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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891018/legal-challenges-in-neurological-practice
#1
REVIEW
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791968/the-whole-versus-the-sum-of-some-of-the-parts-toward-resolving-the-apparent-controversy-of-clitoral-versus-vaginal-orgasms
#2
James G Pfaus, Gonzalo R Quintana, Conall Mac Cionnaith, Mayte Parada
BACKGROUND: The nature of a woman's orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. METHOD: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774235/what-does-recent-neuroscience-tell-us-about-criminal-responsibility
#3
Uri Maoz, Gideon Yaffe
A defendant is criminally responsible for his action only if he is shown to have engaged in a guilty act-actus reus (eg for larceny, voluntarily taking someone else's property without permission)-while possessing a guilty mind-mens rea (eg knowing that he had taken someone else's property without permission, intending not to return it)-and lacking affirmative defenses (eg the insanity defense or self-defense). We therefore first review neuroscientific studies that bear on the nature of voluntary action, and so could, potentially, tell us something of importance about the actus reus of crimes...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739220/the-marmoset-as-a-model-system-for-studying-voluntary-motor-control
#4
Jeff Walker, Jason MacLean, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The common marmoset has recently gained interest as an animal model for systems and behavioral neuroscience. This is due in part to the advent of transgenic marmosets, which affords the possibility of combining genetic manipulations with physiological recording and behavioral monitoring to study neural systems. In this review, we will argue that the marmoset provides a unique opportunity to study the neural basis of voluntary motor control from an integrative perspective. First, as an intermediate animal model, the marmoset represents an important bridge in motor system function between other primates, including humans, and rodents...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698038/a-perspective-on-bridging-scales-and-design-of-models-using-low-dimensional-manifolds-and-data-driven-model-inference
#5
REVIEW
Jesper Tegnér, Hector Zenil, Narsis A Kiani, Gordon Ball, David Gomez-Cabrero
Systems in nature capable of collective behaviour are nonlinear, operating across several scales. Yet our ability to account for their collective dynamics differs in physics, chemistry and biology. Here, we briefly review the similarities and differences between mathematical modelling of adaptive living systems versus physico-chemical systems. We find that physics-based chemistry modelling and computational neuroscience have a shared interest in developing techniques for model reductions aiming at the identification of a reduced subsystem or slow manifold, capturing the effective dynamics...
November 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687119/learning-reward-and-decision-making
#6
John P O'Doherty, Jeffrey Cockburn, Wolfgang M Pauli
In this review, we summarize findings supporting the existence of multiple behavioral strategies for controlling reward-related behavior, including a dichotomy between the goal-directed or model-based system and the habitual or model-free system in the domain of instrumental conditioning and a similar dichotomy in the realm of Pavlovian conditioning. We evaluate evidence from neuroscience supporting the existence of at least partly distinct neuronal substrates contributing to the key computations necessary for the function of these different control systems...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683002/active-inference-and-robot-control-a-case-study
#7
Léo Pio-Lopez, Ange Nizard, Karl Friston, Giovanni Pezzulo
Active inference is a general framework for perception and action that is gaining prominence in computational and systems neuroscience but is less known outside these fields. Here, we discuss a proof-of-principle implementation of the active inference scheme for the control or the 7-DoF arm of a (simulated) PR2 robot. By manipulating visual and proprioceptive noise levels, we show under which conditions robot control under the active inference scheme is accurate. Besides accurate control, our analysis of the internal system dynamics (e...
September 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626230/feature-selective-attention-in-fronto-parietal-cortex-multivoxel-codes-adjust-to-prioritize-task-relevant-information
#8
Jade Jackson, Anina N Rich, Mark A Williams, Alexandra Woolgar
Human cognition is characterized by astounding flexibility, enabling us to select appropriate information according to the objectives of our current task. A circuit of frontal and parietal brain regions, often referred to as the fronto-parietal attention network or multiple-demand (MD) regions, are believed to play a fundamental role in this flexibility. There is evidence that these regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively process information that is currently relevant for behavior, as proposed by the "adaptive coding hypothesis" [Duncan, J...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601979/how-does-the-sparse-memory-engram-neurons-encode-the-memory-of-a-spatial-temporal-event
#9
REVIEW
Ji-Song Guan, Jun Jiang, Hong Xie, Kai-Yuan Liu
Episodic memory in human brain is not a fixed 2-D picture but a highly dynamic movie serial, integrating information at both the temporal and the spatial domains. Recent studies in neuroscience reveal that memory storage and recall are closely related to the activities in discrete memory engram (trace) neurons within the dentate gyrus region of hippocampus and the layer 2/3 of neocortex. More strikingly, optogenetic reactivation of those memory trace neurons is able to trigger the recall of naturally encoded memory...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504098/can-interoception-improve-the-pragmatic-search-for-biomarkers-in-psychiatry
#10
REVIEW
Sahib S Khalsa, Rachel C Lapidus
Disrupted interoception is a prominent feature of the diagnostic classification of several psychiatric disorders. However, progress in understanding the interoceptive basis of these disorders has been incremental, and the application of interoception in clinical treatment is currently limited to panic disorder. To examine the degree to which the scientific community has recognized interoception as a construct of interest, we identified and individually screened all articles published in the English language on interoception and associated root terms in Pubmed, Psychinfo, and ISI Web of Knowledge...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477016/analysis-of-neuronal-spike-trains-deconstructed
#11
REVIEW
Johnatan Aljadeff, Benjamin J Lansdell, Adrienne L Fairhall, David Kleinfeld
As information flows through the brain, neuronal firing progresses from encoding the world as sensed by the animal to driving the motor output of subsequent behavior. One of the more tractable goals of quantitative neuroscience is to develop predictive models that relate the sensory or motor streams with neuronal firing. Here we review and contrast analytical tools used to accomplish this task. We focus on classes of models in which the external variable is compared with one or more feature vectors to extract a low-dimensional representation, the history of spiking and other variables are potentially incorporated, and these factors are nonlinearly transformed to predict the occurrences of spikes...
