reviewers. The latter perspective tends to determine the need for access to levels of care based on the need for crisis stabilization, whereas the generally accepted clinical standard is more nuanced than the need for crisis stabilization alone. The column proposes that this discrepancy in perspectives makes a substantial contribution to disagreements between treating clinicians, such as therapists, and insurance utilization reviewers concerning the medical necessity of various requested levels of care...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Phelan E Maruca-Sullivan, Chadrick E Lane, Edward Z Moore, David A Ross
OBJECTIVES: Residency is a critical step in the professional development of physicians. Given the high stakes of the process, it is not surprising, although nonetheless troubling, that professional misconduct may occur: multiple studies have, rightfully, condemned applicants for plagiarising personal statements or misrepresenting publications. To date, however, no studies have examined whether faculty members may engage in similar behaviours. METHODS: Software was used to evaluate 3864 unique applications containing 13 617 letters of recommendation submitted through the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) to the Yale University Department of Psychiatry Residency Program in recruitment cycles from 2013-2014 to 2016-2017...
March 6, 2018: Medical Education
S Swindells, M Siccardi, S E Barrett, D B Olsen, J A Grobler, A T Podany, E Nuermberger, P Kim, C E Barry, A Owen, D Hazuda, C Flexner
Long-acting/extended-release drug formulations have proved very successful in diverse areas of medicine, including contraception, psychiatry and, most recently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Though challenging, application of this technology to anti-tuberculosis treatment could have substantial impact. The duration of treatment required for all forms of tuberculosis (TB) put existing regimens at risk of failure because of early discontinuations and treatment loss to follow-up. Long-acting injections, for example, administered every month, could improve patient adherence and treatment outcomes...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Alexander C Conley, Paul A Newhouse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent advances in drug discovery and development for geriatric psychiatry. Drug discovery for disorders of the central nervous system is a long and challenging process, with a high attrition rate from the preclinical stages through to marketing a compound. Developing drugs for geriatric neuropsychiatric conditions presents additional challenges, due to the complexity of the symptoms, comorbid diagnoses, and the variability of the population. Despite there being limited success over the past two decades, a number of new approaches have identified potential targets for preclinical development and ultimately clinical testing...
March 5, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
G Brun, H Verdoux, G Couhet, C Quiles
OBJECTIVES: Video games and virtual reality have recently become used by clinicians for training or information media or as therapeutic tools. The purpose is to review the use of these technologies for therapy destined for schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We conducted a review in October 2016 using Pubmed, Scopus and PsychInfo using the following Medical Subject Headings (MESH): "video games", "virtual reality" and "therapy, computer-assisted/methods", each associated with "schizophrenia"...
February 28, 2018: L'Encéphale
Mohammed D Saleem
Rosacea is one of the most common and misunderstood dermatologic conditions. Currently, rosacea criteria are based on expert opinion; the definition of rosacea is primarily a reflection of opinion that is prone to bias. It has been more than a decade since the initial criteria were created by the National Rosacea Society. Revisiting the criteria and incorporating evidence-based techniques used by rheumatology and psychiatry can improve the validity and reliability of rosacea criteria. Literature from other specialties is reviewed and a method proposed for developing valid criteria...
April 2018: Dermatologic Clinics
Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Dimitris Mavridis, Toshi A Furukawa, Andrea Cipriani, Andrea C Tricco, Sharon E Straus, George C M Siontis, Matthias Egger, Georgia Salanti
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) ("living" network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. DESIGN: Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. DATA SOURCES: Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015...
February 28, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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