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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110464/alexithymia-in-people-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Mehmet Yuruyen, Fundan Engin Akcan, Gizem Cetiner Batun, Gozde Gultekin, Mesut Toprak, Hakan Yavuzer, Murat Emul
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms are widely accepted as accelerator factors in progression to dementia. Although alexithymia is closely related to normal aging process and poor neurocognitive performance, alexithymia has not been included in these symptoms yet. AIMS: Here, we aimed to investigate alexithymia features in people with prominent clinical memory complaints. METHODS: The participants (n = 82) were classified into three groups as: subjective cognitive decline (n = 30), mild cognitive impairment (n = 27), and mild Alzheimer's disease (n = 25) after Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, neuropsychological test battery, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Hachinski Ischemic Scale...
January 21, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110103/the-retromer-complex-system-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-ad-influence-of-age
#2
Jin Chu, Domenico Praticò
Deficiencies of the retrograde transport mediated by the retromer complex have been described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic manipulation of retromer modulates brain amyloidosis in Tg2576 mice. However, whether the complex is altered during the development of the AD-like phenotype remains unknown. In this study we assayed the expression levels of the vacuolar sorting protein 35 (VPS35), VPS26, VPS29, and its cargo proteins, cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, sortilin-related receptor in brains of Tg2576 and controls at the ages of 3, 8, and 14 months...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109879/selenomethionine-promoted-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-the-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-wnt-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Rui Zheng, Zhong-Hao Zhang, Chen Chen, Yao Chen, Shi-Zheng Jia, Qiong Liu, Jia-Zuan Ni, Guo-Li Song
The maintenance of neural system integrity and function is the ultimate goal for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis plays an integral role in the maintenance of neural and cognitive functions, and its dysfunction is regarded as a major cause of cognitive impairment in AD. Moreover, the induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) is considered as one of the most promising treatment strategies. Our previous studies demonstrated that selenomethionine (Se-Met) was able to reduce β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) deposition, decrease Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and markedly improve cognitive functions in triple transgenic (3xTg) AD mice...
January 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109841/disruption-of-aromatase-homeostasis-as-the-cause-of-a-multiplicity-of-ailments-a-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Human health is beset with a legion of ailments, which is exacerbated by the lifestyle errors. Out of the numerous enzymes in human body, aromatase, a cytochromes P450 enzyme is particularly very critical. Occurring at the crossroads of multiple signalling pathways, its homeostasis is vital. Unfortunately, medications, hormone therapy, chemical additives in food, and endocrine-disrupting personal care products are oscillating the aromatase concentration beyond the permissible level. As this enzyme converts androgens (C19) into estrogens (C18), its agitation has different outcomes in different genders and age groups...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109809/potent-inhibition-of-monoamine-oxidase-a-by-decursin-from-angelica-gigas-nakai-and-by-wogonin-from-scutellaria-baicalensis-georgi
#5
Hyun Woo Lee, Hyung Won Ryu, Myung-Gyun Kang, Daeui Park, Hanna Lee, Heung Mook Shin, Sei-Ryang Oh, Hoon Kim
During the ongoing search for new monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, five coumarin derivatives and eight flavonoids were isolated from the roots of Angelica gigas Nakai and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, respectively. Of the phytochemicals, decursin (4) was found to potently and selectively inhibit human MAO-A (IC50=1.89μM). The IC50 value of 4 for MAO-A belonged to the lowest group in herbal sources and was similar to that of toloxatone (1.78μM), a marketed drug. Wogonin (11) effectively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B (IC50=6...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109793/a-study-of-fasoracetam-s-solid-state-forms-a-potential-anti-alzheimer-pharmaceutical
#6
Bram Harmsen, Koen Robeyns, Johan Wouters, Tom Leyssens
Different solid state forms of the research chemical fasoracetam, which counters the effects of Alzheimer's disease, have been subjected to a thermal and structural analysis. Single crystals were obtained from solution evaporation and from the melt. Single crystal x-ray analyses of the crystals show the existence of two hydrated and one non-hydrated crystalline form of fasoracetam. Under ambient conditions, the hydrate form I is found to be the most stable form, showing a melting point of 57°C. This low melting point, combined with possible water losses could cause problems when formulating the hydrated form and impact the storage conditions of the compound...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109317/sorting-nexin-4-regulates-%C3%AE-amyloid-production-by-modulating-%C3%AE-site-activating-cleavage-enzyme-1
#7
Na-Young Kim, Mi-Hyang Cho, Se-Hoon Won, Hoe-Jin Kang, Seung-Yong Yoon, Dong-Hou Kim
BACKGROUND: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) to produce β-amyloid (Aβ), a critical pathogenic peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ generation can be affected by the intracellular trafficking of APP or its related secretases, which is thus important to understanding its pathological alterations. Although sorting nexin (SNX) family proteins regulate this trafficking, the relevance and role of sorting nexin-4 (SNX4) regarding AD has not been studied yet...
