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Proceedings of the National Academy of Science

Irit Shapira-Lichter, Ilana Klovatch, Dana Nathan, Noga Oren, Talma Hendler
Generating words according to a given rule relies on retrieval-related search and postretrieval control processes. Using fMRI, we recently characterized neural patterns of word generation in response to episodic, semantic, and phonemic cues by comparing free recall of wordlists, category fluency, and letter fluency [Shapira-Lichter, I., Oren, N., Jacob, Y., Gruberger, M., & Hendler, T. Portraying the unique contribution of the default mode network to internally driven mnemonic processes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U...
September 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jennifer Vonk
Benson-Amram, Dantzer, Stricker, Swanson, & Holekamp's (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113, 25321-25376, 2016) recent demonstration that larger-brained carnivores were more successful in a single problem-solving task, relative to smaller-brained carnivores, irrespective of social complexity, poses a challenge to proponents of the social intelligence hypothesis (Humphrey, 1976) and provides some support for the idea that larger relative brain sizes have evolved to support greater problem-solving abilities...
June 2016: Learning & Behavior
R D Coletta, Afp Leme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Oral Diseases
Igho J Onakpoya, Gail Hayward, Carl J Heneghan
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in young children account for 1.4 million deaths annually worldwide. Antibiotics could be beneficial in preventing LRTIs in high-risk children, and may also help prevent school absenteeism and work days missed by children and/or carers. While it is well documented that the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for RTIs decreases over time, there are no reviews that describe the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent LRTIs in high-risk children aged 12 years and under...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Nora Andermane, Jeffrey S Bowers
A number of recent studies have highlighted the exceptional capacity and fidelity of visual long-term memory. For instance, Brady, Konkle, Alvarez, and Oliva (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 14325-14329, 2008) presented participants with thousands of images for nearly 6 h and then tested their memory in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task. Participants were 87% accurate, even when the foil was extremely similar to the target (e.g., when the same object was presented in a different state)...
October 2015: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Barclay W Bakkum, Ruth Trachimowicz
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to investigate the publication rates of presentations at the 2006 meeting of the American Academy of Optometry (AAO), differences in the publication rates of platform versus poster presentations, consistency of the meeting abstract compared with the full-length journal article, whether abstracts were clinical or basic science, and when and in which journals articles appeared. METHODS: Abstracts were obtained directly from the AAO...
November 2015: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Karen B Schloss, Daniel Hawthorne-Madell, Stephen E Palmer
How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects...
November 2015: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Andrew T Sornborger, Zhuo Wang, Louis Tao
Neural oscillations can enhance feature recognition (Azouz and Gray Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 8110-8115 2000), modulate interactions between neurons (Womelsdorf et al. Science, 316, 1609-01612 2007), and improve learning and memory (Markowska et al. The Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 2063-2073 1995). Numerical studies have shown that coherent spiking can give rise to windows in time during which information transfer can be enhanced in neuronal networks (Abeles Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 18, 83-92 1982; Lisman and Idiart Science, 267, 1512-1515 1995, Salinas and Sejnowski Nature Reviews...
October 2015: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
Susan J Henly, Donna O McCarthy, Jean F Wyman, Anna C Alt-White, Patricia W Stone, Ann Marie McCarthy, Nancy S Redeker, Jacqueline Dunbar-Jacob, Marita G Titler, Yvette P Conley, Margaret M Heitkemper, Shirley M Moore
We respond to commentaries from the American Academy of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and the National Institute of Nursing Research on our thoughts about integrating emerging areas of science into nursing PhD programs. We identify areas of agreement and focus our response on cross-cutting issues arising from cautions about the unique focus of nursing science and how best to proceed with incorporation of emerging areas of science into nursing PhD programs.
July 2015: Nursing Outlook
Sage E P Boettcher, Jeremy M Wolfe
In "hybrid search" (Wolfe Psychological Science, 23(7), 698-703, 2012), observers search through visual space for any of multiple targets held in memory. With photorealistic objects as the stimuli, response times (RTs) increase linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with the memory set size, even when over 100 items are committed to memory. It is well-established that pictures of objects are particularly easy to memorize (Brady, Konkle, Alvarez, & Oliva Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 14325-14329, 2008)...
May 2015: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
I A Kuznetsov, A V Kuznetsov
We developed a mathematical model for simulating neuropeptide transport inside dense core vesicles (DCVs) in axon terminals containing en passant boutons. The motivation for this research is a recent experimental study by Levitan and colleagues (Bulgari et al., 2014) which described DCV transport in nerve terminals of type Ib and type III as well as in nerve terminals of type Ib with the transcription factor DIMM. The goal of our modeling is validating the proposition put forward by Levitan and colleagues that the dramatic difference in DCV number in type Ib and type III terminals can be explained by the difference in DCV capture in type Ib and type III boutons rather than by differences in DCV anterograde transport and half-life of resident DCVs...
