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Nature reviews neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906456/reward-circuitry-activation-reflects-social-preferences-in-the-face-of-cognitive-effort
#1
Holly Sullivan-Toole, Ekaterina Dobryakova, Samantha DePasque, Elizabeth Tricomi
Research at the intersection of social neuroscience and cognitive effort is an interesting new area for exploration. There is great potential to broaden our understanding of how social context and cognitive effort processes, currently addressed in disparate literatures, interact with one another. In this paper, we briefly review the literature on cognitive effort, focusing on effort-linked valuation and the gap in the literature regarding cognitive effort in the social domain. Next, we present a study designed to explore valuation processes linked to cognitive effort within the social context of an inequality manipulation...
June 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887799/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-a-paradigm-shift-in-understanding-brain-oscillations
#2
REVIEW
Johannes Vosskuhl, Daniel Strüber, Christoph S Herrmann
Cognitive neuroscience set out to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognition. One central question is how oscillatory brain activity relates to cognitive processes. Up to now, most of the evidence supporting this relationship was correlative in nature. This situation changed dramatically with the recent development of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, which open up new vistas for neuroscience by allowing researchers for the first time to validate their correlational theories by manipulating brain functioning directly...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877763/phonological-feature-repetition-suppression-in-the-left-inferior-frontal-gyrus
#3
Kayoko Okada, William Matchin, Gregory Hickok
Models of speech production posit a role for the motor system, predominantly the posterior inferior frontal gyrus, in encoding complex phonological representations for speech production, at the phonemic, syllable, and word levels [Roelofs, A. A dorsal-pathway account of aphasic language production: The WEAVER++/ARC model. Cortex, 59(Suppl. C), 33-48, 2014; Hickok, G. Computational neuroanatomy of speech production. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13, 135-145, 2012; Guenther, F. H. Cortical interactions underlying the production of speech sounds...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861833/flavonoids-as-therapeutic-agents-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-evidences
#4
REVIEW
Roxana Braga de Andrade Teles, Tâmara Coimbra Diniz, Tiago Coimbra Costa Pinto, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior, Mariana Gama E Silva, Érica Martins de Lavor, Antonio Wilton Cavalcante Fernandes, Ana Paula de Oliveira, Fernanda Pires Rodrigues de Almeida Ribeiro, Amanda Alves Marcelino da Silva, Taisy Cinthia Ferro Cavalcante, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are considered the most common neurodegenerative disorders, representing a major focus of neuroscience research to understanding the cellular alterations and pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Several natural products, including flavonoids, are considered able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are known for their central nervous system-related activity. Therefore, studies are being conducted with these chemical constituents to analyze their activities in slowing down the progression of neurodegenerative diseases...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851228/evolutionary-diversity-as-a-catalyst-for-biological-discovery
#5
Zachary V Johnson, Larry J Young
The tremendous diversity of animal behaviors has inspired generations of scientists from an array of biological disciplines. To complement investigations of ecological and evolutionary factors contributing to behavioral evolution, modern computational, genetics, genomics, and neuroscience tools now provide a means to discover the proximate mechanisms upon which natural selection acts to generate behavioral diversity. Social behaviors are motivated behaviors that can differ tremendously between closely related species, suggesting phylogenetic plasticity in their underlying biological mechanisms...
May 31, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847093/from-cultured-rodent-neurons-to-human-brain-tissue-model-systems-for-pharmacological-and-translational-neuroscience
#6
Joel Wellbourne-Wood, Jean-Yves Chatton
To investigate the enormous complexity of the functional and pathological brain there are a number of possible experimental model systems to choose from. Depending on the research question choosing the appropriate model may not be a trivial task, and given the dynamic and intricate nature of an intact living brain several models might be needed to properly address certain questions. In this review we aim to provide an overview of neural cell and tissue culture, reflecting on historic methodological milestones and providing a brief overview of the state-of-the-art...