January 21, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109312/locus-coeruleus-cellular-and-molecular-pathology-during-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Sarah C Kelly, Bin He, Sylvia E Perez, Stephen D Ginsberg, Elliott J Mufson, Scott E Counts
A major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) projection neurons that mediate attention, memory, and arousal. However, the extent to which the LC projection system degenerates during the initial stages of AD is still under investigation. To address this question, we performed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology of noradrenergic LC neurons in tissue harvested postmortem from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, a putative prodromal AD stage), or mild/moderate AD...
January 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109294/probing-the-intermolecular-interactions-of-ppar%C3%AE-lbd-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-anti-inflammatory-metabolites-to-infer-most-potential-binding-moieties
#9
Shalini Muralikumar, Umashankar Vetrivel, Angayarkanni Narayanasamy, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: PPARγ is an isoform of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to a super family of nuclear receptors. PPARγ receptor is found to play a crucial role in the modulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Its commotion has been reported to play a significant role in a broad spectrum of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and in some cancers. Hence, PPARγ is an important therapeutic target. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites (henceforth referred to as bioactive lipids) are known to function as agonists of PPARγ...
January 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109287/how-useful-is-the-eq-5d-in-assessing-the-impact-of-caring-for-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Catherine Reed, Annabel Barrett, Jeremie Lebrec, Richard Dodel, Roy W Jones, Bruno Vellas, Anders Wimo, Josep Maria Argimon, Giuseppe Bruno, Josep Maria Haro
BACKGROUND: The impact on informal caregivers of caring for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia can be substantial, but it remains unclear which measures(s) best assess such impact. Our objective was to use data from the GERAS study to assess the ability of the EuroQol 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) to measure the impact on caregivers of caring for people with AD dementia and to examine correlations between EQ-5D and caregiver burden. METHODS: GERAS was a prospective, non-interventional cohort study in community-dwelling patients with AD dementia and their informal caregivers...
January 21, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108988/blood-brain-barrier-closure-time-after-controlled-ultrasound-induced-opening-is-independent-of-opening-volume
#11
Meaghan A O'Reilly, Olivia Hough, Kullervo Hynynen
OBJECTIVES: Microbubble-mediated focused ultrasound (US) opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has shown promising results for the treatment of brain tumors and conditions such as Alzheimer disease. Practical clinical implementation of focused US treatments would aim to treat a substantial portion of the brain; thus, the safety of opening large volumes must be investigated. This study investigated whether the opened volume affects the time for the BBB to be restored after treatment...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108945/self-reported-confusion-is-related-to-global-and-regional-%C3%AE-amyloid-data-from-the-women-s-healthy-ageing-project
#12
Georgia E McCluskey, Paul Yates, Victor L Villemagne, Christopher Rowe, Cassandra E I Szoeke
Disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) may require implementation during early stages of β-amyloid accumulation, well before patients have objective cognitive decline. In this study we aimed to assess the clinical value of subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) by examining the cross-sectional relationship between β-amyloid load and SCI. Cerebral β-amyloid and SCI was assessed in a cohort of 112 cognitively normal subjects. Subjective cognition was evaluated using specific questions on memory and cognition and the MAC-Q...
January 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108859/the-arc-gene-confers-genetic-susceptibility-to-alzheimer-s-disease-in-han-chinese
#13
Rui Bi, Li-Li Kong, Min Xu, Guo-Dong Li, Deng-Feng Zhang, Tao Li, Yiru Fang, Chen Zhang, Buchang Zhang, Yong-Gang Yao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain was considered one of the main neuropathological hallmarks of AD. As the loss of synapses always occurs during AD progression, AD has been gradually regarded as a "synaptopathy." The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) was recently identified as a key factor for AD due to its active roles in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory, and Aβ generation. However, there is little evidence to support the association of the Arc gene with AD...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108637/tomm40-523-variant-and-cognitive-decline-in-older-persons-with-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B53-3-genotype
#14
Lei Yu, Michael W Lutz, Robert S Wilson, Daniel K Burns, Allen D Roses, Ann M Saunders, Chris Gaiteri, Philip L De Jager, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: To interrogate a poly-T variant (rs10524523, '523) in TOMM40, a gene adjacent to the APOE gene on chromosome 19, in older persons with APOE ε3/3 homozygosity for association with cognitive decline, the clinical hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Data came from participants in 2 cohort studies of aging and dementia who underwent annual clinical evaluations for up to 21 years. APOE and TOMM40'523 genotypes were determined from DNA from blood or brain samples...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108584/astrocytic-transporters-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Chris Ugbode, Yuhan Hu, Benjamin Whalley, Chris Peers, Marcus Rattray, Mark L Dallas
Astrocytes play a fundamental role in maintaining the health and function of the central nervous system. Increasing evidence indicates that astrocytes undergo both cellular and molecular changes at an early stage in neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). These changes may reflect a change from a neuroprotective to a neurotoxic phenotype. Given the lack of current disease-modifying therapies for AD, astrocytes have become an interesting and viable target for therapeutic intervention. The astrocyte transport system covers a diverse array of proteins involved in metabolic support, neurotransmission and synaptic architecture...
