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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720520/neural-systems-mediating-the-inhibition-of-cocaine-seeking-behaviors
#1
REVIEW
Victória A Ewald, Ryan T LaLumiere
Over the past decades, research has targeted the neurobiology regulating cocaine-seeking behaviors, largely in the hopes of identifying potential targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Although much of this work has focused on those systems driving cocaine seeking, recently, studies examining the inhibition of cocaine-related behaviors have made significant progress in uncovering the neural systems that attenuate cocaine seeking. Such systems include the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and hypothalamus...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674997/adolescent-binge-alcohol-exposure-affects-the-brain-function-through-mitochondrial-impairment
#2
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Francisco J Carvajal, Rodrigo G Mira, Camila Arce, José Manuel Lerma-Cabrera, Juan A Orellana, Waldo Cerpa, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
In the young population, binge drinking is a pattern of problematic alcohol consumption, characterized by a short period of heavy drinking followed by abstinence which is frequently repeated over time. This drinking pattern is associated with mental problems, use of other drugs, and an increased risk of excessive alcohol intake during adulthood. However, little is known about the effects of binge drinking on brain function in adolescents and its neurobiological impact during the adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of alcohol on hippocampal memory, synaptic plasticity, and mitochondrial function in adolescent rats after a binge drinking episode in vivo...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674176/effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-and-circadian-rhythms-are-mitigated-by-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonism
#3
Audrey M Wells, Elysia Ridener, Clinton A Bourbonais, Woori Kim, Harry Pantazopoulos, F Ivy Carroll, Kwang-Soo Kim, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon
Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep and circadian rhythms are affected in many of these conditions. Here we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an ethological form of stress, on sleep and circadian rhythms. We exposed male mice implanted with wireless telemetry transmitters to a 10-day CSDS regimen known to produce anhedonia (a depressive-like effect) and social avoidance (an anxiety-like effect). Electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), body temperature, and locomotor activity data were collected continuously during the CSDS regimen and a 5-day recovery period...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672838/recent-advances-in-conotoxin-classification-by-using-machine-learning-methods
#4
REVIEW
Fu-Ying Dao, Hui Yang, Zhen-Dong Su, Wuritu Yang, Yun Wu, Ding Hui, Wei Chen, Hua Tang, Hao Lin
Conotoxins are disulfide-rich small peptides, which are invaluable peptides that target ion channel and neuronal receptors. Conotoxins have been demonstrated as potent pharmaceuticals in the treatment of a series of diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. In addition, conotoxins are also ideal molecular templates for the development of new drug lead compounds and play important roles in neurobiological research as well. Thus, the accurate identification of conotoxin types will provide key clues for the biological research and clinical medicine...
June 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668365/recurrent-neural-networks-as-versatile-tools-of-neuroscience-research
#5
REVIEW
Omri Barak
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are a class of computational models that are often used as a tool to explain neurobiological phenomena, considering anatomical, electrophysiological and computational constraints. RNNs can either be designed to implement a certain dynamical principle, or they can be trained by input-output examples. Recently, there has been large progress in utilizing trained RNNs both for computational tasks, and as explanations of neural phenomena. I will review how combining trained RNNs with reverse engineering can provide an alternative framework for modeling in neuroscience, potentially serving as a powerful hypothesis generation tool...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665789/return-to-work-program-efficacy-with-self-regulation-therapy-srt%C3%A2-case-study-with-complex-trauma-and-concurrent-disorders
#6
Tara Miller
Background This study shows the efficacy of treating complex cases neurobiologically using Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT®) within the context of return to work goals. Case presentation This is a single case study of a 32-year-old white female. This case study follows a client with concurrent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder I and substance abuse over the course of 2 years of treatment with SRT®. Using SRT® as primary modality and Likert Scale self-report on the Zettl Scale of Dysregulation, psychiatric medication monitoring and pharmaceutical tracking, this study shows session summaries and progress...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664196/postinflammatory-hyperpigmentation-after-human-cold-pain-testing
#7
Melissa J Wolz, Katelyn E Sadler, Caela C Long, Daniel S Brenner, Brian S Kim, Robert W Gereau, Benedict J Kolber
Changes in cold temperature sensitivity are often associated with chronic pain conditions. Progress in understanding the neurobiological mechanism underlying these changes and resulting development of effective therapies has been slowed by the accessibility and affordability of devices used to measure thermal sensitivity in humans. To address this gap, we developed an inexpensive method to measure cold pain thresholds in healthy adult volunteers using dry ice and a thermode. However, early in preliminary testing, a subject presented with epidermal postinflammatory hyperpigmentation that lasted for >200 days...
