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Annual Review of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661727/transcriptomic-perspectives-on-neocortical-structure-development-evolution-and-disease
#1
Ed S Lein, T Grant Belgard, Michael Hawrylycz, Zoltán Molnár
The cerebral cortex is the source of our most complex cognitive capabilities and a vulnerable target of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Transcriptomics offers a new approach to understanding the cortex at the level of its underlying genetic code, and rapid technological advances have propelled this field to the high-throughput study of the complete set of transcribed genes at increasingly fine resolution to the level of individual cells. These tools have revealed features of the genetic architecture of adult cortical areas, layers, and cell types, as well as spatiotemporal patterning during development...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598717/inhibitory-plasticity-balance-control-and-codependence
#2
Guillaume Hennequin, Everton J Agnes, Tim P Vogels
Inhibitory neurons, although relatively few in number, exert powerful control over brain circuits. They stabilize network activity in the face of strong feedback excitation and actively engage in computations. Recent studies reveal the importance of a precise balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits, which often requires exquisite fine-tuning of inhibitory connections. We review inhibitory synaptic plasticity and its roles in shaping both feedforward and feedback control. We discuss the necessity of complex, codependent plasticity mechanisms to build nontrivial, functioning networks, and we end by summarizing experimental evidence of such interactions...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576511/elucidating-opportunities-and-pitfalls-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-to-optimize-and-facilitate-clinical-translation
#3
REVIEW
Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Darik A O'Neil, Megan J LaPorte, Jeffrey P Cheng, Joshua A Beitchman, Theresa Currier Thomas, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
The aim of this review is to discuss the research presented in a symposium entitled "Current progress in characterizing therapeutic strategies and challenges in experimental CNS injury" which was presented at the 2016 International Behavioral Neuroscience Society annual meeting. Herein we discuss diffuse and focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ensuing chronic behavioral deficits as well as potential rehabilitative approaches. We also discuss the effects of stress on executive function after TBI as well as the response of the endocrine system and regulatory feedback mechanisms...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#4
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous non-vision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489490/the-role-of-variability-in-motor-learning
#5
Ashesh K Dhawale, Maurice A Smith, Bence P Ölveczky
Trial-to-trial variability in the execution of movements and motor skills is ubiquitous and widely considered to be the unwanted consequence of a noisy nervous system. However, recent studies have suggested that motor variability may also be a feature of how sensorimotor systems operate and learn. This view, rooted in reinforcement learning theory, equates motor variability with purposeful exploration of motor space that, when coupled with reinforcement, can drive motor learning. Here we review studies that explore the relationship between motor variability and motor learning in both humans and animal models...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471714/circuits-and-mechanisms-for-surround-modulation-in-visual-cortex
#6
Alessandra Angelucci, Maryam Bijanzadeh, Lauri Nurminen, Frederick Federer, Sam Merlin, Paul C Bressloff
Surround modulation (SM) is a fundamental property of sensory neurons in many species and sensory modalities. SM is the ability of stimuli in the surround of a neuron's receptive field (RF) to modulate (typically suppress) the neuron's response to stimuli simultaneously presented inside the RF, a property thought to underlie optimal coding of sensory information and important perceptual functions. Understanding the circuit and mechanisms for SM can reveal fundamental principles of computations in sensory cortices, from mouse to human...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460185/establishing-wiring-specificity-in-visual-system-circuits-from-the-retina-to-the-brain
#7
Chi Zhang, Alex L Kolodkin, Rachel O Wong, Rebecca E James
The retina is a tremendously complex image processor, containing numerous cell types that form microcircuits encoding different aspects of the visual scene. Each microcircuit exhibits a distinct pattern of synaptic connectivity. The developmental mechanisms responsible for this patterning are just beginning to be revealed. Furthermore, signals processed by different retinal circuits are relayed to specific, often distinct, brain regions. Thus, much work has focused on understanding the mechanisms that wire retinal axonal projections to their appropriate central targets...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441118/mechanisms-of-hippocampal-aging-and-the-potential-for-rejuvenation
#8
Xuelai Fan, Elizabeth G Wheatley, Saul A Villeda
The past two decades have seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the multifactorial drivers of hippocampal aging and cognitive decline. Recent findings have also raised the possibility of functional rejuvenation in the aged hippocampus. In this review, we aim to synthesize the mechanisms that drive hippocampal aging and evaluate critically the potential for rejuvenation. We discuss the functional changes in synaptic plasticity and regenerative potential of the aged hippocampus, followed by mechanisms of microglia aging, and assess the cross talk between these proaging processes...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441117/sexual-dimorphism-of-parental-care-from-genes-to-behavior
#9
Noga Zilkha, Niv Scott, Tali Kimchi
Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441116/nerve-growth-factor-and-pain-mechanisms
#10
Franziska Denk, David L Bennett, Stephen B McMahon
Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism is on the verge of becoming a powerful analgesic treatment for numerous conditions, including osteoarthritis and lower back pain. This review summarizes the historical research, both fundamental and clinical, that led to our current understanding of NGF biology. We also discuss the surprising number of questions that remain about NGF expression patterns and NGF's various functions and interaction partners in relation to persistent pain and the potential side effects of anti-NGF therapy...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441115/neuromodulation-of-innate-behaviors-in-drosophila
