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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528389/a-life-less-lonely-the-state-of-the-art-in-interventions-to-reduce-loneliness-in-people-with-mental-health-problems
#1
REVIEW
Farhana Mann, Jessica K Bone, Brynmor Lloyd-Evans, Johanna Frerichs, Vanessa Pinfold, Ruimin Ma, Jingyi Wang, Sonia Johnson
PURPOSE: There is growing evidence of significant harmful effects of loneliness. Relatively little work has focused on how best to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. We aim to present an overview of the current state of the art in loneliness interventions in people with mental health problems, identify relevant challenges, and highlight priorities for future research and implementation. METHODS: A scoping review of the published and grey literature was conducted, as well as discussions with relevant experts, to propose a broad classification system for types of interventions targeting loneliness...
May 20, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528357/cerebellar-gray-matter-alterations-in-huntington-disease-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#2
Paula C de Azevedo, Rachel P Guimarães, Camila C Piccinin, Luiza G Piovesana, Lidiane S Campos, Juliana R Zuiani, Eliza M Tamashiro, Giordanna Pinheiro, Augusto C Amato-Filho, Fernando Cendes, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Anelyssa D'Abreu
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies in Huntington disease (HD) have suggested a role for the cerebellum. Our goal was to perform a detailed evaluation of cerebellar morphology. We performed the Unified HD rating scale (UHDRS) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) in 26 HD patients and 26 healthy controls. We created a two-sample test to analyze cerebellar gray matter (GM) differences between groups and another to correlate GM alterations with UHDRS and MOCA, corrected for age, expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine repeats, and disease duration using the spatially unbiased atlas template (SUIT)-SPM-toolbox which preserves anatomical detailing...
May 20, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528185/simvastatin-ameliorate-memory-deficits-and-inflammation-in-clinical-and-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulating-the-expression-of-mir-106b
#3
Wenzhong Huang, Zhenyu Li, Liandong Zhao, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. METHODS: First, we tested the effect of simvastatin on AD in clinical research...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528015/the-mediating-effect-of-mindful-non-reactivity-in-exposure-based-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-severe-health-anxiety
#4
Erik Hedman, Hugo Hesser, Erik Andersson, Erland Axelsson, Brjánn Ljótsson
Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety, but little is known about mediators of treatment effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate mindful non-reactivity as a putative mediator of health anxiety outcome using data from a large scale randomized controlled trial. We assessed mindful non-reactivity using the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Non-Reactivity scale (FFMQ-NR) and health anxiety with the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527907/behavioral-and-cognitive-impact-of-early-life-stress-insights-from-an-animal-model
#5
Hesong Liu, Fatin Atrooz, Ankita Salvi, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Children subjected to traumatic events during childhood are reported to exhibit behavioral and cognitive deficits later in life, often leading to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Interestingly, some children continue to remain normal despite being exposed to the same risk factors. These trauma-related behavioral and cognitive profiles across different stages of life are not well understood. Animal studies can offer useful insights. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of early life exposure to traumatic events on behavioral and cognitive profile in rats by tracking the behavior of each rat at different ages...
May 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527748/high-levels-of-time-contraction-in-young-children-in-dual-tasks-are-related-to-their-limited-attention-capacities
#6
Quentin Hallez, Sylvie Droit-Volet
Numerous studies have shown that durations are judged shorter in a dual-task condition than in a simple-task condition. The resource-based theory of time perception suggests that this is due to the processing of temporal information, which is a demanding cognitive task that consumes limited attention resources. Our study investigated whether this time contraction in a dual-task condition is greater in younger children and, if so, whether this is specifically related to their limited attention capacities. Children aged 5-7years were given a temporal reproduction task in a simple-task condition and a dual-task condition...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527690/testing-cognitive-functions-in-rodent-disease-models-present-pitfalls-and-future-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Heikki Tanila
Testing of cognitive functions in rodent disease models constitutes a substantial sector of behavioral neuroscience. It is most often needed in phenotyping genetically modified new rodent (usually mouse) lines or in preclinical testing of cognitive effects of new CNS drugs. This review concerns present pitfalls and future perspectives in this large field, with an emphasis on memory testing in CNS disease models and their preclinical drug testing. It is important to realize that no behavioral test is specific for a single cognitive domain...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527630/diagnostic-accuracy-of-csf-neurofilament-light-chain-protein-in-the-biomarker-guided-classification-system-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Simone Lista, Nicola Toschi, Filippo Baldacci, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Ingo Kilimann, Stefan J Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Antonio Melo Dos Santos, Stéphane Epelbaum, Foudil Lamari, Bruno Dubois, Roberto Floris, Francesco Garaci, Harald Hampel
We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NFL) protein in the classification of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitively healthy control individuals (HCs) and patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as comparisons. Particularly, we tested the performance of CSF NFL concentration in differentiating patient groups stratified by fluid biomarker profiles, independently of the severity of cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia individuals), using a biomarker-guided descriptive classification system for AD...
