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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915987/sex-differences-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#1
Roberta Agabio, Claudia Pisanu, Gian Luigi Gessa, Flavia Franconi
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common and disabling mental disorder associated with a significant burden of medical consequences and high socioeconomic costs. Although a growing number of studies support the existence of sex differences in several aspects of alcohol consumption and AUD, the majority of investigations have been conducted in men. OBJECTIVE: This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in AUD, focusing on epidemiology, neurobiology, pharmacokinetics, susceptibility to medical consequences, and treatment...
December 1, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911022/membrane-defects-and-genetic-redundancy-are-we-at-a-turning-point-for-dyt1-dystonia
#2
REVIEW
Ana Cascalho, Julie Jacquemyn, Rose E Goodchild
Heterozygosity for a 3-base pair deletion (ΔGAG) in TOR1A/torsinA is one of the most common causes of hereditary dystonia. In this review, we highlight current understanding of how this mutation causes disease from research spanning structural biochemistry, cell science, neurobiology, and several model organisms. We now know that homozygosity for ΔGAG has the same effects as Tor1a(KO) , implicating a partial loss of function mechanism in the ΔGAG/+ disease state. In addition, torsinA loss specifically affects neurons in mice, even though the gene is broadly expressed, apparently because of differential expression of homologous torsinB...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908410/elevated-serum-mda-and-depleted-non-enzymatic-antioxidants-macro-minerals-and-trace-elements-are-associated-with-bipolar-disorder
#3
Manjurul Islam Chowdhury, Maimuna Hasan, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Md Shahid Sarwar, Mohammad Nurul Amin, S M Naim Uddin, Md Zahedur Rahaman, Sujan Banik, Md Saddam Hussain, Kazushige Yokota, Abul Hasnat
Genetic and neurobiological factors are considered to be the major causes of mood and mental disorders. However, over the past few years, increased levels of serum malondialdehyde and altered levels of various non-enzymatic antioxidants and essential minerals involved in abnormal functional activity have been identified as major contributing factors to the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of the serum lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidants (vitamin A, E and C), macro-minerals (calcium, potassium and sodium) and trace elements (zinc, iron and selenium) in patients with bipolar disorder and to explore their role in disease progression...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894611/the-threshold-theory-for-parkinson-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Simone Engelender, Ole Isacson
Parkinson's disease (PD) is recognized by the accumulation of α-synuclein within neurons. In contrast to the current ascending theory where α-synuclein would propagate from neuron to neuron, we now propose the threshold theory for PD based on evidence of parallel degeneration of both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) in PD. The functional threshold is lower for the emergence of early symptoms before the classical motor symptoms of PD. This is due to the larger functional reserve of the midbrain dopamine and integrated basal ganglia motor systems to control movement...
November 25, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894012/depression-in-cancer-the-many-biobehavioral-pathways-driving-tumor-progression
#5
REVIEW
Beatrice Bortolato, Thomas N Hyphantis, Sara Valpione, Giulia Perini, Michael Maes, Gerwyn Morris, Marta Kubera, Cristiano A Köhler, Brisa S Fernandes, Brendon Stubbs, Nicholas Pavlidis, André F Carvalho
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is common among cancer patients, with prevalence rates up to four-times higher than the general population. Depression confers worse outcomes, including non-adherence to treatment and increased mortality in the oncology setting. Advances in the understanding of neurobiological underpinnings of depression have revealed shared biobehavioral mechanisms may contribute to cancer progression. Moreover, psychosocial stressors in cancer promote: (1) inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress; (2) a decreased immunosurveillance; and (3) a dysfunctional activation of the autonomic nervous system and of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis...
November 16, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891068/can-mouse-imaging-studies-bring-order-to-autism-connectivity-chaos
#6
Adam Liska, Alessandro Gozzi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has consistently highlighted impaired or aberrant functional connectivity across brain regions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. However, the manifestation and neural substrates of these alterations are highly heterogeneous and often conflicting. Moreover, their neurobiological underpinnings and etiopathological significance remain largely unknown. A deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiological cascade leading to aberrant connectivity in ASD can greatly benefit from the use of model organisms where individual pathophysiological or phenotypic components of ASD can be recreated and investigated via approaches that are either off limits or confounded by clinical heterogeneity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871051/aging-modifies-the-effect-of-gch1-rs11158026-on-dat-uptake-and-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-severity
#7
Joseph Webb, Auriel A Willette
Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms within Parkinson's disease (PD) can predict disease risk, but their influence on clinical, cognitive, and neurobiological indices remains unexplored. We investigated differences between functional polymorphisms at RS11158026 coding for guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 (GCH1), an essential enzyme for dopamine production in nigrostriatal cells. Among newly diagnosed, untreated PD subjects and age-matched controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative, T allele carriers showed higher PD risk (odds ratio = 1...