May 30, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799773/cognition-as-a-window-into-neuronal-population-space
#7
Douglas A Ruff, Amy M Ni, Marlene R Cohen
Understanding how cognitive processes affect the responses of sensory neurons may clarify the relationship between neuronal population activity and behavior. However, tools for analyzing neuronal activity have not kept up with technological advances in recording from large neuronal populations. Here, we describe prevalent hypotheses of how cognitive processes affect sensory neurons, driven largely by a model based on the activity of single neurons or pools of neurons as the units of computation. We then use simple simulations to expand this model to a new conceptual framework that focuses on subspaces of population activity as the relevant units of computation, uses comparisons between brain areas or to behavior to guide analyses of these subspaces, and suggests that population activity is optimized to decode the large variety of stimuli and tasks that animals encounter in natural behavior...
May 23, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729890/understanding-the-emergence-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-with-network-neuroscience
#9
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Major neuropsychiatric disorders such as psychosis are increasingly acknowledged to be disorders of brain connectivity. Yet tools to map, model, predict, and change connectivity are difficult to develop, largely because of the complex, dynamic, and multivariate nature of interactions between brain regions. Network neuroscience (NN) provides a theoretical framework and mathematical toolset to address these difficulties. Building on areas of mathematics such as graph theory, NN in its simplest form summarizes neuroimaging data by treating brain regions as nodes in a graph and by treating interactions or connections between nodes as edges in the graph...
April 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721353/immunoexcitotoxicity-as-the-central-mechanism-of-etiopathology-and-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-possible-role-of-fluoride-and-aluminum
#10
REVIEW
Anna Strunecka, Russell L Blaylock, Jiri Patocka, Otakar Strunecky
Our review suggests that most autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk factors are connected, either directly or indirectly, to immunoexcitotoxicity. Chronic brain inflammation is known to enhance the sensitivity of glutamate receptors and interfere with glutamate removal from the extraneuronal space, where it can trigger excitotoxicity over a prolonged period. Neuroscience studies have clearly shown that sequential systemic immune stimulation can activate the brain's immune system, microglia, and astrocytes, and that with initial immune stimulation, there occurs CNS microglial priming...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709207/viral-strategies-for-targeting-the-central-and-peripheral-nervous-systems
#11
Claire N Bedbrook, Benjamin E Deverman, Viviana Gradinaru
Recombinant viruses allow for targeted transgene expression in specific cell populations throughout the nervous system. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) is among the most commonly used viruses for neuroscience research. Recombinant AAVs (rAAVs) are highly versatile and can package most cargo composed of desired genes within the capsid's ∼5-kb carrying capacity. Numerous regulatory elements and intersectional strategies have been validated in rAAVs to enable cell type-specific expression. rAAVs can be delivered to specific neuronal populations or globally throughout the animal...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701483/on-task-considerations-and-future-directions-for-studies-of-corticospinal-excitability-in-exercise-neuroscience-and-related-disciplines
#12
Jayne M Kalmar
Over the last few decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as a conventional laboratory technique in human neurophysiological research. Exercise neuroscientists have used TMS to study central nervous system contributions to fatigue, training, and performance in health, injury, and disease. In such studies, corticospinal excitability is often assessed at rest or during simple isometric tasks with the implication that the results may be extrapolated to more functional and complex movement outside of the laboratory...
April 27, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619648/on-the-relation-between-theory-of-mind-and-executive-functioning-a-developmental-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective
#13
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Jennifer M Jenkins, Keith O Yeates, Tricia Williams, Kang Lee
Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) show marked interrelatedness across childhood, and developmental psychologists have long been interested in understanding the nature of this association. The present review addresses this issue from a cognitive neuroscience perspective by exploring three hypotheses regarding their functional overlap: (1) ToM relies on EF (EF→ToM); (2) EF relies on ToM (ToM→EF); and (3) ToM and EF are mutually related, owing to shared neural structures or networks (ToM↔EF)...
