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Annual Review of Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661037/lysosomes-and-brain-health
#1
Jaiprakash Sharma, Alberto di Ronza, Parisa Lotfi, Marco Sardiello
One of the fundamental properties of the cell is the capability to digest and remodel its own components according to metabolic and developmental needs. This is accomplished via the autophagy-lysosome system, a pathway of critical importance in the brain, where it contributes to neuronal plasticity and must protect nonreplaceable neurons from the potentially harmful accumulation of cellular waste. The study of lysosomal biogenesis and function in the context of common and rare neurodegenerative diseases has revealed that a dysfunctional autophagy-lysosome system is the shared nexus where multiple, interconnected pathogenic events take place...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618286/neuronal-activity-dependent-control-of-postnatal-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis
#2
Ragnihldur T Káradóttir, Chay T Kuo
The addition of new neurons and oligodendroglia in the postnatal and adult mammalian brain presents distinct forms of gray and white matter plasticity. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling postnatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, revealing important parallels to principles governing the embryonic stages. While during central nervous system development, scripted temporal and spatial patterns of neural and glial progenitor proliferation and differentiation are necessary to create the nervous system architecture, it remains unclear what driving forces maintain and sustain postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) production of new neurons and glia...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618285/evolution-of-new-mirnas-and-cerebro-cortical-development
#3
Kenneth S Kosik, Tomasz Nowakowski
The noncoding portion of the genome, including microRNAs, has been fertile evolutionary soil for cortical development in primates. A major contribution to cortical expansion in primates is the generation of novel precursor cell populations. Because miRNA expression profiles track closely with cell identity, it is likely that numerous novel microRNAs have contributed to cellular diversity in the brain. The tools to determine the genomic context within which novel microRNAs emerge and how they become integrated into molecular circuitry are now in hand...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618284/toward-an-integrative-theory-of-thalamic-function
#4
Rajeev V Rikhye, Ralf D Wimmer, Michael M Halassa
The thalamus has long been suspected to have an important role in cognition, yet recent theories have favored a more corticocentric view. According to this view, the thalamus is an excitatory feedforward relay to or between cortical regions, and cognitively relevant computations are exclusively cortical. Here, we review anatomical, physiological, and behavioral studies along evolutionary and theoretical dimensions, arguing for essential and unique thalamic computations in cognition. Considering their architectural features as well as their ability to initiate, sustain, and switch cortical activity, thalamic circuits appear uniquely suited for computing contextual signals that rapidly reconfigure task-relevant cortical representations...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561702/neural-mechanisms-of-social-cognition-in-primates
#5
Marco K Wittmann, Patricia L Lockwood, Matthew F S Rushworth
Activity in a network of areas spanning the superior temporal sulcus, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is concerned with how nonhuman primates negotiate the social worlds in which they live. Central aspects of these circuits are retained in humans. Activity in these areas codes for primates' interactions with one another, their attempts to find out about one another, and their attempts to prevent others from finding out too much about themselves. Moreover, important features of the social world, such as dominance status, cooperation, and competition, modulate activity in these areas...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494213/electrophysiological-source-imaging-a-noninvasive-window-to-brain-dynamics
#6
Bin He, Abbas Sohrabpour, Emery Brown, Zhongming Liu
Brain activity and connectivity are distributed in the three-dimensional space and evolve in time. It is important to image brain dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are noninvasive measurements associated with complex neural activations and interactions that encode brain functions. Electrophysiological source imaging estimates the underlying brain electrical sources from EEG and MEG measurements. It offers increasingly improved spatial resolution and intrinsically high temporal resolution for imaging large-scale brain activity and connectivity on a wide range of timescales...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490197/basic-and-translational-neuroscience-of-childhood-onset-dystonia-a-control-theory-perspective