October 13, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853417/a-mouse-model-for-binge-level-methamphetamine-use
#8
Shkelzen Shabani, Sydney K Houlton, Laura Hellmuth, Erika Mojica, John R K Mootz, Zhen Zhu, Cheryl Reed, Tamara J Phillips
Binge/crash cycles of methamphetamine (MA) use are frequently reported by individuals suffering from MA use disorders. A MA binge is self-reported as multiple daily doses that commonly accumulate to 800 mg/day (~10 mg/kg/day for a 170 pound human). A genetic animal model with a similar vulnerability to binge-level MA intake is missing. We used selectively bred MA high drinking (MAHDR) and low drinking (MALDR) mouse lines to determine whether several procedural variations would result in binge-level MA intake...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852966/hippocampal-activation-of-microglia-may-underlie-the-shared-neurobiology-of-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-chronic-pain
#9
Rao Sun, Zuoxia Zhang, Yishan Lei, Yue Liu, Cui'e Lu, Hui Rong, Yu'e Sun, Wei Zhang, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
The high comorbidity rates of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain have been widely reported, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggested that an excess of inflammatory immune activities in the hippocampus involved in the progression of both posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain. Considering that microglia are substrates underlying the initiation and propagation of the neuroimmune response, we hypothesized that stress-induced activation of hippocampal microglia may contribute to the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder-pain comorbidity...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845779/brain-responses-to-biological-motion-predict-treatment-outcome-in-young-children-with-autism
#10
D Yang, K A Pelphrey, D G Sukhodolsky, M J Crowley, E Dayan, N C Dvornek, A Venkataraman, J Duncan, L Staib, P Ventola
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common yet complex neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by social, communication and behavioral deficits. Behavioral interventions have shown favorable results-however, the promise of precision medicine in ASD is hampered by a lack of sensitive, objective neurobiological markers (neurobiomarkers) to identify subgroups of young children likely to respond to specific treatments. Such neurobiomarkers are essential because early childhood provides a sensitive window of opportunity for intervention, while unsuccessful intervention is costly to children, families and society...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833955/neuro-neoplastic-interrelationships-in-colorectal-level-immunohistochemical-aspect-in-three-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Cristina Florescu, Octavian Istrătoaie, Georgică Costinel Târtea, Daniel Pirici, Costin Teodor Streba, Bogdan Cătălin, Ileana Puiu, Elena Anca Târtea, Daniel Cosmin Caragea, Mirela Corina Ghiluşi, Maria Victoria Comănescu, Ion Rogoveanu, Cristin Constantin Vere
Colorectal cancer represents a severe public health issue. Recent studies have shown the essential role played by nerves and their neurotransmitters in tumor initiation and progression. The aim of this study is to asses the expression of beta 2-adrenergic receptors (β2A) for adrenaline and noradrenaline, and the expression of M3 muscarinic receptors (M3R) for acetylcholine (neurotransmitters produced and released by sympathetic and parasympathetic afferents of the digestive tract and also by the enteric nervous system) in different tumor gradings of colorectal adenocarcinoma, and also the tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) for the nerve growth factor produced by the cells of colorectal adenocarcinoma...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815839/disruption-of-ninjurin1-leads-to-repetitive-and-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#12
Hoang Le, Bum Ju Ahn, Hye Shin Lee, Anna Shin, Sujin Chae, Sung Yi Lee, Min Wook Shin, Eun-Ji Lee, Jong-Ho Cha, Taekwon Son, Ji Hae Seo, Hee-Jun Wee, Hyo-Jong Lee, Yongwoo Jang, Eng H Lo, Sejin Jeon, Goo Taeg Oh, Daesoo Kim, Kyu-Won Kim
Over the last few decades, molecular neurobiology has uncovered many genes whose deficiency in mice results in behavioral traits associated with human neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. However, the etiology of these common diseases remains enigmatic with the potential involvement of a battery of genes. Here, we report abnormal behavioral phenotypes of mice deficient in a cell adhesion molecule Ninjurin 1 (Ninj1), which are relevant to repetitive and anxiety behaviors of neuropsychiatric disorders...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799057/integrative-network-analysis-of-nineteen-brain-regions-identifies-molecular-signatures-and-networks-underlying-selective-regional-vulnerability-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Minghui Wang, Panos Roussos, Andrew McKenzie, Xianxiao Zhou, Yuji Kajiwara, Kristen J Brennand, Gabriele C De Luca, John F Crary, Patrizia Casaccia, Joseph D Buxbaum, Michelle Ehrlich, Sam Gandy, Alison Goate, Pavel Katsel, Eric Schadt, Vahram Haroutunian, Bin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. However, despite extensive clinical and genomic studies, the molecular basis of AD development and progression remains elusive. METHODS: To elucidate molecular systems associated with AD, we developed a large scale gene expression dataset from 1053 postmortem brain samples across 19 cortical regions of 125 individuals with a severity spectrum of dementia and neuropathology of AD...