July 20, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445657/interfacing-cultured-neurons-to-microtransducers-arrays-a-review-of-the-neuro-electronic-junction-models
#12
REVIEW
Paolo Massobrio, Giuseppe Massobrio, Sergio Martinoia
Microtransducer arrays, both metal microelectrodes and silicon-based devices, are widely used as neural interfaces to measure, extracellularly, the electrophysiological activity of excitable cells. Starting from the pioneering works at the beginning of the 70's, improvements in manufacture methods, materials, and geometrical shape have been made. Nowadays, these devices are routinely used in different experimental conditions (both in vivo and in vitro), and for several applications ranging from basic research in neuroscience to more biomedical oriented applications...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443646/a-neuropsychological-perspective-on-abstract-word-representation-from-theory-to-treatment-of-acquired-language-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Richard J Binney, Bonnie Zuckerman, Jamie Reilly
Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable...
September 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423459/cognitive-dysfunction-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
REVIEW
Nabil Benzina, Luc Mallet, Eric Burguière, Karim N'Diaye, Antoine Pelissolo
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder featuring obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors performed in the context of rigid rituals). There is strong evidence for a neurobiological basis of this disorder, involving limbic cortical regions and related basal ganglion areas. However, more research is needed to lift the veil on the precise nature of that involvement and the way it drives the clinical expression of OCD. Altered cognitive functions may underlie the symptoms and thus draw a link between the clinical expression of the disorder and its neurobiological etiology...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402554/untangling-the-neurobiology-of-coping-styles-in-rodents-towards-neural-mechanisms-underlying-individual-differences-in-disease-susceptibility
#15
Sietse F de Boer, Bauke Buwalda, Jaap M Koolhaas
Considerable individual differences exist in trait-like patterns of behavioral and physiological responses to salient environmental challenges. This individual variation in stress coping styles has an important functional role in terms of health and fitness. Hence, understanding the neural embedding of coping style variation is fundamental for biobehavioral neurosciences in probing individual disease susceptibility. This review outlines individual differences in trait-aggressiveness as an adaptive component of the natural sociobiology of rats and mice, and highlights that these reflect the general style of coping that varies from proactive (aggressive) to reactive (docile)...
July 8, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375409/nutritional-cognitive-neuroscience-innovations-for-healthy-brain-aging
#16
REVIEW
Marta K Zamroziewicz, Aron K Barbey
Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition's impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition-from entire diets to specific nutrients-affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339690/with-love-from-me-to-you-embedding-social-interactions-in-affective-neuroscience
#17
REVIEW
Gadi Gilam, Talma Hendler
Human emotional experiences naturally occur while interacting in a spontaneous, dynamic and response contingent fashion with other humans. This resonates with both theoretical considerations as well as neuroimaging findings that illustrate the nexus between the "social" and "emotional" brain suggesting a domain-general organization of the brain. Nevertheless, most knowledge in affective neuroscience stems from studying the brain in isolation from its natural social environment. Whether social interactions are constitutive or not to the understanding of other people's intentions, incorporating such interactions is clearly required for ecological validity...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314302/sensing-the-body-representing-the-body-evidence-from-a-neurologically-based-delusion-of-body-ownership
#18
Lorenzo Pia, Francesca Garbarini, Carlotta Fossataro, Dalila Burin, Anna Berti
Humans experience their own body as unitary and monolithic in nature. However, recent findings in cognitive neuroscience seem to suggest that body awareness has a complex and multifaceted structure that can be dissociated in several subcomponents, possibly underpinned by different brain circuits. In the present paper, we focus on a recently reported neuropsychological disorder of body ownership in which patients misattribute to themselves someone else's arm and its movements. As first, we briefly review the clinical and functional features of this disorder...
February 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294424/only-time-will-tell-why-temporal-information-is-essential-for-our-neuroscientific-understanding-of-semantics
#19
Olaf Hauk
Theoretical developments about the nature of semantic representations and processes should be accompanied by a discussion of how these theories can be validated on the basis of empirical data. Here, I elaborate on the link between theory and empirical research, highlighting the need for temporal information in order to distinguish fundamental aspects of semantics. The generic point that fast cognitive processes demand fast measurement techniques has been made many times before, although arguably more often in the psychophysiological community than in the metabolic neuroimaging community...
August 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207765/assessment-of-effective-connectivity-and-plasticity-with-dual-coil-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#20
REVIEW
Louis-Philippe Lafleur, Sara Tremblay, Kevin Whittingstall, Jean-Francois Lepage
BACKGROUND: Understanding how different brain regions interact with one another is at the heart of current endeavors in cognitive and basic neuroscience. Unlike most neuroimaging techniques, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows the establishment of causal relationships in the study of the functional architecture of the human brain. While this tool is increasingly used to probe the functional and causal nature of the associations between brain regions, a comprehensive guide documenting the various existing stimulation protocols is currently lacking, limiting its use...
May 2016: Brain Stimulation
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