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Nature reviews neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543438/humanized-mice-a-brief-overview-on-their-diverse-applications-in-biomedical-research
#1
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Fujiwara
Model animals naturally differ from humans in various respects and results from the former are not directly translatable to the latter. One approach to address this issue is humanized mice that are defined as mice engrafted with functional human cells or tissues. In humanized mice, we can investigate the development and function of human cells or tissues (including their products encoded by human genes) in the in vivo context of a small animal. As such, humanized mouse models have played important roles that cannot be substituted by other animal models in various areas of biomedical research...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533456/colour-vision-and-coevolution-in-avian-brood-parasitism
#2
REVIEW
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Mark E Hauber
The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529173/what-s-in-a-context-cautions-limitations-and-potential-paths-forward
#3
REVIEW
Shauna M Stark, Zachariah M Reagh, Michael A Yassa, Craig E L Stark
The purpose of memory is to guide current and future behavior based on previous experiences. Part of this process involves either discriminating between or generalizing across similar experiences that contain overlapping conditions (such as space, time, or internal state), which we often conceptualize as "contexts". In this review, we highlight major challenges facing the field as we attempt a neuroscience-based approach to the study of context and its impact on learning and memory. Here, we review some of the methodologies and approaches used to investigate context in both animals and humans, including the neurobiological mechanisms involved...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507240/mathematical-methods-in-medicine-neuroscience-cardiology-and-pathology
#4
José M Amigó, Michael Small
The application of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering to medicine is gaining momentum as the mutual benefits of this collaboration become increasingly obvious. This theme issue is intended to highlight the trend in the case of mathematics. Specifically, the scope of this theme issue is to give a general view of the current research in the application of mathematical methods to medicine, as well as to show how mathematics can help in such important aspects as understanding, prediction, treatment and data processing...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507228/understanding-principles-of-integration-and-segregation-using-whole-brain-computational-connectomics-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Louis-David Lord, Angus B Stevner, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
To survive in an ever-changing environment, the brain must seamlessly integrate a rich stream of incoming information into coherent internal representations that can then be used to efficiently plan for action. The brain must, however, balance its ability to integrate information from various sources with a complementary capacity to segregate information into modules which perform specialized computations in local circuits. Importantly, evidence suggests that imbalances in the brain's ability to bind together and/or segregate information over both space and time is a common feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389343/small-world-human-brain-networks-perspectives-and-challenges
#6
REVIEW
Xuhong Liao, Athanasios V Vasilakos, Yong He
Modelling the human brain as a complex network has provided a powerful mathematical framework to characterize the structural and functional architectures of the brain. In the past decade, the combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches enable us to map human structural and functional connectivity patterns (i.e., connectome) at the macroscopic level. One of the most influential findings is that human brain networks exhibit prominent small-world organization. Such a network architecture in the human brain facilitates efficient information segregation and integration at low wiring and energy costs, which presumably results from natural selection under the pressure of a cost-efficiency balance...
June 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374287/the-differential-contributions-of-conceptual-representation-format-and-language-structure-to-levels-of-semantic-abstraction-capacity
#7
REVIEW
Gainotti Guido
This paper reviews some controversies concerning the original and revised versions of the 'hub-and-spoke' model of conceptual representations and their implication for abstraction capacity levels. The 'hub-and-spoke' model, which is based on data gathered in patients with semantic dementia (SD), is the most authoritative model of conceptual knowledge. Patterson et al.'s (Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(12), 976-987, 2007) classical version of this model maintained that conceptual representations are stored in a unitary 'amodal' format in the right and left anterior temporal lobes (ATLs), because in SD the semantic disorder cuts across modalities and categories...