#11
Susy M Kim, Chih-Ying Su, Jing W Wang
Animals are born with a rich repertoire of robust behaviors that are critical for their survival. However, innate behaviors are also highly adaptable to an animal's internal state and external environment. Neuromodulators, including biogenic amines, neuropeptides, and hormones, are released to signal changes in animals' circumstances and serve to reconfigure neural circuits. This circuit flexibility allows animals to modify their behavioral responses according to environmental cues, metabolic demands, and physiological states...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441114/neural-circuitry-of-reward-prediction-error
#12
Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Neir Eshel, Naoshige Uchida
Dopamine neurons facilitate learning by calculating reward prediction error, or the difference between expected and actual reward. Despite two decades of research, it remains unclear how dopamine neurons make this calculation. Here we review studies that tackle this problem from a diverse set of approaches, from anatomy to electrophysiology to computational modeling and behavior. Several patterns emerge from this synthesis: that dopamine neurons themselves calculate reward prediction error, rather than inherit it passively from upstream regions; that they combine multiple separate and redundant inputs, which are themselves interconnected in a dense recurrent network; and that despite the complexity of inputs, the output from dopamine neurons is remarkably homogeneous and robust...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418757/visual-circuits-for-direction-selectivity
#13
Alex S Mauss, Anna Vlasits, Alexander Borst, Marla Feller
Images projected onto the retina of an animal eye are rarely still. Instead, they usually contain motion signals originating either from moving objects or from retinal slip caused by self-motion. Accordingly, motion signals tell the animal in which direction a predator, prey, or the animal itself is moving. At the neural level, visual motion detection has been proposed to extract directional information by a delay-and-compare mechanism, representing a classic example of neural computation. Neurons responding selectively to motion in one but not in the other direction have been identified in many systems, most prominently in the mammalian retina and the fly optic lobe...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399689/the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-placebo-effects-concepts-predictions-and-physiology
#14
Stephan Geuter, Leonie Koban, Tor D Wager
Placebos have been used ubiquitously throughout the history of medicine. Expectations and associative learning processes are important psychological determinants of placebo effects, but their underlying brain mechanisms are only beginning to be understood. We examine the brain systems underlying placebo effects on pain, autonomic, and immune responses. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), insula, amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray emerge as central brain structures underlying placebo effects...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377687/the-changing-landscape-of-neuroscience-research-2006-2015-a-bibliometric-study
#15
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Tazuko K Goto, W Keung Leung
Background: It is beneficial to evaluate changes in neuroscience research field regarding research directions and topics over a defined period. Such information enables stakeholders to quickly identify the most influential research and incorporate latest evidence into research-informed education. To our knowledge, no study reported changes in neuroscience literature over the last decade. Therefore, the current study determined research terms with highest citation scores, compared publication shares of research areas and contributing countries in this field from 2006 to 2015 and identified the most productive journals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375770/neuromodulation-and-strategic-action-choice-in-drosophila-aggression
#16
Kenta Asahina
In this review, I discuss current knowledge and outstanding questions on the neuromodulators that influence aggressive behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. I first present evidence that Drosophila exchange information during an agonistic interaction and choose appropriate actions based on this information. I then discuss the influence of several biogenic amines and neuropeptides on aggressive behavior. One striking characteristic of neuromodulation is that it can configure a neural circuit dynamically, enabling one circuit to generate multiple outcomes...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375769/toward-a-rational-and-mechanistic-account-of-mental-effort
#17
Amitai Shenhav, Sebastian Musslick, Falk Lieder, Wouter Kool, Thomas L Griffiths, Jonathan D Cohen, Matthew M Botvinick
In spite of its familiar phenomenology, the mechanistic basis for mental effort remains poorly understood. Although most researchers agree that mental effort is aversive and stems from limitations in our capacity to exercise cognitive control, it is unclear what gives rise to those limitations and why they result in an experience of control as costly. The presence of these control costs also raises further questions regarding how best to allocate mental effort to minimize those costs and maximize the attendant benefits...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375768/learning-in-the-rodent-motor-cortex
#18
Andrew J Peters, Haixin Liu, Takaki Komiyama
The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375767/zebrafish-behavior-opportunities-and-challenges
#19
Michael B Orger, Gonzalo G de Polavieja
A great challenge in neuroscience is understanding how activity in the brain gives rise to behavior. The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model to address this challenge, thanks to the capacity, at the larval stage, for precise behavioral measurements, genetic manipulations, and recording and manipulation of neural activity noninvasively and at single-neuron resolution throughout the whole brain. These techniques are being further developed for application in freely moving animals and juvenile stages to study more complex behaviors including learning, decision making, and social interactions...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375650/emerging-frontiers-of-neuroengineering-a-network-science-of-brain-connectivity
#20
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati, Scott T Grafton
Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural interactions (synapses, white matter tracts) as edges in that graph...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
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