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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626971/genetics-and-developmental-biology-of-cooperation
#1
Claudia Kasper, Maddalena Vierbuchen, Ulrich Ernst, Stefan Fischer, Reinder Radersma, Aura Raulo, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Min Wu, Kenyon Mobley, Barbara Taborsky
Despite essential progress towards understanding the evolution of cooperative behaviour, we still lack detailed knowledge about its underlying molecular mechanisms, genetic basis, evolutionary dynamics and ontogeny. An international workshop 'Genetics and Development of Cooperation', organized by the University of Bern (Switzerland), aimed at discussing the current progress in this research field and suggesting avenues for future research. This review uses the major themes of the meeting as a springboard to synthesize the concepts of genetic and non-genetic inheritance of cooperation, and to review a quantitative genetic framework that allows for the inclusion of indirect genetic effects...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602232/the-neurobiology-of-gustation-in-insect-disease-vectors-progress-and-potential
#2
REVIEW
Richard Benton
For insect vectors of human diseases, mealtimes are a key moment of infection. Understanding how and when such species decide on what to feed is both an interesting problem in sensory neurobiology and a source of information for intervention of these behaviors to control spread of infectious agents. Here I review the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of gustation in insect disease vectors, covering blood-feeders as well as scavengers that spread pathogens indirectly. I also consider how these behaviors are modulated over short and long timescales, and describe efforts to artificially modulate them...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602044/the-dynamic-interaction-between-pain-and-opioid-misuse
#3
REVIEW
Adrianne R Wilson-Poe, Jose A Moron
In 2014, drug overdose surpassed automobile accidents as the number one cause of accidental death for the first time in US history. The overdose epidemic is largely driven by opioids, and genuine prescription opioid analgesics play the biggest role in this phenomenon. Despite advancements in abuse deterrent formulations, prescription drug monitoring programs, and clinical assessments for the detection of abuse potential, drug overdoses continue to escalate. The CDC has recently issued new guidelines for opioid prescription, yet even these recommendations have their shortcomings...
June 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592453/diagnosis-and-management-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-fourth-consensus-report-of-the-dlb-consortium
#4
REVIEW
Ian G McKeith, Bradley F Boeve, Dennis W Dickson, Glenda Halliday, John-Paul Taylor, Daniel Weintraub, Dag Aarsland, James Galvin, Johannes Attems, Clive G Ballard, Ashley Bayston, Thomas G Beach, Frédéric Blanc, Nicolaas Bohnen, Laura Bonanni, Jose Bras, Patrick Brundin, David Burn, Alice Chen-Plotkin, John E Duda, Omar El-Agnaf, Howard Feldman, Tanis J Ferman, Dominic Ffytche, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Douglas Galasko, Jennifer G Goldman, Stephen N Gomperts, Neill R Graff-Radford, Lawrence S Honig, Alex Iranzo, Kejal Kantarci, Daniel Kaufer, Walter Kukull, Virginia M Y Lee, James B Leverenz, Simon Lewis, Carol Lippa, Angela Lunde, Mario Masellis, Eliezer Masliah, Pamela McLean, Brit Mollenhauer, Thomas J Montine, Emilio Moreno, Etsuro Mori, Melissa Murray, John T O'Brien, Sotoshi Orimo, Ronald B Postuma, Shankar Ramaswamy, Owen A Ross, David P Salmon, Andrew Singleton, Angela Taylor, Alan Thomas, Pietro Tiraboschi, Jon B Toledo, John Q Trojanowski, Debby Tsuang, Zuzana Walker, Masahito Yamada, Kenji Kosaka
The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these. Substantial new information has been incorporated about previously reported aspects of DLB, with increased diagnostic weighting given to REM sleep behavior disorder and (123)iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy...
June 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588356/molecular-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Alfredo Sanabria-Castro, Ileana Alvarado-Echeverría, Cecilia Monge-Bonilla
Dementia is a chronic or progressive syndrome, characterized by impaired cognitive capacity beyond what could be considered a consequence of normal aging. It affects the memory, thinking process, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning ability, language, and judgment; although awareness is usually unaffected. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia; symptoms include memory loss, difficulty solving problems, disorientation in time and space, among others. The disease was first described in 1906 at a conference in Tubingen, Germany by Alois Alzheimer...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569221/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-4-ethical-issues-in-clinical-and-social-applications-of-neuroscience
#6
EDITORIAL
Kira Becker, John R Shook, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: As a discipline, neuroethics addresses a range of questions and issues generated by basic neuroscientific research (inclusive of studies of putative neurobiological processes involved in moral and ethical cognition and behavior), and its use and meanings in the clinical and social spheres. Here, we present Part 4 of a four-part bibliography of the neuroethics literature focusing on clinical and social applications of neuroscience, to include: the treatment-enhancement discourse; issues arising in neurology, psychiatry, and pain care; neuroethics education and training; neuroethics and the law; neuroethics and policy and political issues; international neuroethics; and discourses addressing "trans-" and "post-" humanity...
