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Annual Review of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852095/visual-function-organization-and-development-of-the-mouse-superior-colliculus
#1
Jianhua Cang, Elise Savier, Jad Barchini, Xiaorong Liu
The superior colliculus (SC) is the most prominent visual center in mice. Studies over the past decade have greatly advanced our understanding of the function, organization, and development of the mouse SC, which has rapidly become a popular model in vision research. These studies have described the diverse and cell-type-specific visual response properties in the mouse SC, revealed their laminar and topographic organizations, and linked the mouse SC and downstream pathways with visually guided behaviors. Here, we summarize these findings, compare them with the rich literature of SC studies in other species, and highlight important gaps and exciting future directions...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852083/endogenous-and-exogenous-opioids-in-pain
#2
Gregory Corder, Daniel C Castro, Michael R Bruchas, Grégory Scherrer
Opioids are the most commonly used and effective analgesic treatments for severe pain, but they have recently come under scrutiny owing to epidemic levels of abuse and overdose. These compounds act on the endogenous opioid system, which comprises four G protein-coupled receptors (mu, delta, kappa, and nociceptin) and four major peptide families (β-endorphin, enkephalins, dynorphins, and nociceptin/orphanin FQ). In this review, we first describe the functional organization and pharmacology of the endogenous opioid system...
May 31, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799773/cognition-as-a-window-into-neuronal-population-space
#3
Douglas A Ruff, Amy M Ni, Marlene R Cohen
Understanding how cognitive processes affect the responses of sensory neurons may clarify the relationship between neuronal population activity and behavior. However, tools for analyzing neuronal activity have not kept up with technological advances in recording from large neuronal populations. Here, we describe prevalent hypotheses of how cognitive processes affect sensory neurons, driven largely by a model based on the activity of single neurons or pools of neurons as the units of computation. We then use simple simulations to expand this model to a new conceptual framework that focuses on subspaces of population activity as the relevant units of computation, uses comparisons between brain areas or to behavior to guide analyses of these subspaces, and suggests that population activity is optimized to decode the large variety of stimuli and tasks that animals encounter in natural behavior...
May 23, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727596/the-accessory-olfactory-system-innately-specialized-or-microcosm-of-mammalian-circuitry
#4
Timothy E Holy
In mammals, the accessory olfactory system is a distinct circuit that has received attention for its role in detecting and responding to pheromones. While the neuroscientific investigation of this system is comparatively new, recent advances and its compact size have made it an attractive model for developing an end-to-end understanding of such questions as regulation of essential behaviors, plasticity, and individual recognition. Recent discoveries have indicated a need to reevaluate our conception of this system, suggesting that (a) physical principles-rather than biological necessity-play an underappreciated role in its raison d'être and that (b) the anatomy of downstream projections is not dominated by unique specializations but instead consists of an abbreviated cortical/basal ganglia motif reminiscent of other sensorimotor systems...
May 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709212/memory-allocation-mechanisms-and-function
#5
Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Memories for events are thought to be represented in sparse, distributed neuronal ensembles (or engrams). In this article, we review how neurons are chosen to become part of a particular engram, via a process of neuronal allocation. Experiments in rodents indicate that eligible neurons compete for allocation to a given engram, with more excitable neurons winning this competition. Moreover, fluctuations in neuronal excitability determine how engrams interact, promoting either memory integration (via coallocation to overlapping engrams) or separation (via disallocation to nonoverlapping engrams)...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709211/neural-circuits-of-sexual-behavior-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Scott W Emmons
The recently determined connectome of the Caenorhabditis elegans adult male, together with the known connectome of the hermaphrodite, opens up the possibility for a comprehensive description of sexual dimorphism in this species and the identification and study of the neural circuits underlying sexual behaviors. The C. elegans nervous system consists of 294 neurons shared by both sexes plus neurons unique to each sex, 8 in the hermaphrodite and 91 in the male. The sex-specific neurons are well integrated within the remainder of the nervous system; in the male, 16% of the input to the shared component comes from male-specific neurons...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709210/the-dynamic-basis-of-respiratory-rhythm-generation-one-breath-at-a-time
#7
Jan-Marino Ramirez, Nathan A Baertsch
