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Annual Review of Neuroscience

Liming Qiu, Trisha Upadhyaya, Angela An Qi See, Yew Poh Ng, Nicolas Kon Kam King
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 25% of all strokes in Singapore. Incidence of recurrent ICH is not well studied, and previous studies have reported inconsistent findings in the rate and risk factors associated with ICH recurrences. We aimed to study the incidence of recurrent ICHs in Singapore and to identify the associated risk factors as well as pattern of ICH recurrence. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive admissions for intracerebral hemorrhage at the National Neuroscience Institute between January 2006 and November 2013 was performed...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Kristina Simonyan, Hermann Ackermann, Edward F Chang, Jeremy D Greenlee
Speech is one of the most unique features of human communication. Our ability to articulate our thoughts by means of speech production depends critically on the integrity of the motor cortex. Long thought to be a low-order brain region, exciting work in the past years is overturning this notion. Here, we highlight some of major experimental advances in speech motor control research and discuss the emerging findings about the complexity of speech motocortical organization and its large-scale networks. This review summarizes the talks presented at a symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Neuroscience; it does not represent a comprehensive review of contemporary literature in the broader field of speech motor control...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lucas Sjulson, Daniela Cassataro, Shamik DasGupta, Gero Miesenböck
Genetically encoded tools for visualizing and manipulating neurons in vivo have led to significant advances in neuroscience, in large part because of the ability to target expression to specific cell populations of interest. Current methods enable targeting based on marker gene expression, development, anatomical projection pattern, synaptic connectivity, and recent activity as well as combinations of these factors. Here, we review these methods, focusing on issues of practical implementation as well as areas for future improvement...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
Ana Guinote
Sociocognitive research has demonstrated that power affects how people feel, think, and act. In this article, I review literature from social psychology, neuroscience, management, and animal research and propose an integrated framework of power as an intensifier of goal-related approach motivation. A growing literature shows that power energizes thought, speech, and action and orients individuals toward salient goals linked to power roles, predispositions, tasks, and opportunities. Power magnifies self-expression linked to active parts of the self (the active self), enhancing confidence, self-regulation, and prioritization of efforts toward advancing focal goals...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
John P O'Doherty, Jeffrey Cockburn, Wolfgang M Pauli
In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
Samuel J Gershman, Nathaniel D Daw
Wereview the psychology and neuroscience of reinforcement learning (RL), which has experienced significant progress in the past two decades, enabled by the comprehensive experimental study of simple learning and decisionmaking tasks. However, one challenge in the study of RL is computational: The simplicity of these tasks ignores important aspects of reinforcement learning in the real world: (a) State spaces are high-dimensional, continuous, and partially observable; this implies that (b) data are relatively sparse and, indeed, precisely the same situation may never be encountered twice; furthermore, (c) rewards depend on the long-term consequences of actions in ways that violate the classical assumptions that make RL tractable...
September 2, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Adrian Carter, Joshua Hendrikse, Natalia Lee, Murat Yücel, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Zane Andrews, Wayne Hall
There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Adam Kohn, Ruben Coen-Cagli, Ingmar Kanitscheider, Alexandre Pouget
Brain function involves the activity of neuronal populations. Much recent effort has been devoted to measuring the activity of neuronal populations in different parts of the brain under various experimental conditions. Population activity patterns contain rich structure, yet many studies have focused on measuring pairwise relationships between members of a larger population-termed noise correlations. Here we review recent progress in understanding how these correlations affect population information, how information should be quantified, and what mechanisms may give rise to correlations...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Hailan Hu
To benefit from opportunities and cope with challenges in the environment, animals must adapt their behavior to acquire rewards and to avoid punishments. Maladaptive changes in the neuromodulatory systems and neural circuits for reward and aversion can lead to manifestation of several prominent psychiatric disorders including addiction and depression. Recent progress is pushing the boundaries of knowledge on two major fronts in research on reward and aversion: First, new layers of complexity have been reported on the functions of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuromodulatory systems in reward and aversion...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Alyssa A Brewer, Brian Barton
One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Maria Kousi, Nicholas Katsanis
Studies of syndromic hydrocephalus have led to the identification of >100 causative genes. Even though this work has illuminated numerous pathways associated with hydrocephalus, it has also highlighted the fact that the genetics underlying this phenotype are more complex than anticipated originally. Mendelian forms of hydrocephalus account for a small fraction of the genetic burden, with clear evidence of background-dependent effects of alleles on penetrance and expressivity of driver mutations in key developmental and homeostatic pathways...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Julio D Perez, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Catherine Dulac
