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Nature reviews neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619648/on-the-relation-between-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functioning-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#1
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Jennifer M Jenkins, Keith O Yeates, Tricia Williams, Kang Lee
Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) show marked interrelatedness across childhood, and developmental psychologists have long been interested in understanding the nature of this association. The present review addresses this issue from a cognitive neuroscience perspective by exploring three hypotheses regarding their functional overlap: (1) ToM relies on EF (EF→ToM); (2) EF relies on ToM (ToM→EF); and (3) ToM and EF are mutually related, owing to shared neural structures or networks (ToM↔EF)...
April 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615885/powerful-statistical-inference-for-nested-data-using-sufficient-summary-statistics
#2
Irene Dowding, Stefan Haufe
Hierarchically-organized data arise naturally in many psychology and neuroscience studies. As the standard assumption of independent and identically distributed samples does not hold for such data, two important problems are to accurately estimate group-level effect sizes, and to obtain powerful statistical tests against group-level null hypotheses. A common approach is to summarize subject-level data by a single quantity per subject, which is often the mean or the difference between class means, and treat these as samples in a group-level t -test...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606034/internet-gaming-disorder-an-emergent-health-issue-for-men
#3
Kevin H Chen, John L Oliffe, Mary T Kelly
Internet gaming is a legitimate leisure activity worldwide; however, there are emerging concerns that vast numbers of gamers are becoming addicted. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) classified Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as a condition warranting more clinical research ahead of formalizing it as a mental disorder. Proposed as a behavioral addiction, IGD shares many similarities in both physical and psychosocial manifestations with substance use disorder, including cerebral changes on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604611/controlled-semantic-cognition-relies-upon-dynamic-and-flexible-interactions-between-the-executive-semantic-control-and-hub-and-spoke-semantic-representation-systems
#4
Rocco Chiou, Gina F Humphreys, JeYoung Jung, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Built upon a wealth of neuroimaging, neurostimulation, and neuropsychology data, a recent proposal set forth a framework termed controlled semantic cognition (CSC) to account for how the brain underpins the ability to flexibly use semantic knowledge (Lambon Ralph et al., 2017; Nature Reviews Neuroscience). In CSC, the 'semantic control' system, underpinned predominantly by the prefrontal cortex, dynamically monitors and modulates the 'semantic representation' system that consists of a 'hub' (anterior temporal lobe, ATL) and multiple 'spokes' (modality-specific areas)...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561702/neural-mechanisms-of-social-cognition-in-primates
#5
Marco K Wittmann, Patricia L Lockwood, Matthew F S Rushworth
Activity in a network of areas spanning the superior temporal sulcus, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is concerned with how nonhuman primates negotiate the social worlds in which they live. Central aspects of these circuits are retained in humans. Activity in these areas codes for primates' interactions with one another, their attempts to find out about one another, and their attempts to prevent others from finding out too much about themselves. Moreover, important features of the social world, such as dominance status, cooperation, and competition, modulate activity in these areas...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550375/freezing-of-gait-promising-avenues-for-future-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Moran Gilat, Ana Lígia Silva de Lima, Bastiaan R Bloem, James M Shine, Jorik Nonnekes, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. It poses a major burden on both patients and their families, as freezing often leads to falls, fall-related injuries and a loss of independence. Treating freezing of gait is difficult for a variety of reasons: it has a paroxysmal and unpredictable nature; a multifaceted pathophysiology, with an interplay between motor elements (disturbed stepping mechanisms) and non-motor elements (cognitive decline, anxiety); and a complex (and likely heterogeneous) underlying neural substrate, involving multiple failing neural networks...
March 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527187/emerging-viral-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-the-developing-nervous-system-a-mini-review
#7
REVIEW
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393657/a-population-neuroscience-approach-to-the-study-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-mid-and-late-life-an-invited-review
#8
Dana R Jorgensen, C Elizabeth Shaaban, Clayton A Wiley, Peter J Gianaros, Joseph Mettenburg, Caterina Rosano
Aging in later life engenders numerous changes to the cerebral microvasculature. Such changes can remain clinically silent, but are associated with greater risk for negative health outcomes over time. Knowledge is limited about the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of potentially detrimental changes in the cerebral microvasculature that occur with advancing age. In this review, we summarize literature on aging of the cerebral microvasculature, and we propose a conceptual framework to fill existing research gaps and advance future work on this heterogeneous phenomenon...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353596/what-psychology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-know-about-the-communicative-function-of-memory
#9
David C Rubin
Mahr & Csibra (M&C) include interesting ideas about the nature of memory from outside of the field of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. However, the target article's inaccurate claims about those fields limit its usefulness. I briefly review the most serious omissions and distortions of the literature by the target article, including its misrepresentation of event memory, and offer suggestions for forwarding the goal of understanding the communicative function of memory.
January 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303607/immunity-a-significant-pathogenic-factor-as-well-as-an-integral-part-of-the-sychoneuroendocrine-immune-regulations
#10
F VoŽeh
Immunity plays an important role in the reactivity of the organism and, in this context, is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basically, there is no system or organ in the body, whose dysfunction is not related to immunity consequences. In addition, there are also multisystem diseases simultaneously involving multiple body systems. They are not always caused by weak immunity, but also often by modified immune reactions known as overshooting. The essence of all these diseases is a change in the reactivity of the organism where immunity plays an important role...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289930/nanomaterials-at-the-neural-interface
#11
REVIEW
Denis Scaini, Laura Ballerini
Interfacing the nervous system with devices able to efficiently record or modulate the electrical activity of neuronal cells represents the underlying foundation of future theranostic applications in neurology and of current openings in neuroscience research. These devices, usually sensing cell activity via microelectrodes, should be characterized by safe working conditions in the biological milieu together with a well-controlled operation-life. The stable device/neuronal electrical coupling at the interface requires tight interactions between the electrode surface and the cell membrane...