Rhythmicity is a universal timing mechanism in the brain, and the rhythmogenic mechanisms are generally dynamic. This is illustrated for the neuronal control of breathing, a behavior that occurs as a one-, two-, or three-phase rhythm. Each breath is assembled stochastically, and increasing evidence suggests that each phase can be generated independently by a dedicated excitatory microcircuit. Within each microcircuit, rhythmicity emerges through three entangled mechanisms: (a) glutamatergic transmission, which is amplified by (b) intrinsic bursting and opposed by (c) concurrent inhibition...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709209/anxiety-depression-and-decision-making-a-computational-perspective
#8
Sonia J Bishop, Christopher Gagne
In everyday life, the outcomes of our actions are rarely certain. Further, we often lack the information needed to precisely estimate the probability and value of potential outcomes as well as how much effort will be required by the courses of action under consideration. Under such conditions of uncertainty, individual differences in the estimation and weighting of these variables, and in reliance on model-free versus model-based decision making, have the potential to strongly influence our behavior. Both anxiety and depression are associated with difficulties in decision making...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709208/a-guide-to-emerging-technologies-for-large-scale-and-whole-brain-optical-imaging-of-neuronal-activity
#9
Siegfried Weisenburger, Alipasha Vaziri
The mammalian brain is a densely interconnected network that consists of millions to billions of neurons. Decoding how information is represented and processed by this neural circuitry requires the ability to capture and manipulate the dynamics of large populations at high speed and high resolution over a large area of the brain. Although the use of optical approaches by the neuroscience community has rapidly increased over the past two decades, most microscopy approaches are unable to record the activity of all neurons comprising a functional network across the mammalian brain at relevant temporal and spatial resolutions...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709207/viral-strategies-for-targeting-the-central-and-peripheral-nervous-systems
#10
Claire N Bedbrook, Benjamin E Deverman, Viviana Gradinaru
Recombinant viruses allow for targeted transgene expression in specific cell populations throughout the nervous system. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) is among the most commonly used viruses for neuroscience research. Recombinant AAVs (rAAVs) are highly versatile and can package most cargo composed of desired genes within the capsid's ∼5-kb carrying capacity. Numerous regulatory elements and intersectional strategies have been validated in rAAVs to enable cell type-specific expression. rAAVs can be delivered to specific neuronal populations or globally throughout the animal...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709206/closing-the-loop-from-motor-neuroscience-to-neurorehabilitation
#11
Ryan T Roemmich, Amy J Bastian
The fields of human motor control, motor learning, and neurorehabilitation have long been linked by the intuition that understanding how we move (and learn to move) leads to better rehabilitation. In reality, these fields have remained largely separate. Our knowledge of the neural control of movement has expanded, but principles that can directly impact rehabilitation efficacy remain somewhat sparse. This raises two important questions: What can basic studies of motor learning really tell us about rehabilitation, and are we asking the right questions to improve the lives of patients? This review aims to contextualize recent advances in computational and behavioral studies of human motor learning within the framework of neurorehabilitation...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709205/long-term-plasticity-of-neurotransmitter-release-emerging-mechanisms-and-contributions-to-brain-function-and-disease
#12
Hannah R Monday, Thomas J Younts, Pablo E Castillo
Long-lasting changes of brain function in response to experience rely on diverse forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Chief among them are long-term potentiation and long-term depression of neurotransmitter release, which are widely expressed by excitatory and inhibitory synapses throughout the central nervous system and can dynamically regulate information flow in neural circuits. This review article explores recent advances in presynaptic long-term plasticity mechanisms and contributions to circuit function...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661037/lysosomes-and-brain-health
#13
Jaiprakash Sharma, Alberto di Ronza, Parisa Lotfi, Marco Sardiello
One of the fundamental properties of the cell is the capability to digest and remodel its own components according to metabolic and developmental needs. This is accomplished via the autophagy-lysosome system, a pathway of critical importance in the brain, where it contributes to neuronal plasticity and must protect nonreplaceable neurons from the potentially harmful accumulation of cellular waste. The study of lysosomal biogenesis and function in the context of common and rare neurodegenerative diseases has revealed that a dysfunctional autophagy-lysosome system is the shared nexus where multiple, interconnected pathogenic events take place...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618286/neuronal-activity-dependent-control-of-postnatal-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis
#14
Ragnihldur T Káradóttir, Chay T Kuo