May 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527362/mathematical-abilities-in-elementary-school-do-they-relate-to-number-space-associations
#9
Carrie Georges, Danielle Hoffmann, Christine Schiltz
Considering the importance of mathematics in Western societies, it is crucial to understand the cognitive processes involved in the acquisition of more complex mathematical skills. The current study, therefore, investigated how the quality of number-space mappings on the mental number line, as indexed by the parity SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, relates to mathematical performances in third- and fourth-grade elementary school children. Mathematical competencies were determined using the "Heidelberger Rechentest," a standardized German math test assessing both arithmetical and visuospatial math components...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527318/activating-analytic-thinking-enhances-the-value-given-to-individualizing-moral-foundations
#10
Onurcan Yilmaz, S Adil Saribay
Two central debates within Moral Foundations Theory concern (1) which moral foundations are core and (2) how conflict between ideological camps stemming from valuing different moral foundations can be resolved. Previous studies have attempted to answer the first question by imposing cognitive load on participants to direct them toward intuitive and automatic thought. However, this method has limitations and has produced mixed findings. In the present research, in two experiments, instead of directing participants toward intuitive thought, we tested the effects of activating high-effort, analytic thought on participants' moral foundations...
May 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527301/exploration-of-dietary-patterns-and-alcohol-consumption-in-pregnant-women-in-the-uk-a-mixed-methods-study
#11
Victoria Coathup, Lesley Smith, Mary Boulton
BACKGROUND: fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders is a term used to describe a range of physical, cognitive and behavioural deficits in the offspring of women who drank alcohol during pregnancy. A growing body of evidence suggests alcohol consumption in the presence of poor maternal nutrition may increase the risk of harm to the developing fetus. OBJECTIVE: to investigate relationships between maternal dietary patterns and alcohol consumption, and explore which factors influence women's decisions about what to eat and drink during pregnancy...
April 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527220/quantitative-erythrocyte-omega-3-epa-plus-dha-levels-are-related-to-higher-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-on-brain-spect
#12
Daniel G Amen, William S Harris, Parris M Kidd, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: The interrelationships between omega-3 fatty acids status, brain perfusion, and cognition are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if SPECT brain imaging of cerebral perfusion and cognition varies as a function of omega-3 fatty acid levels. METHODS: A random sample of 166 study participants was drawn from a psychiatric referral clinical for which erythrocyte quantification of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (the Omega-3 Index) was available...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527215/diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-combination-of-two-measures-of%C3%A2-verbal-memory-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-due%C3%A2-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Isabel Sala, Ignacio Illán-Gala, Daniel Alcolea, Ma Belén Sánchez-Saudinós, Sergio Andrés Salgado, Estrella Morenas-Rodríguez, Andrea Subirana, Laura Videla, Jordi Clarimón, María Carmona-Iragui, Roser Ribosa-Nogué, Rafael Blesa, Juan Fortea, Alberto Lleó
BACKGROUND: Episodic memory impairment is the core feature of typical Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of two commonly used verbal memory tests to detect mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) and to predict progression to Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD-d). METHODS: Prospective study of MCI patients in a tertiary memory disorder unit. Patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological battery including two tests of declarative verbal memory: The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) and the word list learning task from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-WL)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527207/beyond-a-differential-diagnosis-cognitive-and-morphometric-decoding-of-information-processing-speed-in-senior-adults-with-dsm-5-mild-neurocognitive-disorders
#14
Hanna Lu, Sandra S M Chan, Ada W T Fung, Linda C W Lam
