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Current opinion of neurobiology

Kirsten C Morley, Jennifer L Cornish, Alon Faingold, Katie Wood, Paul S Haber
Methamphetamine use is a serious public health concern in many countries and is second to cannabis as the most widely abused illicit drug in the world. Effective management for methamphetamine dependence remains elusive and the large majority of methamphetamine users relapse following treatment. Areas covered: Progression in the understanding of the pharmacological basis of methamphetamine use has provided us with innovative opportunities to develop agents to treat dependence. The current review summarizes relevant literature on the neurobiological and clinical correlates associated with methamphetamine use...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
James Giordano, Marom Bikson, Emily S Kappenman, Vincent P Clark, H Branch Coslett, Michael R Hamblin, Roy Hamilton, Ryan Jankord, Walter J Kozumbo, R Andrew McKinley, Michael A Nitsche, J Patrick Reilly, Jessica Richardson, Rachel Wurzman, Edward Calabrese
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory to inform tDCS research...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Patrick C Trettenbrein
Synaptic plasticity is widely considered to be the neurobiological basis of learning and memory by neuroscientists and researchers in adjacent fields, though diverging opinions are increasingly being recognized. From the perspective of what we might call "classical cognitive science" it has always been understood that the mind/brain is to be considered a computational-representational system. Proponents of the information-processing approach to cognitive science have long been critical of connectionist or network approaches to (neuro-)cognitive architecture, pointing to the shortcomings of the associative psychology that underlies Hebbian learning as well as to the fact that synapses are practically unfit to implement symbols...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Nikolaos Papanas, Dan Ziegler
Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) is a common complication of diabetes. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the emerging drugs for DSPN, which aim either at improving alleviation of neuropathic pain or addressing the putative mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy. Expert Opinion: Current treatment does not address the sensory deficits and pathogenesis underlying DSPN, so there is an unmet need for treatment options targeting the natural history of the condition. Some of these pathogenetic therapies have demonstrated clinically relevant improvements in neuropathic endpoints in recent randomised controlled trials...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Michele Fornaro, António E Nardi, Domenico De Berardis, Mauro Giovanni Carta
Psychotic features are common in bipolar disorder (BD), especially during acute mania. Even when early detected, their long-term management is difficult, essentially due to the unsatisfactory efficacy/tolerability profile of currently available treatments, thus soliciting the development of novel experimental drugs. Areas covered: Potential drug targets towards the development of experimental drugs in the treatment of bipolar psychosis are yet to be systematically characterized. Among other potential avenues, the kynurenic acid pathway may represent an intriguing opportunity...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Zhenghua Hou, Wenhao Jiang, Yingying Yin, Zhijun Zhang, Yonggui Yuan
Depression is the most disabling disorder worldwide that accounts for the highest proportion of global burden attributable to mental disorders. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by deep sadness, reduced energy, vegetative nervous system dysregulation, cognitive dysfunction, and even a high suicidal tendency. Although other treatment choices are available, antidepressant medication is the front-line treatment option for MDD. Regarding clinical efficacy, only ~50% of patients respond to frontline antidepressants, and <33% obtain remission...
August 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Sarah E Key-DeLyria, Lori J P Altmann
PURPOSE: Sentence comprehension is a critical skill in today's literate society. Recent evidence suggests that processing and comprehending language taps cognitive as well as linguistic abilities, a finding that has critical import for clinicians who have clients with language disorders. To promote awareness of the impact of cognition, especially executive function (EF) and working memory (WM), this opinion article presents current views of how sentences are processed and links the various steps of the process to specific EF and WM subcomponents...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Mira Fauth-Bühler, Karl Mann, Marc N Potenza
In light of the upcoming eleventh edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), the question arises as to the most appropriate classification of 'Pathological Gambling' ('PG'). Some academic opinion favors leaving PG in the 'Impulse Control Disorder' ('ICD') category, as in ICD-10, whereas others argue that new data especially from the neurobiological area favor allocating it to the category of 'Substance-related and Addictive Disorders' ('SADs'), following the decision in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders...
March 3, 2016: Addiction Biology
Chiye Aoki, Tara G Chowdhury, Gauri S Wable, Yi-Wen Chen
Anorexia nervosa is a mental illness that emerges primarily during early adolescence, with mortality rate that is 200 times higher than that of suicide. The illness is characterized by intense fear of gaining weight, heightened anxiety, obstinate food restriction, often accompanied by excessive exercise, in spite of mounting hunger. The illness affects females nine times more often than males, suggesting an endocrine role in its etiology. Its relapse rate exceeds 25%, yet there are no accepted pharmacological treatments to prevent this...
January 1, 2017: Brain Research
Judith R Homberg, Evan J Kyzar, Adam Michael Stewart, Michael Nguyen, Manoj K Poudel, David J Echevarria, Adam D Collier, Siddharth Gaikwad, Viktor M Klimenko, William Norton, Julian Pittman, Shun Nakamura, Mamiko Koshiba, Hideo Yamanouchi, Sergey A Apryatin, Maria Luisa Scattoni, David M Diamond, Jeremy F P Ullmann, Matthew O Parker, Richard E Brown, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
INTRODUCTION: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are common and severely debilitating. Their chronic nature and reliance on both genetic and environmental factors makes studying NDDs and their treatment a challenging task. AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors discuss the neurobiological mechanisms of NDDs, and present recommendations on their translational research and therapy, outlined by the International Stress and Behavior Society. Various drugs currently prescribed to treat NDDs also represent a highly diverse group...
