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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351006/variola-minor-in-coalfield-areas-of-england-and-wales-1921-34-geographical-determinants-of-a-national-smallpox-epidemic-that-spread-out-of-effective-control
#1
Matthew R Smallman-Raynor, Sarah Rafferty, Andrew D Cliff
This paper uses techniques of binary logistic regression to identify the spatial determinants of the last national epidemic of smallpox to spread in England and Wales, the variola minor epidemic of 1921-34. Adjusting for age and county-level variations in vaccination coverage in infancy, the analysis identifies a dose-response gradient with increasing odds of elevated smallpox rates in local government areas with (i) medium (odds ratio [OR] = 5.32, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.96-14.41) and high (OR = 11...
March 23, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346907/long-term-associations-of-modeled-and-self-reported-measures-of-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-noise-at-residence-on-prevalent-hypertension-and-blood-pressure
#2
Anitha Pitchika, Regina Hampel, Kathrin Wolf, Ute Kraus, Josef Cyrys, Wolfgang Babisch, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider
Air pollution, traffic noise and noise annoyance are suggested to be associated with hypertension and blood pressure (BP); however, the evidence remains inconsistent. Our study examined the long-term associations of modeled and self-reported measures of air pollution and traffic noise on prevalent hypertension and BP. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 2552 participants aged 31-72years from the KORA F4 (2006-2008) study conducted in the region of Augsburg, Germany. Land-use regression models were used to estimate residential long-term exposure to particulate matter <2...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343083/life-satisfaction-and-perceived-stress-among-young-offenders-in-a-residential-therapeutic-community-latent-change-score-analysis
#3
Kristen N S Tang, Christian S Chan
Recent rehabilitation frameworks underscore the importance of strength-based interventions for young offenders who may lack internal and external resources to manage their stress and plan for their life. This multi-wave longitudinal study investigated the dynamic relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction among a group of young ex-offenders in a residential therapeutic community. Four waves of data were collected from 117 Hong Kong youths (24.0% female, mean age = 17.7) over one year. Latent change score analysis was employed to examine the univairate and bivariate changes of their perceived stress and life satisfaction...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342649/the-prognosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#4
REVIEW
Christoph Mueller, Clive Ballard, Anne Corbett, Dag Aarsland
Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia, yet scarce evidence is available about its prognosis and natural history, which are crucial to inform clinical practice and research. Patients with dementia with Lewy bodies might have a less favourable prognosis, with accelerated cognitive decline, shorter lifespan, and increased admission to residential care than patients with Alzheimer's disease. Health-care costs and, importantly, caregiver burden, are also reported to be higher in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Alzheimer's disease...
March 22, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342590/a-life-cycle-assessment-of-distributed-energy-production-from-organic-waste-two-case-studies-in-europe
#5
Sara Evangelisti, Roland Clift, Carla Tagliaferri, Paola Lettieri
By means of the life cycle assessment methodology, the purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact when biomethane from organic waste produced at residential level is used to supply energy to a group of dwellings in the distributed generation paradigm. Three different Combined Heat and Power systems, such as fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro gas turbine, installed at household level are assessed in two different settings: one in Northern Europe (UK) and one in Southern Europe (Italy). Different operating strategies are investigated for each technology...
March 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339458/rapid-surveillance-for-vector-presence-rsvp-development-of-a-novel-system-for-detecting-aedes-aegypti-and-aedes-albopictus
#6
Brian L Montgomery, Martin A Shivas, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jim Edwards, Nicholas A Hamilton, Cassie C Jansen, Jamie L McMahon, David Warrilow, Andrew F van den Hurk
BACKGROUND: The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP) system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap) samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338886/re-residential-proximity-to-traffic-related-pollution-and-atherosclerosis-in-4-vascular-beds-among-african-american-adults-results-from-the-jackson-heart-study
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337523/hip-fracture-incidence-and-social-deprivation-results-from-a-french-ecological-study
#8
M -P Petit, J Bryère, M Maravic, F Pallaro, C Marcelli
The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and hip fracture (HF) incidence was analyzed in France in 2008. In men and women, a decrease in HF incidence was observed as the social deprivation index increased. This result may be partly due to the protective effect of increasing body weight against HF. INTRODUCTION: Regional variations in hip fracture (HF) incidence exist worldwide. Reasons for these variations remain unknown. As regional variations have also been observed for socioeconomic status, we analyzed the association between socioeconomic deprivation (SED) and HF incidence in France in 2008...