#7
Terence D Sanger
Dystonia is a collection of symptoms with involuntary muscle activation causing hypertonia, hyperkinetic movements, and overflow. In children, dystonia can have numerous etiologies with varying neuroanatomic distribution. The semiology of dystonia can be explained by gain-of-function failure of a feedback controller that is responsible for stabilizing posture and movement. Because postural control is maintained by a widely distributed network, many different anatomic regions may be responsible for symptoms of dystonia, although all features of dystonia can be explained by uncontrolled activation or hypersensitivity of motor cortical regions that can cause increased reflex gain, inserted postures, or sensitivity to irrelevant sensory variables...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490196/structural-plasticity-in-adulthood-with-motor-learning-and-stroke-rehabilitation
#8
Cassandra Sampaio-Baptista, Zeena-Britt Sanders, Heidi Johansen-Berg
The development of advanced noninvasive techniques to image the human brain has enabled the demonstration of structural plasticity during adulthood in response to motor learning. Understanding the basic mechanisms of structural plasticity in the context of motor learning is essential to improve motor rehabilitation in stroke patients. Here, we review and discuss the emerging evidence for motor-learning-related structural plasticity and the implications for stroke rehabilitation. In the clinical context, a few studies have started to assess the effects of rehabilitation on structural measures to understand recovery poststroke and additionally to predict intervention outcomes...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490194/abnormal-mtor-activation-in-autism
#9
Kellen D Winden, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Mustafa Sahin
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an important signaling hub that integrates environmental information regarding energy availability and stimulates anabolic molecular processes and cell growth. Abnormalities in this pathway have been identified in several syndromes in which autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly prevalent. Several studies have investigated mTOR signaling in developmental and neuronal processes that, when dysregulated, could contribute to the development of ASD. Although many potential mechanisms still remain to be fully understood, these associations are of great interest because of the clinical availability of mTOR inhibitors...
January 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345974/cognitive-effects-of-cancer-and-cancer-treatments
#10
Tim A Ahles, James C Root
As the population of cancer survivors has grown into the millions, there has been increasing emphasis on understanding how the late effects of treatment affect survivors' ability to return to work/school, their capacity to function and live independently, and their overall quality of life. This review focuses on cognitive change associated with cancer and cancer treatments. Research in this area has progressed from a pharmacotoxicology perspective to a view of the cognitive change as a complex interaction of aspects of the treatment, vulnerability factors that increase risk for posttreatment cognitive decline, cancer biology, and the biology of aging...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342053/gradual-symmetric-progression-of-dfna34-hearing-loss-caused-by-an-nlrp3-mutation-and-cochlear-autoinflammation
#11
Hiroshi Nakanishi, Yoshiyuki Kawashima, Kiyoto Kurima, Julie A Muskett, H Jeffrey Kim, Carmen C Brewer, Andrew J Griffith
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the audiometric phenotype of autosomal-dominant DFNA34 hearing loss (HL) caused by a missense substitution in the NLRP3 gene. NLRP3 encodes a critical component of the NLRP3 inflammasome that is activated in innate immune responses. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted under protocol 01-DC-0229 approved by the NIH Combined Neurosciences IRB. We performed medical and developmental history interviews and physical and audiological examinations of affected individuals with DFNA34 HL caused by the p...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040013/connectome-based-models-predict-separable-components-of-attention-in-novel-individuals
#12
Monica D Rosenberg, Wei-Ting Hsu, Dustin Scheinost, R Todd Constable, Marvin M Chun
Although we typically talk about attention as a single process, it comprises multiple independent components. But what are these components, and how are they represented in the functional organization of the brain? To investigate whether long-studied components of attention are reflected in the brain's intrinsic functional organization, here we apply connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) to predict the components of Posner and Petersen's influential model of attention: alerting (preparing and maintaining alertness and vigilance), orienting (directing attention to a stimulus), and executive control (detecting and resolving cognitive conflict) [Posner, M...
