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Nature reviews neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033780/evolutionary-musicology-meets-embodied-cognition-biocultural-coevolution-and-the-enactive-origins-of-human-musicality
#1
REVIEW
Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018336/encoding-and-decoding-models-in-cognitive-electrophysiology
#2
REVIEW
Christopher R Holdgraf, Jochem W Rieger, Cristiano Micheli, Stephanie Martin, Robert T Knight, Frederic E Theunissen
Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of "Encoding" models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and "Decoding" models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972851/culture-embrained-going-beyond-the-nature-nurture-dichotomy
#3
Shinobu Kitayama, Cristina E Salvador
Over the past three decades, the cultural psychology literature has established that there is systematic cultural variation in the nature of agency in the domains of cognition, emotion, and motivation. This literature adopted both self-report and performance-based (or behavioral) indicators of these processes, which set the stage for a more recent systematic exploration of cultural influences at the neural and biological level. Moreover, previous work has largely focused on East-West differences, thereby calling for a systematic exploration of other ethnic groups...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887224/the-zebrafish-as-a-promising-tool-for-modeling-human-brain-disorders-a-review-based-upon-an-ibns-symposium
#4
REVIEW
Soaleha Shams, Jason Rihel, Jose G Ortiz, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity, features that make it useful for modeling and mechanistic analysis of complex brain disorders. Also promising are screens for psychoactive drugs with effects on larval and adult zebrafish behavior. This review, based upon a recent symposium held at the 2016 IBNS Congress, provides different perspectives on how the zebrafish may be utilized to advance research into human central nervous system disorders. It starts with a discussion on an important bottleneck in zebrafish research, measuring the behavior of this species (specifically shoaling), and continues with examples on research on autism spectrum disorder in larval zebrafish, on screening natural products for compounds with psychoactive properties in adult zebrafish, and on the development of a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797134/looking-beyond-the-intervertebral-disc-the-need-for-behavioral-assays-in-models-of-discogenic-pain
#5
REVIEW
Grace E Mosley, Thomas W Evashwick-Rogler, Alon Lai, James C Iatridis
Orthopedic research into chronic discogenic back pain has commonly focused on aging- and degeneration-related changes in intervertebral disc structure, biomechanics, and biology. However, the primary spine-related reason for physician office visits is pain. The ambiguous nature of the human condition of discogenic low back pain motivates the use of animal models to better understand the pathophysiology. Discogenic back pain models must consider both emergent behavioral changes following pain induction and changes in the nervous system that mediate such behavior...
August 10, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747403/agmatine-multifunctional-arginine-metabolite-and-magic-bullet-in-clinical-neuroscience
#6
REVIEW
Gregor Laube, Hans-Gert Bernstein
Agmatine, the decarboxylation product of arginine, was largely neglected as an important player in mammalian metabolism until the mid-1990s, when it was re-discovered as an endogenous ligand of imidazoline and α2-adrenergic receptors. Since then, a wide variety of agmatine-mediated effects have been observed, and consequently agmatine has moved from a wallflower existence into the limelight of clinical neuroscience research. Despite this quantum jump in scientific interest, the understanding of the anabolism and catabolism of this amine is still vague...
July 26, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744722/temporal-encoding-strategies-result-in-boosts-to-final-free-recall-performance-comparable-to-spatial-ones
#7
Nichole Bouffard, Jared Stokes, Hannah J Kramer, Arne D Ekstrom
The method of loci is a highly effective mnemonic that recruits existing salient memory for spatial locations and uses the information as a scaffold for remembering a list of items (Yates, 1966). One possible account for the effectiveness of the spatial method of loci comes from the perspective that it utilizes evolutionarily preserved mechanisms for spatial navigation within the hippocampus (Maguire et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(8), 4398-4403, 2000; O'Keefe & Nadel, 1978; Rodriguez et al...
July 25, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734836/criticality-in-the-brain-a-synthesis-of-neurobiology-models-and-cognition
#8
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Leonardo L Gollo, Andrew Zalesky, Michael Breakspear
Cognitive function requires the coordination of neural activity across many scales, from neurons and circuits to large-scale networks. As such, it is unlikely that an explanatory framework focused upon any single scale will yield a comprehensive theory of brain activity and cognitive function. Modelling and analysis methods for neuroscience should aim to accommodate multiscale phenomena. Emerging research now suggests that multi-scale processes in the brain arise from so-called critical phenomena that occur very broadly in the natural world...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#9
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668576/functional-outcomes-following-lesions-in-visual-cortex-implications-for-plasticity-of-high-level-vision
#10
REVIEW
Tina T Liu, Marlene Behrmann
Understanding the nature and extent of neural plasticity in humans remains a key challenge for neuroscience. Importantly, however, a precise characterization of plasticity and its underlying mechanism has the potential to enable new approaches for enhancing reorganization of cortical function. Investigations of the impairment and subsequent recovery of cognitive and perceptual functions following early-onset cortical lesions in humans provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how the brain changes, adapts, and reorganizes...