March 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337512/parks-and-green-areas-and-the-risk-for-depression-and-suicidal-indicators
#9
Kyoung-Bok Min, Hyun-Jin Kim, Hye-Jin Kim, Jin-Young Min
OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence that parks and green areas have beneficial effects on mental health; however, most studies have been limited to a certain or small geographic area. This study investigated whether parks and green areas were associated with the risk for depression or suicidal indicators among adults. METHODS: We used the 2009 Korean Community Health Survey data (n = 169,029). Residential geographical codes were used to determine the amount of parks and green areas in each administrative district...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337089/evaluation-of-the-environmental-noise-levels-in-abuja-municipality-using-mobile-phones
#10
T Ibekwe, D Folorunso, A Ebuta, J Amodu, M Nwegbu, Z Mairami, I Liman, C Okebaram, C Chimdi, B Durogbola, H Suleiman, H Mamven, N Baamlong, E Dahilo, I Gbujie, P Ibekwe, O Nwaorgu
BACKGROUND: Noise remains a nuisance which impacts negatively on the physical, social and psychological wellbeing of man. It aggravates chronic illnesses like hypertension and other cardiopulmonary diseases. Unfortunately, increased activities from industrialization and technological transfers/drifts have tumultuously led to increased noise pollution in most of our fast growing cities today and hence the need for concerted efforts in monitoring and regulating our environmental noise. OBJECTIVE: To assess the equivalent noise level (Leq) in Abuja municipality and promote a simple method for regular assessment of Leq within our environment...
December 2016: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335816/diagnostic-delay-and-associated-factors-among-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#11
Khadija Said, Jerry Hella, Grace Mhalu, Mary Chiryankubi, Edward Masika, Thomas Maroa, Francis Mhimbira, Neema Kapalata, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Tanzania is among the 30 countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens. Because TB has a long infectious period, early diagnosis is not only important for reducing transmission, but also for improving treatment outcomes. We assessed diagnostic delay and associated factors among infectious TB patients. METHODS: We interviewed new smear-positive adult pulmonary TB patients enrolled in an ongoing TB cohort study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, between November 2013 and June 2015...
March 24, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335439/mercury-levels-in-human-hair-and-farmed-fish-near-artisanal-and-small-scale-gold-mining-communities-in-the-madre-de-dios-river-basin-peru
#12
Aubrey L Langeland, Rebecca D Hardin, Richard L Neitzel
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334915/salience-and-default-mode-network-dysregulation-in-chronic-cocaine-users-predict-treatment-outcome
#13
Xiujuan Geng, Yuzheng Hu, Hong Gu, Betty Jo Salmeron, Bryon Adinoff, Elliot A Stein, Yihong Yang
While chronic cocaine use is associated with abnormalities in both brain structure and function within and interactions between regions, previous studies have been limited to interrogating structure and function independently, and the detected neural differences have not been applied to independent samples to assess the clinical relevance of results. We investigated consequences of structural differences on resting-state functional connectivity in cocaine addiction and tested whether resting-state functional connectivity of the identified circuits predict relapse in an independent cohort...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334678/evaluating-the-effect-of-conservation-motivations-on-residential-water-demand
#14
Alexander Maas, Christopher Goemans, Dale Manning, Stephan Kroll, Mazdak Arabi, Mariana Rodriguez-McGoffina
Utilities and water suppliers in the southwestern United States have used education and conservation programs over the past two decades in an attempt to ameliorate the pressures of increasing water scarcity. This paper builds on a long history of water demand and environmental psychology literature and attempts to answer a simple question: do households primarily motivated by environmental and social (E&S) considerations consume water differently than households motivated primarily by cost and convenience (C&C)? We find that E&S consumers use less water than C&C consumers on average...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334645/long-term-residential-road-traffic-noise-and-no2-exposure-in-relation-to-risk-of-incident-myocardial-infarction-a-danish-cohort-study
#15