March 2015: Mathematical Biosciences
Scott H Frey, Marc Hansen, Noah Marchal
Evidence implicates ventral parieto-premotor cortices in representing the goal of grasping independent of the movements or effectors involved [Umilta, M. A., Escola, L., Intskirveli, I., Grammont, F., Rochat, M., Caruana, F., et al. When pliers become fingers in the monkey motor system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 105, 2209-2213, 2008; Tunik, E., Frey, S. H., & Grafton, S. T. Virtual lesions of the anterior intraparietal area disrupt goal-dependent on-line adjustments of grasp. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 505-511, 2005]...
June 2015: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Jennifer C Tomaszczyk, Nathaniel L Green, Diana Frasca, Brenda Colella, Gary R Turner, Bruce K Christensen, Robin E A Green
Based on growing findings of brain volume loss and deleterious white matter alterations during the chronic stages of injury, researchers posit that moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may act to "age" the brain by reducing reserve capacity and inducing neurodegeneration. Evidence that these changes correlate with poorer cognitive and functional outcomes corroborates this progressive characterization of chronic TBI. Borrowing from a framework developed to explain cognitive aging (Mahncke et al., Progress in Brain Research, 157, 81-109, 2006a; Mahncke et al...
December 2014: Neuropsychology Review
Michael P Sheetz
At a time of historically low National Institutes of Health funding rates and many problems with the conduct of research (unfunded mandates, disgruntled reviewers, and rampant paranoia), there is a concern that biomedical research as a profession is waning in the United States (see "Rescuing US biomedical research from its systemic flaws" by Alberts and colleagues in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences). However, it is wonderful to discover something new and to tackle tough puzzles. If we could focus more of our effort on discussing scientific problems and doing research, then we could be more productive and perhaps happier...
November 1, 2014: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Anna-Marei Boehm, Konstantin Khalturin, Friederike A Erxleben, Georg Hemmrich, Ulrich C Klostermeier, Javier A Lopez-Quintero, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Malte Puchert, Philip Rosenstiel, Jörg Wittlieb, Thomas C G Bosch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2013: Annals of Neurosciences
Robert Landick, Azra Krek, Michael S Glickman, Nicholas D Socci, Christina L Stallings
CarD is an essential mycobacterial protein that binds the RNA polymerase (RNAP) and affects the transcriptional profile of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6). We predicted that CarD was directly regulating RNAP function but our prior experiments had not determined at what stage of transcription CarD was functioning and at which genes CarD interacted with the RNAP. To begin to address these open questions, we performed Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to survey the distribution of CarD throughout the M...
December 2014: Genomics Data
Alejandro de la Vega, Mark S Brown, Hannah R Snyder, Debra Singel, Yuko Munakata, Marie T Banich
Individuals vary greatly in their ability to select one item or response when presented with a multitude of options. Here we investigate the neural underpinnings of these individual differences. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that the balance of inhibitory versus excitatory neurotransmitters in pFC predicts the ability to select among task-relevant options in two language production tasks. The greater an individual's concentration of GABA relative to glutamate in the lateral pFC, the more quickly he or she could select a relevant word from among competing options...
November 2014: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Karen B Schloss, Stephen E Palmer
The present study reveals that Election Day differentially affects the color preferences of US Republicans and Democrats. Voters' preferences for Republican red and Democratic blue were assessed, along with several distractor colors, on and around the 2010 interim and 2012 presidential elections. On non-Election Days, Republicans and Democrats preferred Republican red equally, and Republicans actually preferred Democratic blue more than Democrats did. On Election Day, however, Republicans' and Democrats' color preferences changed to become more closely aligned with their own party's colors...
December 2014: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Marcin F Osuchowski, Daniel G Remick, James A Lederer, Charles H Lang, Ansgar O Aasen, Mayuki Aibiki, Luciano C Azevedo, Soheyl Bahrami, Mihaly Boros, Robert Cooney, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Yong Jiang, Wolfgang G Junger, Hiroyuki Hirasawa, Richard S Hotchkiss, Xiang-An Li, Peter Radermacher, Heinz Redl, Reinaldo Salomao, Amin Soebandrio, Christoph Thiemermann, Jean-Louis Vincent, Peter Ward, Yong-Ming Yao, Huang-Ping Yu, Basilia Zingarelli, Irshad H Chaudry
Many preclinical studies in critical care medicine and related disciplines rely on hypothesis-driven research in mice. The underlying premise posits that mice sufficiently emulate numerous pathophysiologic alterations produced by trauma/sepsis and can serve as an experimental platform for answering clinically relevant questions. Recently, the lay press severely criticized the translational relevance of mouse models in critical care medicine. A series of provocative editorials were elicited by a highly publicized research report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS; February 2013), which identified an unrecognized gene expression profile mismatch between human and murine leukocytes following burn/trauma/endotoxemia...
June 2014: Shock
Andrew M Swanson, Lauren P Shapiro, Alonzo J Whyte, Shannon L Gourley
We recently reported that prolonged exposure to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligand corticosterone impairs decision-making that is dependent on the predictive relationship between an action and its outcome (Gourley et al.; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012). Additionally, acute GR blockade, when paired with action-outcome conditioning, also blocks new learning. We then showed that dendritic spines in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex remodeled under both conditions. Nonetheless, the relationship between deep-layer dendritic spines and outcome-based decision-making remains opaque...
November 1, 2013: Communicative & Integrative Biology
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