May 31, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545994/the-impact-of-atypical-sensory-processing-on-social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Melissa D Thye, Haley M Bednarz, Abbey J Herringshaw, Emma B Sartin, Rajesh K Kana
Altered sensory processing has been an important feature of the clinical descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is evidence that sensory dysregulation arises early in the progression of ASD and impacts social functioning. This paper reviews behavioral and neurobiological evidence that describes how sensory deficits across multiple modalities (vision, hearing, touch, olfaction, gustation, and multisensory integration) could impact social functions in ASD. Theoretical models of ASD and their implications for the relationship between sensory and social functioning are discussed...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545371/a-psycho-behavioral-perspective-on-modelling-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-in-animals-the-role-of-context
#8
De Wet Wolmarans, Dan J Stein, Brian H Harvey
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and compulsive repetition. Animal models of OCD are important tools that have the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the condition. Although there is consensus that pre-clinical models are valuable in elucidating the underlying neurobiology in psychiatric disorders, the current paper attempts to prompt ideas on how interpretation of animal behavior can be expanded upon to more effectively converge with the human disorder...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537555/identification-of-a-novel-spinal-nociceptive-motor-gate-control-for-a%C3%AE-pain-stimuli-in-rats
#9
Dvir Blivis, Gal Haspel, Philip Z Mannes, Michael J O'Donovan, Michael J Iadarola
Physiological responses to nociceptive stimuli are initiated within tens of milliseconds, but the corresponding sub-second behavioral responses have not been adequately explored in awake, unrestrained animals. A detailed understanding of these responses is crucial for progress in pain neurobiology. Here, high-speed videography during nociceptive Aδ fiber stimulation demonstrated engagement of a multi-segmental motor program coincident with, or even preceding, withdrawal of the stimulated paw. The motor program included early head orientation and adjustments of the torso and un-stimulated paws...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#10
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520803/multiple-modality-biomarker-prediction-of-cognitive-impairment-in-prospectively-followed-de-novo-parkinson-disease
#11
Chelsea Caspell-Garcia, Tanya Simuni, Duygu Tosun-Turgut, I-Wei Wu, Yu Zhang, Mike Nalls, Andrew Singleton, Leslie A Shaw, Ju-Hee Kang, John Q Trojanowski, Andrew Siderowf, Christopher Coffey, Shirley Lasch, Dag Aarsland, David Burn, Lana M Chahine, Alberto J Espay, Eric D Foster, Keith A Hawkins, Irene Litvan, Irene Richard, Daniel Weintraub
OBJECTIVES: To assess the neurobiological substrate of initial cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) to inform patient management, clinical trial design, and development of treatments. METHODS: We longitudinally assessed, up to 3 years, 423 newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic PD, untreated at baseline, from 33 international movement disorder centers. Study outcomes were four determinations of cognitive impairment or decline, and biomarker predictors were baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; volume and thickness), diffusion tensor imaging (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; amyloid beta [Aβ], tau and alpha synuclein), and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PD cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503039/the-possible-role-of-meditation-in-myofascial-pain-syndrome-a-new-hypothesis
#12
Prashanth Panta
BACKGROUND OF HYPOTHESIS: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502732/swimming-exercise-prevents-behavioural-disturbances-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-peptide-through-modulation-of-cytokine-nf-kappab-pathway-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-mouse-brain
#13
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Lucian Del Fabbro, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Carlos Borges Filho, Cristiane Luchese, Albanin Aparecida Mielniczki Pereira, Silvana Peterini Boeira
Emerging evidence indicates that the activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a first and rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, is involved in amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42)-neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Physical exercise has been considered an effective intervention in AD, attenuating or limiting their progression. Nevertheless, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of exercise have not yet been fully elucidated. In present study, we investigated the protective effect of an 8-week swimming training (ST) exercise on cognitive and non-cognitive functions and its role in modulating biomarkers of KYN pathway, before an intracerebroventricular (i...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488766/brief-isoflurane-anesthesia-regulates-striatal-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-and-ameliorates-motor-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Juuso V Leikas, Samuel Kohtala, Wiebke Theilmann, Aaro J Jalkanen, Markus M Forsberg, Tomi Rantamäki