Mammalian evolution entailed multiple innovations in gene regulation, including the emergence of genomic imprinting, an epigenetic regulation leading to the preferential expression of a gene from its maternal or paternal allele. Genomic imprinting is highly prevalent in the brain, yet, until recently, its central roles in neural processes have not been fully appreciated. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of adult and developmental brain functions influenced by imprinted genes, from neural development and wiring to synaptic function and plasticity, energy balance, social behaviors, emotions, and cognition...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Christian Lüscher
Addiction is a disease of altered behavior. Addicts use drugs compulsively and will continue to do so despite negative consequences. Even after prolonged periods of abstinence, addicts are at risk of relapse, particularly when cues evoke memories that are associated with drug use. Rodent models mimic many of the core components of addiction, from the initial drug reinforcement to cue-associated relapse and continued drug intake despite negative consequences. Rodent models have also enabled unprecedented mechanistic insight into addiction, revealing plasticity of glutamatergic synaptic transmission evoked by the strong activation of mesolimbic dopamine-a defining feature of all addictive drugs-as a neural substrate for these drug-adaptive behaviors...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Sarah R Heilbronner, Benjamin Y Hayden
The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has attracted great interest from neuroscientists because it is associated with so many important cognitive functions. Despite, or perhaps because of, its rich functional repertoire, we lack a single comprehensive view of its function. Most research has approached this puzzle from the top down, using aggregate measures such as neuroimaging. We provide a view from the bottom up, with a focus on single-unit responses and anatomy. We summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the three major approaches to characterizing the dACC: as a monitor, as a controller, and as an economic structure...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Alessandro Fraldi, Andrés D Klein, Diego L Medina, Carmine Settembre
Recent studies of autophagic and lysosomal pathways have significantly changed our understanding of lysosomes; once thought to be simple degradative and recycling centers, lysosomes are now known to be organelles capable of influencing signal transduction, via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and regulating gene expression, via transcription factor EB (TFEB) and other transcription factors. These pathways are particularly relevant to maintaining brain homeostasis, as dysfunction of the endolysosomal and autophagic pathways has been associated with common neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's, and lysosomal storage disorders, a group of inherited disorders characterized by the intralysosomal buildup of partially degraded metabolites...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
S E Roian Egnor, Kristin Branson
In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
David J Freedman, John A Assad
Categorization is our ability to flexibly assign sensory stimuli into discrete, behaviorally relevant groupings. Categorical decisions can be used to study decision making more generally by dissociating category identity of stimuli from the actions subjects use to signal their decisions. Here we discuss the evidence for such abstract categorical encoding in the primate brain and consider the relationship with other perceptual decision paradigms. Recent work on visual categorization has examined neuronal activity across a hierarchically organized network of cortical areas in monkeys trained to group visual stimuli into arbitrary categories...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
D A Friedman, D M Gordon
Many exciting studies have begun to elucidate the genetics of the morphological and physiological diversity of ants, but as yet few studies have investigated the genetics of ant behavior directly. Ant genomes are marked by extreme rates of gene turnover, especially in gene families related to olfactory communication, such as the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons and the perception of environmental semiochemicals. Transcriptomic and epigenetic differences are apparent between reproductive and sterile females, males and females, and workers that differ in body size...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Carlo Sala Frigerio, Bart De Strooper
Ten years of remarkable progress in understanding the fundamental biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease have been followed by ten years of remarkable and increasing clinical insight into the natural progression of the disorder. The concept of a long, intermediary, prodromal phase between the first appearance of amyloid plaques and tangles and the manifestation of dementia is now well established. The major challenge for the next decade is to chart the many cellular processes that underlie this phase and link the biochemical alterations to the clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Brian A Wandell
Progress in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now makes it possible to identify the major white matter tracts in the living human brain. These tracts are important because they carry many of the signals communicated between different brain regions. MRI methods coupled with biophysical modeling can measure the tissue properties and structural features of the tracts that impact our ability to think, feel, and perceive. This review describes the fundamental ideas of the MRI methods used to identify the major white matter tracts in the living human brain...
July 8, 2016: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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