February 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979201/do-neuroscience-journals-accept-replications-a-survey-of-literature
#13
Andy W K Yeung
Background: Recent reports in neuroscience, especially those concerning brain-injury and neuroimaging, have revealed low reproducibility of results within the field and urged for more replication studies. However, it is unclear if the neuroscience journals welcome or discourage the submission of reports on replication studies. Therefore, the current study assessed the explicit position of neuroscience journals on replications. Methods: A list of active neuroscience journals publishing in English was compiled from Scopus database...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961060/persuasion-influence-and-value-perspectives-from-communication-and-social-neuroscience
#14
Emily Falk, Christin Scholz
Opportunities to persuade and be persuaded are ubiquitous. What determines whether influence spreads and takes hold? This review provides an overview of evidence for the central role of subjective valuation in persuasion and social influence for both propagators and receivers of influence. We first review evidence that decisions to communicate information are determined by the subjective value a communicator expects to gain from sharing. We next review evidence that the effects of social influence and persuasion on receivers, in turn, arise from changes in the receiver's subjective valuation of objects, ideas, and behaviors...
January 4, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661727/transcriptomic-perspectives-on-neocortical-structure-development-evolution-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Ed S Lein, T Grant Belgard, Michael Hawrylycz, Zoltán Molnár
The cerebral cortex is the source of our most complex cognitive capabilities and a vulnerable target of many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Transcriptomics offers a new approach to understanding the cortex at the level of its underlying genetic code, and rapid technological advances have propelled this field to the high-throughput study of the complete set of transcribed genes at increasingly fine resolution to the level of individual cells. These tools have revealed features of the genetic architecture of adult cortical areas, layers, and cell types, as well as spatiotemporal patterning during development...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598717/inhibitory-plasticity-balance-control-and-codependence
#16
REVIEW
Guillaume Hennequin, Everton J Agnes, Tim P Vogels
Inhibitory neurons, although relatively few in number, exert powerful control over brain circuits. They stabilize network activity in the face of strong feedback excitation and actively engage in computations. Recent studies reveal the importance of a precise balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits, which often requires exquisite fine-tuning of inhibitory connections. We review inhibitory synaptic plasticity and its roles in shaping both feedforward and feedback control. We discuss the necessity of complex, codependent plasticity mechanisms to build nontrivial, functioning networks, and we end by summarizing experimental evidence of such interactions...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576511/elucidating-opportunities-and-pitfalls-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-to-optimize-and-facilitate-clinical-translation
#17
REVIEW
Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Darik A O'Neil, Megan J LaPorte, Jeffrey P Cheng, Joshua A Beitchman, Theresa Currier Thomas, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
The aim of this review is to discuss the research presented in a symposium entitled "Current progress in characterizing therapeutic strategies and challenges in experimental CNS injury" which was presented at the 2016 International Behavioral Neuroscience Society annual meeting. Herein we discuss diffuse and focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ensuing chronic behavioral deficits as well as potential rehabilitative approaches. We also discuss the effects of stress on executive function after TBI as well as the response of the endocrine system and regulatory feedback mechanisms...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#18
REVIEW
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous non-vision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489490/the-role-of-variability-in-motor-learning
#19
REVIEW
Ashesh K Dhawale, Maurice A Smith, Bence P Ölveczky
Trial-to-trial variability in the execution of movements and motor skills is ubiquitous and widely considered to be the unwanted consequence of a noisy nervous system. However, recent studies have suggested that motor variability may also be a feature of how sensorimotor systems operate and learn. This view, rooted in reinforcement learning theory, equates motor variability with purposeful exploration of motor space that, when coupled with reinforcement, can drive motor learning. Here we review studies that explore the relationship between motor variability and motor learning in both humans and animal models...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471714/circuits-and-mechanisms-for-surround-modulation-in-visual-cortex
#20
Alessandra Angelucci, Maryam Bijanzadeh, Lauri Nurminen, Frederick Federer, Sam Merlin, Paul C Bressloff
Surround modulation (SM) is a fundamental property of sensory neurons in many species and sensory modalities. SM is the ability of stimuli in the surround of a neuron's receptive field (RF) to modulate (typically suppress) the neuron's response to stimuli simultaneously presented inside the RF, a property thought to underlie optimal coding of sensory information and important perceptual functions. Understanding the circuit and mechanisms for SM can reveal fundamental principles of computations in sensory cortices, from mouse to human...
July 25, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
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