June 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630894/next-generation-probes-particles-and-proteins-for-neural-interfacing
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan Rivnay, Huiliang Wang, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth, George G Malliaras
Bidirectional interfacing with the nervous system enables neuroscience research, diagnosis, and therapy. This two-way communication allows us to monitor the state of the brain and its composite networks and cells as well as to influence them to treat disease or repair/restore sensory or motor function. To provide the most stable and effective interface, the tools of the trade must bridge the soft, ion-rich, and evolving nature of neural tissue with the largely rigid, static realm of microelectronics and medical instruments that allow for readout, analysis, and/or control...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626813/hallucinations-as-top-down-effects-on-perception
#12
Albert R Powers, Megan Kelley, Philip R Corlett
The problem of whether and how information is integrated across hierarchical brain networks embodies a fundamental tension in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, and by extension, cognitive neuropsychiatry. Indeed, the penetrability of perceptual processes in a 'top-down' manner by higher-level cognition-a natural extension of hierarchical models of perception-may contradict a strictly modular view of mental organization. Furthermore, some in the cognitive science community have challenged cognitive penetration as an unlikely, if not impossible, process...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551870/linking-neuroethology-to-the-chemical-biology-of-natural-products-interactions-between-cone-snails-and-their-fish-prey-a-case-study
#13
REVIEW
Baldomero M Olivera, Shrinivasan Raghuraman, Eric W Schmidt, Helena Safavi-Hemami
From a biological perspective, a natural product can be defined as a compound evolved by an organism for chemical interactions with another organism including prey, predator, competitor, pathogen, symbiont or host. Natural products hold tremendous potential as drug leads and have been extensively studied by chemists and biochemists in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the biological purpose for which a natural product evolved is rarely addressed. By focusing on a well-studied group of natural products-venom components from predatory marine cone snails-this review provides a rationale for why a better understanding of the evolution, biology and biochemistry of natural products will facilitate both neuroscience and the potential for drug leads...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543438/humanized-mice-a-brief-overview-on-their-diverse-applications-in-biomedical-research
#14
REVIEW
Shigeyoshi Fujiwara
Model animals naturally differ from humans in various respects and results from the former are not directly translatable to the latter. One approach to address this issue is humanized mice that are defined as mice engrafted with functional human cells or tissues. In humanized mice, we can investigate the development and function of human cells or tissues (including their products encoded by human genes) in the in vivo context of a small animal. As such, humanized mouse models have played important roles that cannot be substituted by other animal models in various areas of biomedical research...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533456/colour-vision-and-coevolution-in-avian-brood-parasitism
#15
REVIEW
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Mark E Hauber
The coevolutionary interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts provide a powerful system for investigating the diversity of animal coloration. Specifically, reciprocal selection pressure applied by hosts and brood parasites can give rise to novel forms and functions of animal coloration, which largely differ from those that arise when selection is imposed by predators or mates. In the study of animal colours, avian brood parasite-host dynamics therefore invite special consideration. Rapid advances across disciplines have paved the way for an integrative study of colour and vision in brood parasite-host systems...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529173/what-s-in-a-context-cautions-limitations-and-potential-paths-forward
#16
REVIEW
Shauna M Stark, Zachariah M Reagh, Michael A Yassa, Craig E L Stark
The purpose of memory is to guide current and future behavior based on previous experiences. Part of this process involves either discriminating between or generalizing across similar experiences that contain overlapping conditions (such as space, time, or internal state), which we often conceptualize as "contexts". In this review, we highlight major challenges facing the field as we attempt a neuroscience-based approach to the study of context and its impact on learning and memory. Here, we review some of the methodologies and approaches used to investigate context in both animals and humans, including the neurobiological mechanisms involved...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507240/mathematical-methods-in-medicine-neuroscience-cardiology-and-pathology
#17
REVIEW
José M Amigó, Michael Small
The application of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering to medicine is gaining momentum as the mutual benefits of this collaboration become increasingly obvious. This theme issue is intended to highlight the trend in the case of mathematics. Specifically, the scope of this theme issue is to give a general view of the current research in the application of mathematical methods to medicine, as well as to show how mathematics can help in such important aspects as understanding, prediction, treatment and data processing...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507228/understanding-principles-of-integration-and-segregation-using-whole-brain-computational-connectomics-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Louis-David Lord, Angus B Stevner, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
To survive in an ever-changing environment, the brain must seamlessly integrate a rich stream of incoming information into coherent internal representations that can then be used to efficiently plan for action. The brain must, however, balance its ability to integrate information from various sources with a complementary capacity to segregate information into modules which perform specialized computations in local circuits. Importantly, evidence suggests that imbalances in the brain's ability to bind together and/or segregate information over both space and time is a common feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389343/small-world-human-brain-networks-perspectives-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Xuhong Liao, Athanasios V Vasilakos, Yong He
Modelling the human brain as a complex network has provided a powerful mathematical framework to characterize the structural and functional architectures of the brain. In the past decade, the combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches enable us to map human structural and functional connectivity patterns (i.e., connectome) at the macroscopic level. One of the most influential findings is that human brain networks exhibit prominent small-world organization. Such a network architecture in the human brain facilitates efficient information segregation and integration at low wiring and energy costs, which presumably results from natural selection under the pressure of a cost-efficiency balance...
June 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374287/the-differential-contributions-of-conceptual-representation-format-and-language-structure-to-levels-of-semantic-abstraction-capacity
#20
REVIEW
Guido Gainotti
This paper reviews some controversies concerning the original and revised versions of the 'hub-and-spoke' model of conceptual representations and their implication for abstraction capacity levels. The 'hub-and-spoke' model, which is based on data gathered in patients with semantic dementia (SD), is the most authoritative model of conceptual knowledge. Patterson et al.'s (Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(12), 976-987, 2007) classical version of this model maintained that conceptual representations are stored in a unitary 'amodal' format in the right and left anterior temporal lobes (ATLs), because in SD the semantic disorder cuts across modalities and categories...
April 3, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
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