December 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287909/ethological-approach-to-social-isolation-effects-in-behavioral-studies-of-laboratory-rodents
#12
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa
The aim of the present review is to discuss how housing conditions affect behavioral performance in laboratory rodents from an ethological view. Commonly used laboratory rodents such as rats and mice, are originally captured animals that largely retain species-typical natural behaviors, while have fully adapted to a laboratory setting after long-term domestication. Laboratory settings including caging and artificial group housing are a considerable ethological factor influencing rodents' behaviors in commonly employed behavioral test paradigms, including emotional and defensive behaviors, learning and memory, and attention-related behaviors...
April 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167088/network-neuroscience-theory-of-human-intelligence
#13
REVIEW
Aron K Barbey
An enduring aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to understand the nature of individual differences in human intelligence, examining the stunning breadth and diversity of intellectual abilities and the remarkable neurobiological mechanisms from which they arise. This Opinion article surveys recent neuroscience evidence to elucidate how general intelligence, g, emerges from individual differences in the network architecture of the human brain. The reviewed findings motivate new insights about how network topology and dynamics account for individual differences in g, represented by the Network Neuroscience Theory...
January 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144411/nucleic-acid-aptamers-emerging-applications-in-medical-imaging-nanotechnology-neurosciences-and-drug-delivery
#14
REVIEW
Pascal Röthlisberger, Cécile Gasse, Marcel Hollenstein
Recent progresses in organic chemistry and molecular biology have allowed the emergence of numerous new applications of nucleic acids that markedly deviate from their natural functions. Particularly, DNA and RNA molecules-coined aptamers-can be brought to bind to specific targets with high affinity and selectivity. While aptamers are mainly applied as biosensors, diagnostic agents, tools in proteomics and biotechnology, and as targeted therapeutics, these chemical antibodies slowly begin to be used in other fields...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033780/evolutionary-musicology-meets-embodied-cognition-biocultural-coevolution-and-the-enactive-origins-of-human-musicality
#15
REVIEW
Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018336/encoding-and-decoding-models-in-cognitive-electrophysiology
#16
REVIEW
Christopher R Holdgraf, Jochem W Rieger, Cristiano Micheli, Stephanie Martin, Robert T Knight, Frederic E Theunissen
Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of "Encoding" models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and "Decoding" models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972851/culture-embrained-going-beyond-the-nature-nurture-dichotomy
#17
Shinobu Kitayama, Cristina E Salvador
Over the past three decades, the cultural psychology literature has established that there is systematic cultural variation in the nature of agency in the domains of cognition, emotion, and motivation. This literature adopted both self-report and performance-based (or behavioral) indicators of these processes, which set the stage for a more recent systematic exploration of cultural influences at the neural and biological level. Moreover, previous work has largely focused on East-West differences, thereby calling for a systematic exploration of other ethnic groups...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887224/the-zebrafish-as-a-promising-tool-for-modeling-human-brain-disorders-a-review-based-upon-an-ibns-symposium
#18
REVIEW
Soaleha Shams, Jason Rihel, Jose G Ortiz, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity, features that make it useful for modeling and mechanistic analysis of complex brain disorders. Also promising are screens for psychoactive drugs with effects on larval and adult zebrafish behavior. This review, based upon a recent symposium held at the 2016 IBNS Congress, provides different perspectives on how the zebrafish may be utilized to advance research into human central nervous system disorders. It starts with a discussion on an important bottleneck in zebrafish research, measuring the behavior of this species (specifically shoaling), and continues with examples on research on autism spectrum disorder in larval zebrafish, on screening natural products for compounds with psychoactive properties in adult zebrafish, and on the development of a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders...
February 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797134/looking-beyond-the-intervertebral-disc-the-need-for-behavioral-assays-in-models-of-discogenic-pain
#19
REVIEW
Grace E Mosley, Thomas W Evashwick-Rogler, Alon Lai, James C Iatridis
Orthopedic research into chronic discogenic back pain has commonly focused on aging- and degeneration-related changes in intervertebral disc structure, biomechanics, and biology. However, the primary spine-related reason for physician office visits is pain. The ambiguous nature of the human condition of discogenic low back pain motivates the use of animal models to better understand the pathophysiology. Discogenic back pain models must consider both emergent behavioral changes following pain induction and changes in the nervous system that mediate such behavior...
December 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747403/agmatine-multifunctional-arginine-metabolite-and-magic-bullet-in-clinical-neuroscience
#20
REVIEW
Gregor Laube, Hans-Gert Bernstein
Agmatine, the decarboxylation product of arginine, was largely neglected as an important player in mammalian metabolism until the mid-1990s, when it was re-discovered as an endogenous ligand of imidazoline and α2 -adrenergic receptors. Since then, a wide variety of agmatine-mediated effects have been observed, and consequently agmatine has moved from a wallflower existence into the limelight of clinical neuroscience research. Despite this quantum jump in scientific interest, the understanding of the anabolism and catabolism of this amine is still vague...
July 26, 2017: Biochemical Journal
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