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The link between heightened activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and neurodegenerative processes has encouraged investigation into the potential disease modifying effects of novel GSK3β inhibitors in experimental models of PD. Therefore, the intriguing ability of several anesthetics to readily inhibit GSK3β within the cortex and hippocampus led us to investigate the effects of brief isoflurane anesthesia on striatal GSK3β signaling in naïve rats and in a rat model of early-stage PD...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486594/apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#15
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Apathy and impulsivity are common and disabling consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. They cause substantial carer distress, but their aetiology remains elusive. There are critical limitations to previous studies in this area including (i) the assessment of either apathy or impulsivity alone, despite their frequent co-existence; (ii) the assessment of behavioural changes within single diagnostic groups; and (iii) the use of limited sets of tasks or questions that relate to just one aspect of these multifactorial constructs...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486506/an-fmri-study-into-emotional-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-does-increased-medial-prefrontal-activation-compensate-for-striatal-dysfunction
#16
Anja J H Moonen, Peter H Weiss, Michael Wiesing, Ralph Weidner, Gereon R Fink, Jennifer S A M Reijnders, Wim M Weber, Albert F G Leentjens
BACKGROUND: Apart from a progressive decline of motor functions, Parkinson's disease (PD) is also characterized by non-motor symptoms, including disturbed processing of emotions. This study aims at assessing emotional processing and its neurobiological correlates in PD with the focus on how medicated Parkinson patients may achieve normal emotional responsiveness despite basal ganglia dysfunction. METHODS: Nineteen medicated patients with mild to moderate PD (without dementia or depression) and 19 matched healthy controls passively viewed positive, negative, and neutral pictures in an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging study (BOLD-fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464461/neural-circuits-involved-in-the-renewal-of-extinguished-fear
#17
REVIEW
Weihai Chen, Yan Wang, Xiaqing Wang, Hong Li
The last 10 years have witnessed a substantial progress in understanding the neural mechanisms for the renewal of the extinguished fear memory. Based on the theory of fear extinction, exposure therapy has been developed as a typical cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Although the fear memory can be extinguished by repeated presentation of conditioned stimulus without unconditioned stimulus, the fear memory is not erased and tends to relapse outside of extinction context, which is referred to as renewal...
May 2, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449557/wnt-and-gsk3-signaling-pathways-in-bipolar-disorder-clinical-and-therapeutic-implications
#18
REVIEW
Ather Muneer
The neurobiology of bipolar disorder, a chronic and systemic ailment is not completely understood. The bipolar phenotype manifests in myriad ways, and psychopharmacological agents like lithium have long term beneficial effects. The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has come into focus, as lithium and several other mood stabilizing medications inhibit its activity. This kinase and its key upstream modulator, Wnt are dysregulated in mood disorders and there is a growing impetus to delineate the chief substrates involved in the development of these illnesses...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441895/ketamine-s-dose-related-effects-on-anxiety-symptoms-in-patients-with-treatment-refractory-anxiety-disorders
#19
Paul Glue, Natalie J Medlicott, Sarah Harland, Shona Neehoff, Bridie Anderson-Fahey, Martin Le Nedelec, Andrew Gray, Neil McNaughton
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine has rapid onset activity in treatment-resistant depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Due to similarities in brain network activity in depression and anxiety disorders, we hypothesized that ketamine might also be active in other refractory anxiety disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ketamine in 12 patients with refractory generalized anxiety disorder and/or social anxiety disorder who were not currently depressed, using an ascending single dose study design (0...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440493/the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-pathway-in-neurological-diseases-a-potential-therapeutic-target-review
#20
Jing Sun, Guangxian Nan
Signaling pathways are critical modulators of a variety of physiological and pathological processes, and the abnormal activation of some signaling pathways can contribute to disease progression in various conditions. As a result, signaling pathways have emerged as an important tool through which the occurrence and development of diseases can be studied, which may then lead to the development of novel drugs. Accumulating evidence supports a key role for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling in the embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS) and in the regulation of adult brain function...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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