April 3, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353416/resting-state-fmri-a-review-on-methods-in-resting-state-connectivity-analysis-and-resting-state-networks
#8
K A Smitha, K Akhil Raja, K M Arun, P G Rajesh, Bejoy Thomas, T R Kapilamoorthy, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
The inquisitiveness about what happens in the brain has been there since the beginning of humankind. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a prominent tool which helps in the non-invasive examination, localisation as well as lateralisation of brain functions such as language, memory, etc. In recent years, there is an apparent shift in the focus of neuroscience research to studies dealing with a brain at 'resting state'. Here the spotlight is on the intrinsic activity within the brain, in the absence of any sensory or cognitive stimulus...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261127/the-theory-of-localist-representation-and-of-a-purely-abstract-cognitive-system-the-evidence-from-cortical-columns-category-cells-and-multisensory-neurons
#9
Asim Roy
The debate about representation in the brain and the nature of the cognitive system has been going on for decades now. This paper examines the neurophysiological evidence, primarily from single cell recordings, to get a better perspective on both the issues. After an initial review of some basic concepts, the paper reviews the data from single cell recordings - in cortical columns and of category-selective and multisensory neurons. In neuroscience, columns in the neocortex (cortical columns) are understood to be a basic functional/computational unit...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230841/magnetoencephalography-for-brain-electrophysiology-and-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Sylvain Baillet
We review the aspects that uniquely characterize magnetoencephalography (MEG) among the techniques available to explore and resolve brain function and dysfunction. While emphasizing its specific strengths in terms of millisecond source imaging, we also identify and discuss current practical challenges, in particular in signal extraction and interpretation. We also take issue with some perceived disadvantages of MEG, including the misconception that the technique is redundant with electroencephalography. Overall, MEG contributes uniquely to our deeper comprehension of both regional and large-scale brain dynamics: from the functions of neural oscillations and the nature of event-related brain activation, to the mechanisms of functional connectivity between regions and the emergence of modes of network communication in brain systems...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223955/stability-and-variability-in-aesthetic-experience-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Jacobsen, Susan Beudt
Based on psychophysics' pragmatic dualism, we trace the cognitive neuroscience of stability and variability in aesthetic experience. With regard to different domains of aesthetic processing, we touch upon the relevance of cognitive schemata for aesthetic preference. Attitudes and preferences are explored in detail. Evolutionary constraints on attitude formation or schema generation are elucidated, just as the often seemingly arbitrary influences of social, societal, and cultural nature are. A particular focus is put on the concept of critical periods during an individual's ontogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119064/progress-towards-in%C3%A2-vivo-brain-13-c-mrs-in-mice-metabolic-flux-analysis-in-small-tissue-volumes
#13
Marta Lai, Rolf Gruetter, Bernard Lanz
The combination of dynamic (13)C MRS data under infusion of (13)C-labelled substrates and compartmental models of cerebral metabolism enabled in vivo measurement of metabolic fluxes with a quantitative and distinct determination of cellular-specific activities. The non-invasive nature and the chemical specificity of the (13)C dynamic data obtained in those tracer experiments makes it an attractive approach offering unique insights into cerebral metabolism. Genetically engineered mice present a wealth of disease models particularly interesting for the neuroscience community...
January 22, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027954/simulating-social-interactions-for-the-experimental-investigation-of-joint-attention
#15
REVIEW
Nathan Caruana, Genevieve McArthur, Alexandra Woolgar, Jon Brock
Social interactions are, by their nature, dynamic and reciprocal - your behaviour affects my behaviour, which affects your behaviour in return. However, until recently, the field of social cognitive neuroscience has been dominated by paradigms in which participants passively observe social stimuli from a detached "third person" perspective. Here we consider the unique conceptual and methodological challenges involved in adopting a "second person" approach whereby social cognitive mechanisms and their neural correlates are investigated within social interactions (Schilbach et al...
December 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965557/the-multivariate-temporal-response-function-mtrf-toolbox-a-matlab-toolbox-for-relating-neural-signals-to-continuous-stimuli
#16
Michael J Crosse, Giovanni M Di Liberto, Adam Bednar, Edmund C Lalor
Understanding how brains process sensory signals in natural environments is one of the key goals of twenty-first century neuroscience. While brain imaging and invasive electrophysiology will play key roles in this endeavor, there is also an important role to be played by noninvasive, macroscopic techniques with high temporal resolution such as electro- and magnetoencephalography. But challenges exist in determining how best to analyze such complex, time-varying neural responses to complex, time-varying and multivariate natural sensory stimuli...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965548/methodological-problems-on-the-way-to-integrative-human-neuroscience
#17
REVIEW
Boris Kotchoubey, Felix Tretter, Hans A Braun, Thomas Buchheim, Andreas Draguhn, Thomas Fuchs, Felix Hasler, Heiner Hastedt, Thilo Hinterberger, Georg Northoff, Ingo Rentschler, Stephan Schleim, Stephan Sellmaier, Ludger Tebartz Van Elst, Wolfgang Tschacher
Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge, rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921311/the-neurobiology-of-parenting-a-neural-circuit-perspective
#18
Johannes Kohl, Anita E Autry, Catherine Dulac
Social interactions are essential for animals to reproduce, defend their territory, and raise their young. The conserved nature of social behaviors across animal species suggests that the neural pathways underlying the motivation for, and the execution of, specific social responses are also maintained. Modern tools of neuroscience have offered new opportunities for dissecting the molecular and neural mechanisms controlling specific social responses. We will review here recent insights into the neural circuits underlying a particularly fascinating and important form of social interaction, that of parental care...
January 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891018/legal-challenges-in-neurological-practice
#19
REVIEW
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#20
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
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