April 4, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615885/powerful-statistical-inference-for-nested-data-using-sufficient-summary-statistics
#14
Irene Dowding, Stefan Haufe
Hierarchically-organized data arise naturally in many psychology and neuroscience studies. As the standard assumption of independent and identically distributed samples does not hold for such data, two important problems are to accurately estimate group-level effect sizes, and to obtain powerful statistical tests against group-level null hypotheses. A common approach is to summarize subject-level data by a single quantity per subject, which is often the mean or the difference between class means, and treat these as samples in a group-level t -test...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606034/internet-gaming-disorder-an-emergent-health-issue-for-men
#15
Kevin H Chen, John L Oliffe, Mary T Kelly
Internet gaming is a legitimate leisure activity worldwide; however, there are emerging concerns that vast numbers of gamers are becoming addicted. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) classified Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as a condition warranting more clinical research ahead of formalizing it as a mental disorder. Proposed as a behavioral addiction, IGD shares many similarities in both physical and psychosocial manifestations with substance use disorder, including cerebral changes on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604611/controlled-semantic-cognition-relies-upon-dynamic-and-flexible-interactions-between-the-executive-semantic-control-and-hub-and-spoke-semantic-representation-systems
#16
Rocco Chiou, Gina F Humphreys, JeYoung Jung, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Built upon a wealth of neuroimaging, neurostimulation, and neuropsychology data, a recent proposal set forth a framework termed controlled semantic cognition (CSC) to account for how the brain underpins the ability to flexibly use semantic knowledge (Lambon Ralph et al., 2017; Nature Reviews Neuroscience). In CSC, the 'semantic control' system, underpinned predominantly by the prefrontal cortex, dynamically monitors and modulates the 'semantic representation' system that consists of a 'hub' (anterior temporal lobe, ATL) and multiple 'spokes' (modality-specific areas)...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561702/neural-mechanisms-of-social-cognition-in-primates
#17
Marco K Wittmann, Patricia L Lockwood, Matthew F S Rushworth
Activity in a network of areas spanning the superior temporal sulcus, dorsomedial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex is concerned with how nonhuman primates negotiate the social worlds in which they live. Central aspects of these circuits are retained in humans. Activity in these areas codes for primates' interactions with one another, their attempts to find out about one another, and their attempts to prevent others from finding out too much about themselves. Moreover, important features of the social world, such as dominance status, cooperation, and competition, modulate activity in these areas...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550375/freezing-of-gait-promising-avenues-for-future-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Moran Gilat, Ana Lígia Silva de Lima, Bastiaan R Bloem, James M Shine, Jorik Nonnekes, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait is a devastating symptom of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. It poses a major burden on both patients and their families, as freezing often leads to falls, fall-related injuries and a loss of independence. Treating freezing of gait is difficult for a variety of reasons: it has a paroxysmal and unpredictable nature; a multifaceted pathophysiology, with an interplay between motor elements (disturbed stepping mechanisms) and non-motor elements (cognitive decline, anxiety); and a complex (and likely heterogeneous) underlying neural substrate, involving multiple failing neural networks...
March 12, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527187/emerging-viral-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-the-developing-nervous-system-a-mini-review
#19
REVIEW
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393657/a-population-neuroscience-approach-to-the-study-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-in-mid-and-late-life-an-invited-review
#20
Dana R Jorgensen, C Elizabeth Shaaban, Clayton A Wiley, Peter J Gianaros, Joseph Mettenburg, Caterina Rosano
Aging in later life engenders numerous changes to the cerebral microvasculature. Such changes can remain clinically silent, but are associated with greater risk for negative health outcomes over time. Knowledge is limited about the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of potentially detrimental changes in the cerebral microvasculature that occur with advancing age. In this review, we summarize literature on aging of the cerebral microvasculature, and we propose a conceptual framework to fill existing research gaps and advance future work on this heterogeneous phenomenon...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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