August 2016: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659755/osthole-stimulated-neural-stem-cells-differentiation-into-neurons-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-cell-model-via-upregulation-of-microrna-9-and-rescued-the-functional-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#8
Shao-Heng Li, Peng Gao, Li-Tong Wang, Yu-Hui Yan, Yang Xia, Jie Song, Hong-Yan Li, Jing-Xian Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most serious neurodegenerative disease worldwide and is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and multiple neurological changes, including neuronal loss in the brain. However, there are no available drugs to delay or cure this disease. Consequently, neuronal replacement therapy may be a strategy to treat AD. Osthole (Ost), a natural coumarin derivative, crosses the blood-brain barrier and exerts strong neuroprotective effects against AD in vitro and in vivo. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have demonstrated a crucial role in pathological processes of AD, implying that targeting miRNAs could be a therapeutic approach to AD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626971/genetics-and-developmental-biology-of-cooperation
#9
Claudia Kasper, Maddalena Vierbuchen, Ulrich Ernst, Stefan Fischer, Reinder Radersma, Aura Raulo, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Min Wu, Kenyon Mobley, Barbara Taborsky
Despite essential progress towards understanding the evolution of cooperative behaviour, we still lack detailed knowledge about its underlying molecular mechanisms, genetic basis, evolutionary dynamics and ontogeny. An international workshop 'Genetics and Development of Cooperation', organized by the University of Bern (Switzerland), aimed at discussing the current progress in this research field and suggesting avenues for future research. This review uses the major themes of the meeting as a springboard to synthesize the concepts of genetic and non-genetic inheritance of cooperation, and to review a quantitative genetic framework that allows for the inclusion of indirect genetic effects...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602232/the-neurobiology-of-gustation-in-insect-disease-vectors-progress-and-potential
#10
REVIEW
Richard Benton
For insect vectors of human diseases, mealtimes are a key moment of infection. Understanding how and when such species decide on what to feed is both an interesting problem in sensory neurobiology and a source of information for intervention of these behaviors to control spread of infectious agents. Here I review the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of gustation in insect disease vectors, covering blood-feeders as well as scavengers that spread pathogens indirectly. I also consider how these behaviors are modulated over short and long timescales, and describe efforts to artificially modulate them...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602044/the-dynamic-interaction-between-pain-and-opioid-misuse
#11
REVIEW
Adrianne R Wilson-Poe, Jose A Morón
In 2014, drug overdose surpassed automobile accidents as the number one cause of accidental death for the first time in the history of the United States. The overdose epidemic is largely driven by opioids, and genuine prescription opioid analgesics play the biggest role in this phenomenon. Despite advancements in abuse deterrent formulations, prescription drug monitoring programmes and clinical assessments for the detection of abuse potential, drug overdoses continue to escalate. The Center for Disease Control has recently issued new guidelines for opioid prescription, yet even these recommendations have their shortcomings...
June 11, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592453/diagnosis-and-management-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-fourth-consensus-report-of-the-dlb-consortium
#12
REVIEW
Ian G McKeith, Bradley F Boeve, Dennis W Dickson, Glenda Halliday, John-Paul Taylor, Daniel Weintraub, Dag Aarsland, James Galvin, Johannes Attems, Clive G Ballard, Ashley Bayston, Thomas G Beach, Frédéric Blanc, Nicolaas Bohnen, Laura Bonanni, Jose Bras, Patrik Brundin, David Burn, Alice Chen-Plotkin, John E Duda, Omar El-Agnaf, Howard Feldman, Tanis J Ferman, Dominic Ffytche, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Douglas Galasko, Jennifer G Goldman, Stephen N Gomperts, Neill R Graff-Radford, Lawrence S Honig, Alex Iranzo, Kejal Kantarci, Daniel Kaufer, Walter Kukull, Virginia M Y Lee, James B Leverenz, Simon Lewis, Carol Lippa, Angela Lunde, Mario Masellis, Eliezer Masliah, Pamela McLean, Brit Mollenhauer, Thomas J Montine, Emilio Moreno, Etsuro Mori, Melissa Murray, John T O'Brien, Sotoshi Orimo, Ronald B Postuma, Shankar Ramaswamy, Owen A Ross, David P Salmon, Andrew Singleton, Angela Taylor, Alan Thomas, Pietro Tiraboschi, Jon B Toledo, John Q Trojanowski, Debby Tsuang, Zuzana Walker, Masahito Yamada, Kenji Kosaka
The Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) Consortium has refined its recommendations about the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of DLB, updating the previous report, which has been in widespread use for the last decade. The revised DLB consensus criteria now distinguish clearly between clinical features and diagnostic biomarkers, and give guidance about optimal methods to establish and interpret these. Substantial new information has been incorporated about previously reported aspects of DLB, with increased diagnostic weighting given to REM sleep behavior disorder and (123)iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy...