2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Aleš Grambal, Petr Hluštík, Ján Praško
Fifty years ago, when the effect of antidepressants on panic disorder was described, a significant progress in understanding this anxiety disorder has been made. Theoretical mechanisms and models of fear and panic disorder were proposed and tested in animal models and humans. With growing possibilities of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques, there is an increasing amount of information on the panic disorder. Unfortunately, a number of circumstances lead to inconsistent findings and its interpretations. In our review, we focused on functional MRI in panic disorder, limitations of current studies, possible interpretations and proposals for future direction...
2015: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Emma Richardson, Derek K Tracy
Aims and method It has been observed that some individuals self-diagnose with a bipolar affective disorder and many are later diagnosed with a borderline personality disorder. There is a background context of clinical and neurobiological overlap between these conditions, and fundamental debates on the validity of current diagnostic systems. This qualitative study is the first work to explore the views of patients caught at this diagnostic interface. We predicted that media exposure, stigma and attribution of responsibility would be key factors affecting patient understanding and opinion...
June 2015: BJPsych Bulletin
Benjamin J Ragen, Jordan Seidel, Christine Chollak, Robert H Pietrzak, Alexander Neumeister
INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, chronic and disabling anxiety disorder that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. There is currently no effective pharmacotherapy for PTSD and therefore the discovery of novel, evidence-based treatments is particularly important. This review of potential novel treatments could act as a catalyst for further drug investigation. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors discuss the heterogeneity of PTSD and why this provides a challenge for discovering effective treatments for this disorder...
May 2015: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Maria Gazouli, John Kelsoe, Hagop Akiskal
The treatment of bipolar depression is one of the most challenging issues in contemporary psychiatry. Currently only quetiapine, the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination and recently lurasidone are officially FDA-approved against this condition. The neurobiology of bipolar depression and the possible targets of bipolar antidepressant therapy remain elusive. The current study investigated whether the pharmacodynamic properties of lurasidone fit to a previously developed model which was the first to be derived on the basis of the strict combination of clinical and preclinical data with no input from theory or opinion...
March 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Daryl Shorter, Coreen B Domingo, Thomas R Kosten
INTRODUCTION: Cocaine use is a global public health concern of significant magnitude, negatively impacting both the individual as well as larger society. Despite numerous trials, the discovery of an effective medication for treatment of cocaine use disorder remains elusive. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the emerging pharmacotherapies for treatment of cocaine use disorder, focusing on those medications that are currently in Phase II or III human clinical trials...
March 2015: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Lucie Bankovská Motlová, Eva Dragomirecká, Anna Blabolová, Filip Španiel, Andrea Slováková
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined current knowledge about psychoeducation for schizophrenia in Czech Republic. METHODS: The authors sent a screening survey to 550 mental health-care facilities and administered a detailed questionnaire to 113 providers of mental health and social services and to 200 service users. The authors also carried out 14 focus groups and 16 individual interviews. RESULTS: Forty-six departments provided some type of psychoeducation for schizophrenia; of these, 16 provided family psychoeducation for patients and relatives and 1 provided psychoeducation only for relatives...
April 2015: Academic Psychiatry
Thomas Hillemacher, Lorenzo Leggio, Annemarie Heberlein
Introduction: Alcohol dependence is one of the most important psychiatric disorders leading to enormous harm in individuals and indeed within society. Yet, although alcohol dependence is a disease of significant importance, the availability of efficacious pharmacological treatment is still limited. Areas covered: The current review focuses on neurobiological pathways that are the rationale for recent preclinical and clinical studies testing novel compounds that could be used as treatments for alcohol dependence...
August 28, 2014: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Corinna Klein, Anton Bespalov
INTRODUCTION: Typical and atypical antipsychotics are efficacious treatments for early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) with very subtle differences in their efficacy. Therefore, when choosing an antipsychotic, the side-effect profile of the individual antipsychotic needs to be taken into account. There is a growing body of neurobiological and genetic evidence for early-onset patients, but these findings have not yet translated into the clinic. AREAS COVERED: The authors summarize the current treatment options for EOS and discuss the novel treatment options that are under evaluation...
November 2014: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Eliana Vassena, Ruth M Krebs, Massimo Silvetti, Wim Fias, Tom Verguts
Acting in an uncertain environment requires estimating the probability and the value of potential outcomes. These computations are typically ascribed to various parts of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but the functional architecture of this region remains debated. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) encodes reward prediction and outcome (i.e. win vs lose, Silvetti, Seurinck, & Verguts, 2013. Cortex, 49(6), 1627-35. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.05.008). An outcome-related value signal has also been reported in the ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (vmPFC, Rangel & Hare, 2010...
July 2014: Neuropsychologia
Christoph Anacker
INTRODUCTION: The success of antidepressant research has long been challenged by a limited mechanistic understanding of depression pathogenesis and antidepressant treatment response. Progress in this field has thereby consistently been hindered by a lack of novel conceptual approaches and sophisticated experimental techniques to dissect the highly intricate neurobiology of depression. Using fresh approaches to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying depression will thus be vital for discovery of novel antidepressant targets...
April 2014: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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