February 1, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108532/tdp-43-prions
#16
Takashi Nonaka, Masato Hasegawa
The most common neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, are all protein-misfolding diseases and are characterized by the presence of disease-specific protein aggregates in affected neuronal cells. Recent studies have shown that, like tau and α-synuclein, TAR-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) can form aggregates in vitro in a seed-dependent, self-templating, prion-like manner. Insoluble TDP-43 prepared from the brains of patients has been classified into several strains, which can be transferred from cell to cell in vitro, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms reminiscent of those by which prions spread through the nervous system...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108498/mglur2-versus-mglur3-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-primate-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-postsynaptic-mglur3-strengthen-working-memory-networks
#17
Lu E Jin, Min Wang, Veronica C Galvin, Taber C Lightbourne, Peter Jeffrey Conn, Amy F T Arnsten, Constantinos D Paspalas
The newly evolved circuits in layer III of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) generate the neural representations that subserve working memory. These circuits are weakened by increased cAMP-K(+) channel signaling, and are a focus of pathology in schizophrenia, aging, and Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive deficits in these disorders are increasingly associated with insults to mGluR3 metabotropic glutamate receptors, while reductions in mGluR2 appear protective. This has been perplexing, as mGluR3 has been considered glial receptors, and mGluR2 and mGluR3 have been thought to have similar functions, reducing glutamate transmission...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108398/association-between-butyrylcholinesterase-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#18
António José Gabriel, Maria Rosário Almeida, Maria Helena Ribeiro, João Durães, Miguel Tábuas-Pereira, Ana Cristina Pinheiro, Rui Pascoal, Isabel Santana, Inês Baldeiras
The deficit of cholinergic activity is one of the main findings in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is related to the synthesis of acetylcholine, and the hydrolysing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Together with the Apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele (ApoE-ε4), the BuChE-K variant has been proposed to increase AD risk in certain populations. In addition, this polymorphism has been associated with a lower capacity to attenuate β-amyloid aggregation. In the present study we explored the interaction of the BuChE-K variant with its activity in CSF, conventional AD biomarkers and ApoE genotype...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108320/modulation-on-brain-gray-matter-activity-and-white-matter-integrity-by-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-risk-gene-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#19
Suping Cai, Yuanyuan Jiang, Yubo Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Junchan Ren, Min Seob Lee, Sunghoon Lee, Liyu Huang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor with the most established evidence for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated insufficiently consistent functional and structural changes among healthy APOE ε4 carriers when compared to non-carriers. Here, in a cognitively intact elderly group (a total of 110: 45 APOE ε4 carriers, 65 non-carriers), we aimed to investigate the potential role of APOE ε4 in the modulation of grey matter activity, white matter integrity, and brain morphology before the development of clinically significant symptoms and signs, by methods of: amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity analysis based on resting state fMRI, and fiber tractography approach based on diffusion tensor imaging...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108292/reversal-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-improves-glucose-tolerance-inflammatory-response-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-and-cognitive-decline-in-the-app-psen1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
J M Walker, S Dixit, A C Saulsberry, J M May, F E Harrison
This study assessed the extent to which high fat diet (HFD)-induced β-amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline in APP/PSEN1 mice are reversible through control of fat intake. Ten months of HFD (60% calories from fat) led to significant deficits in a 2-trial Y maze task, and nest building assay, and decreased voluntary locomotor activity. The HFD induced an inflammatory response, indicated by increased expression of several inflammatory markers. Substituting a low fat diet led to pronounced weight loss and correction of glucose intolerance, decreases in the inflammatory response, and improved performance on behavioral tasks in both wild-type and APP/PSEN1 transgenic mice...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
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