The addition of new neurons and oligodendroglia in the postnatal and adult mammalian brain presents distinct forms of gray and white matter plasticity. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling postnatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, revealing important parallels to principles governing the embryonic stages. While during central nervous system development, scripted temporal and spatial patterns of neural and glial progenitor proliferation and differentiation are necessary to create the nervous system architecture, it remains unclear what driving forces maintain and sustain postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) production of new neurons and glia...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618285/evolution-of-new-mirnas-and-cerebro-cortical-development
#15
Kenneth S Kosik, Tomasz Nowakowski
The noncoding portion of the genome, including microRNAs, has been fertile evolutionary soil for cortical development in primates. A major contribution to cortical expansion in primates is the generation of novel precursor cell populations. Because miRNA expression profiles track closely with cell identity, it is likely that numerous novel microRNAs have contributed to cellular diversity in the brain. The tools to determine the genomic context within which novel microRNAs emerge and how they become integrated into molecular circuitry are now in hand...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618284/toward-an-integrative-theory-of-thalamic-function
#16
Rajeev V Rikhye, Ralf D Wimmer, Michael M Halassa
The thalamus has long been suspected to have an important role in cognition, yet recent theories have favored a more corticocentric view. According to this view, the thalamus is an excitatory feedforward relay to or between cortical regions, and cognitively relevant computations are exclusively cortical. Here, we review anatomical, physiological, and behavioral studies along evolutionary and theoretical dimensions, arguing for essential and unique thalamic computations in cognition. Considering their architectural features as well as their ability to initiate, sustain, and switch cortical activity, thalamic circuits appear uniquely suited for computing contextual signals that rapidly reconfigure task-relevant cortical representations...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561702/neural-mechanisms-of-social-cognition-in-primates
#17
Marco K Wittmann, Patricia L Lockwood, Matthew F S Rushworth
Activity in a network of areas spanning the superior temporal sulcus, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is concerned with how nonhuman primates negotiate the social worlds in which they live. Central aspects of these circuits are retained in humans. Activity in these areas codes for primates' interactions with one another, their attempts to find out about one another, and their attempts to prevent others from finding out too much about themselves. Moreover, important features of the social world, such as dominance status, cooperation, and competition, modulate activity in these areas...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494213/electrophysiological-source-imaging-a-noninvasive-window-to-brain-dynamics
#18
Bin He, Abbas Sohrabpour, Emery Brown, Zhongming Liu
Brain activity and connectivity are distributed in the three-dimensional space and evolve in time. It is important to image brain dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive measurements associated with complex neural activations and interactions that encode brain functions. Electrophysiological source imaging estimates the underlying brain electrical sources from EEG and MEG measurements. It offers increasingly improved spatial resolution and intrinsically high temporal resolution for imaging large-scale brain activity and connectivity on a wide range of timescales...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490197/basic-and-translational-neuroscience-of-childhood-onset-dystonia-a-control-theory-perspective
#19
Terence D Sanger
Dystonia is a collection of symptoms with involuntary muscle activation causing hypertonia, hyperkinetic movements, and overflow. In children, dystonia can have numerous etiologies with varying neuroanatomic distribution. The semiology of dystonia can be explained by gain-of-function failure of a feedback controller that is responsible for stabilizing posture and movement. Because postural control is maintained by a widely distributed network, many different anatomic regions may be responsible for symptoms of dystonia, although all features of dystonia can be explained by uncontrolled activation or hypersensitivity of motor cortical regions that can cause increased reflex gain, inserted postures, or sensitivity to irrelevant sensory variables...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490196/structural-plasticity-in-adulthood-with-motor-learning-and-stroke-rehabilitation
#20
Cassandra Sampaio-Baptista, Zeena-Britt Sanders, Heidi Johansen-Berg
The development of advanced noninvasive techniques to image the human brain has enabled the demonstration of structural plasticity during adulthood in response to motor learning. Understanding the basic mechanisms of structural plasticity in the context of motor learning is essential to improve motor rehabilitation in stroke patients. Here, we review and discuss the emerging evidence for motor-learning-related structural plasticity and the implications for stroke rehabilitation. In the clinical context, a few studies have started to assess the effects of rehabilitation on structural measures to understand recovery poststroke and additionally to predict intervention outcomes...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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