BACKGROUND: Processing speed has been highlighted as a diagnostic item for neurocognitive disorders (NCD) in DSM-5. The utility of information processing speed (IPS) enclosed with multiscale constructs in the diagnosis of NCD warrants exploration. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the IPS with two types of measurements in the patients with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular) and NCD due to Alzheimer's disease (NCD-AD), and examine the associations between IPS measures and morphometric features...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527204/levetiracetam-alters-oscillatory-connectivity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Christian S Musaeus, Mouhsin M Shafi, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Susan T Herman, Daniel Z Press
Seizures occur at a higher frequency in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) but overt, clinically obvious events are infrequent. Evidence from animal models and studies in mild cognitive impairment suggest that subclinical epileptic discharges may play a role in the clinical and pathophysiological manifestations of AD. In this feasibility study, the neurophysiological and cognitive effects of acute administration of levetiracetam (LEV) are measured in patients with mild AD to test whether it could have a therapeutic benefit...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527163/pharmacotherapy-of-insomnia-and-current-updates
#16
REVIEW
Arup Kumar Misra, Pramod Kumar Sharma
Insomnia is highly prevalent and is associated with a range of psychological, psychiatric, and medical conditions. Insomnia affects health by influencing cognitive, emotional and social functioning. Circadian and sleep homeostatic processes play an important role in insomnia development and its maintenance. Several efficacious treatments, both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic, exist for the management of insomnia. Among non-pharmacologic treatments including stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction, relaxation, sleep hygiene and cognitive therapy have been shown to be efficacious...
April 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526918/effect-of-problem-and-scripting-based-learning-on-spine-surgical-trainees-learning-outcomes
#17
Lin Cong, Qi Yan, Chenjing Sun, Yue Zhu, Guanjun Tu
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of problem and scripting-based learning (PSBL) on spine surgical trainees' learning outcomes. METHODS: 30 spine surgery postgraduate-year-1 residents (PGY-1s) from the First Hospital of China Medical University were randomly divided into two groups. The first group studied spine surgical skills and developed individual judgment under a conventional didactic model, whereas the PSBL group used PBL and Scripted model. A feedback questionnaire and the satisfaction of residents were evaluated by the first assistant surgeon immediately following each procedure...
May 19, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526620/evidence-for-cortical-structural-plasticity-in-humans-after-a-day-of-waking-and-sleep-deprivation
#18
Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Nathalia Zak, Linn B Norbom, Per Ø Pedersen, Sophia H Quraishi, Atle Bjørnerud, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Ulrik F Malt, Inge R Groote, Lars T Westlye
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved process required for human health and functioning. Insufficient sleep causes impairments across cognitive domains, and sleep deprivation can have rapid antidepressive effects in mood disorders. However, the neurobiological effects of waking and sleep are not well understood. Recently, animal studies indicated that waking and sleep are associated with substantial cortical structural plasticity. Here, we hypothesized that structural plasticity can be observed after a day of waking and sleep deprivation in the human cerebral cortex...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526585/impaired-response-selection-during-stepping-predicts-falls-in-older-people-a-cohort-study
#19
Daniel Schoene, Kim Delbaere, Stephen R Lord
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, an important executive function, has been identified as a risk factor for falls in older people. This study investigated whether step tests that include different levels of response inhibition differ in their ability to predict falls and whether such associations are mediated by measures of attention, speed, and/or balance. METHODS: A cohort study with a 12-month follow-up was conducted in community-dwelling older people without major cognitive and mobility impairments...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526584/a-simple-algorithm-to-predict-falls-in-primary-care-patients-aged-65-to-74%C3%A2-years-the-international-mobility-in-aging-study
#20
Fernando Gomez, Yan Yan Wu, Mohammad Auais, Afshin Vafaei, Maria-Victoria Zunzunegui
OBJECTIVE: Primary care practitioners need simple algorithms to identify older adults at higher risks of falling. Classification and regression tree (CaRT) analyses are useful tools for identification of clinical predictors of falls. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Community-dwelling older adults at 5 diverse sites: Tirana (Albania), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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