Nina Roswall, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Matthias Ketzel, Anders Gammelmark, Kim Overvad, Anja Olsen, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic is a source of both air pollution and noise; two environmental hazards both found to increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Given the high correlation between these pollutants, it is important to investigate combined effects, in relation to myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Among 50,744 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 2403 cases of incident MI during a median follow-up of 14...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332950/spatiotemporal-trend-analysis-of-metal-concentrations-in-sediments-of-a-residential-california-stream-with-toxicity-and-regulatory-implications
#16
Lenwood W Hall, Ronald D Anderson, William D Killen
The objective of this study was to determine if concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc measured in the sediments of a residential stream in California (Pleasant Grove Creek) have changed temporally or spatially from 2006 to 2016. Threshold Effect Levels (TELs), conservative ecological effects benchmarks, and exceedances for the seven metals were also evaluated over the 11-year time period to provide insight into potential metal toxicity to resident benthic communities. In addition, the bioavailability of metals in sediments was also determined by calculating Simultaneous Extracted Metal/Acid Volatle Sulfide (SEM/AVS) ratios to allow an additional assessment of toxicity...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331734/the-treatment-approach-and-social-support-needs-for-patients-with-breast-cancer
#17
Pınar Soylar, Metin F Genç
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women both in developed and developing countries. It has a higher mortality rate in low and middle income countries due to the late-stage diagnosis. The principal aim of this study was to investigate what patients with breast cancer did before presenting to Turgut Özal Medical Center and its relationship with late stage diagnosis. The study also aimed to identify the level of patients' perceived social support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 200 patients with breast cancer who were treated at the chemotherapy unit during 2013 and 2014...
April 2016: J Breast Health (2013)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331426/environmental-distribution-and-drug-susceptibility-of-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-isolated-from-outdoor-and-indoor-environments
#18
Sachiko Nakamoto, Misaki Sakamoto, Kana Sugimura, Yuki Honmura, Yuki Yamamoto, Natsumi Goda, Hiroo Tamaki, Naoto Burioka
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an environmental bacterium with multi-drug resistance. We isolated Achromobacter xylosoxidans and investigated its susceptibility to 13 drugs. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from rivers and ponds, and 11 samples were swabbed from residential sinks and baths. Nine strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans were isolated from the 89 samples. Five strains, including 2 that were sampled from residential homes, showed high resistance to multiple aminoglycosides. This indicated that Achromobacter xylosoxidans is widely distributed in various outdoor and indoor environments...
March 2017: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331047/ascension-island-a-survey-to-assess-the-presence-of-zika-virus-vectors
#19
G Bullivant, A F Martinou
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Following concerns regarding the spread of Zika virus, Joint Services Health Unit (Cyprus) were tasked to carry out a mosquito survey on the Ascension Island, South Atlantic. This was to determine if vectors of the virus such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were introduced and established on the Island. METHODS: An extensive survey of residential areas and natural habitats was initiated in order to collect mosquito larvae and adults by methods such as larval sampling, adult trapping and human landing catches...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330485/prevalence-of-helminth-and-coccidian-parasites-in-swedish-outdoor-cats-and-the-first-report-of-aelurostrongylus-abstrusus-in-sweden-a-coprological-investigation
#20
Giulio Grandi, Arianna Comin, Osama Ibrahim, Roland Schaper, Ulrika Forshell, Eva Osterman Lind
BACKGROUND: This study was performed in order to gather recent epidemiological data on feline endoparasites in Swedish cats. Faecal samples from 205 outdoor cats were collected by their owners and submitted to the National Veterinary Institute for analysis. The study population was comprised of cats with access to an outdoor environment and with no history of anthelmintic treatment within the last 3 months. Intestinal parasites were detected with a centrifugal flotation technique and Baermann larval sedimentation was performed to detect metastrongylid lungworms...
March 23, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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