November 1, 2016: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798423/sleep-wake-disturbances-in-the-premotor-and-early-stage-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Panagiotis Bargiotas, Michael W M Schuepbach, Claudio L Bassetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review of recent literature pertaining to frequency, associations, mechanisms, and overall significance of sleep--wake disturbances (SWD) in the premotor and early phase of Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: SWD are frequent in Parkinson's disease and their prevalence increases with disease progression. Recent studies confirm previous findings that SWD can appear as initial manifestation of Parkinson's disease even decades before motor signs appear and highlight their clinical associations in these early stages...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793220/the-influence-of-prebiotics-on-neurobiology-and-behavior
#15
A C C Kao, S Harty, P W J Burnet
Manipulating the intestinal microbiota for the benefit of the brain is a concept that has become widely acknowledged. Prebiotics are nondigestible nutrients (i.e., fibers, carbohydrates, or various saccharides) that proliferate intrinsic, beneficial gut bacteria, and so provide an alternative strategy for effectively altering the enteric ecosystem, and thence brain function. Rodent studies demonstrating neurobiological changes following prebiotic intake are slowly emerging, and have thus far revealed significant benefits in disease models, including antiinflammatory and neuroprotective actions...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762054/ovulation-inducing-factor-oif-ngf-in-seminal-plasma-a-review-and-update
#16
G P Adams, M H Ratto, M E Silva, R A Carrasco
The ovulation-inducing effect of seminal plasma was first reported in Bactrian camels over 30 years ago, and the entity responsible was dubbed 'ovulation-inducing factor' (OIF). More recent studies, primarily in llamas and alpacas, characterized the biological and chemical properties of OIF and ultimately identified it as βNGF. This recent discovery has allowed a convergence of knowledge previously separated by discipline and by mechanism; that is, neurobiology and reproductive biology, and autocrine/paracrine vs endocrine...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756892/targeting-immune-checkpoints-in-malignant-glioma
#17
Xuhao Zhang, Shan Zhu, Tete Li, Yong-Jun Liu, Wei Chen, Jingtao Chen
Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the body's anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered "immune privileged" and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma...
October 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747882/gene-regulation-and-genetics-in-neurochemistry-past-to-future
#18
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745722/-the-severe-chronic-irritability-concept-a-clinical-dimension-to-consider-in-child-and-adolescent
#19
P Fourneret, H Desombre
INTRODUCTION: For a decade, the concept of irritability has known a renewed interest in infant and child psychopathology. Indeed, longitudinal follow-up studies clearly highlighted their predictive value - in the short, medium and long terms - of a broad field of behavioral disorders and emotion dysregulation. This dimensional and transnosographic approach of irritability, coupled with the latest neuroscience data, points out that irritability could be the equivalent of a psychopathological marker, covering both a neurobiological, cognitive and emotional component...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739402/the-si-elegans-project-at-the-interface-of-experimental-and-computational-caenorhabditis-elegans-neurobiology-and-behavior
#20
Alexey Petrushin, Lorenzo Ferrara, Axel Blau
OBJECTIVE: In light of recent progress in mapping neural function to behavior, we briefly and selectively review past and present endeavors to reveal and reconstruct nervous system function in Caenorhabditis elegans through simulation. APPROACH: Rather than presenting an all-encompassing review on the mathematical modeling of C. elegans, this contribution collects snapshots of pathfinding key works and emerging technologies that recent single- and multi-center simulation initiatives are building on...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
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