July 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588356/molecular-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Alfredo Sanabria-Castro, Ileana Alvarado-Echeverría, Cecilia Monge-Bonilla
Dementia is a chronic or progressive syndrome, characterized by impaired cognitive capacity beyond what could be considered a consequence of normal aging. It affects the memory, thinking process, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning ability, language, and judgment; although awareness is usually unaffected. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia; symptoms include memory loss, difficulty solving problems, disorientation in time and space, among others. The disease was first described in 1906 at a conference in Tubingen, Germany by Alois Alzheimer...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569221/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-4-ethical-issues-in-clinical-and-social-applications-of-neuroscience
#14
EDITORIAL
Kira Becker, John R Shook, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: As a discipline, neuroethics addresses a range of questions and issues generated by basic neuroscientific research (inclusive of studies of putative neurobiological processes involved in moral and ethical cognition and behavior), and its use and meanings in the clinical and social spheres. Here, we present Part 4 of a four-part bibliography of the neuroethics literature focusing on clinical and social applications of neuroscience, to include: the treatment-enhancement discourse; issues arising in neurology, psychiatry, and pain care; neuroethics education and training; neuroethics and the law; neuroethics and policy and political issues; international neuroethics; and discourses addressing "trans-" and "post-" humanity...
May 31, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545994/the-impact-of-atypical-sensory-processing-on-social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Melissa D Thye, Haley M Bednarz, Abbey J Herringshaw, Emma B Sartin, Rajesh K Kana
Altered sensory processing has been an important feature of the clinical descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is evidence that sensory dysregulation arises early in the progression of ASD and impacts social functioning. This paper reviews behavioral and neurobiological evidence that describes how sensory deficits across multiple modalities (vision, hearing, touch, olfaction, gustation, and multisensory integration) could impact social functions in ASD. Theoretical models of ASD and their implications for the relationship between sensory and social functioning are discussed...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545371/a-psycho-behavioral-perspective-on-modelling-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-in-animals-the-role-of-context
#16
De Wet Wolmarans, Dan J Stein, Brian H Harvey
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous and debilitating condition, characterized by intrusive thoughts and compulsive repetition. Animal models of OCD are important tools that have the potential to contribute significantly to our understanding of the condition. Although there is consensus that pre-clinical models are valuable in elucidating the underlying neurobiology in psychiatric disorders, the current paper attempts to prompt ideas on how interpretation of animal behavior can be expanded upon to more effectively converge with the human disorder...
May 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537555/identification-of-a-novel-spinal-nociceptive-motor-gate-control-for-a%C3%AE-pain-stimuli-in-rats
#17
Dvir Blivis, Gal Haspel, Philip Z Mannes, Michael J O'Donovan, Michael J Iadarola
Physiological responses to nociceptive stimuli are initiated within tens of milliseconds, but the corresponding sub-second behavioral responses have not been adequately explored in awake, unrestrained animals. A detailed understanding of these responses is crucial for progress in pain neurobiology. Here, high-speed videography during nociceptive Aδ fiber stimulation demonstrated engagement of a multi-segmental motor program coincident with, or even preceding, withdrawal of the stimulated paw. The motor program included early head orientation and adjustments of the torso and un-stimulated paws...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#18
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520803/multiple-modality-biomarker-prediction-of-cognitive-impairment-in-prospectively-followed-de-novo-parkinson-disease
#19
Chelsea Caspell-Garcia, Tanya Simuni, Duygu Tosun-Turgut, I-Wei Wu, Yu Zhang, Mike Nalls, Andrew Singleton, Leslie A Shaw, Ju-Hee Kang, John Q Trojanowski, Andrew Siderowf, Christopher Coffey, Shirley Lasch, Dag Aarsland, David Burn, Lana M Chahine, Alberto J Espay, Eric D Foster, Keith A Hawkins, Irene Litvan, Irene Richard, Daniel Weintraub
OBJECTIVES: To assess the neurobiological substrate of initial cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) to inform patient management, clinical trial design, and development of treatments. METHODS: We longitudinally assessed, up to 3 years, 423 newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic PD, untreated at baseline, from 33 international movement disorder centers. Study outcomes were four determinations of cognitive impairment or decline, and biomarker predictors were baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; volume and thickness), diffusion tensor imaging (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; amyloid beta [Aβ], tau and alpha synuclein), and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PD cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503039/the-possible-role-of-meditation-in-myofascial-pain-syndrome-a-new-hypothesis
#20
Prashanth Panta
BACKGROUND OF HYPOTHESIS: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
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