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Progress in neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817418/neuromodulation-and-neurofeedback-treatments-in-eating-disorders-and-obesity
#1
Bethan Dalton, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychological interventions are the treatment of choice for most eating disorders; however, significant proportions of patients do not recover with these. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of eating disorders have led to the development of targeted treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and neurofeedback. We review the emerging clinical evidence for the use of these interventions in eating disorders and obesity, together with their theoretical rationale...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799518/a-neurodevelopment-and-neuroplasticity-based-framework-for-early-intervention-in-psychotic-disorders
#2
E Bora
In recent years there has been growing interest in early intervention in psychotic disorders and a number of clinical and research programmes have been developed. The clinical staging model has been an essential part of early intervention as it provides the rationale of existing programmes. In medicine, clinical staging is a valuable approach in disorders where primary pathology is progressive in nature. However, the clinical staging model of psychosis has been proposed without establishing first that schizophrenia is a primarily progressive disorder...
August 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797086/epigenetic-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-provide-clues-to-disease-pathogenesis
#3
Paul E Young, Stephen Kum Jew, Michael E Buckland, Roger Pamphlett, Catherine M Suter
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating late-onset neurodegenerative disorder in which only a small proportion of patients carry an identifiable causative genetic lesion. Despite high heritability estimates, a genetic etiology for most sporadic ALS remains elusive. Here we report the epigenetic profiling of five monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ALS, four with classic ALS and one with the progressive muscular atrophy ALS variant, in whom previous whole genome sequencing failed to uncover a genetic basis for their disease discordance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782974/real-life-validation-of-reduced-reward-processing-in-emerging-adults-with-depressive-symptoms
#4
Jindra Myrthe Bakker, Liesbet Goossens, Iris Lange, Stijn Michielse, Koen Schruers, Ritsaert Lieverse, Machteld Marcelis, Thérèse van Amelsvoort, Jim van Os, Inez Myin-Germeys, Marieke Wichers
Subclinical symptoms of depression are common in emerging adults. Anhedonia is one such symptom that specifically puts one at risk for developing clinical depression. Recently, important progress has been made in elucidating the underlying neurobiology of anhedonia. This progress rests on many experimental studies examining how subjects with depressive symptoms respond to anticipating and consuming rewarding stimuli. Translating these findings to real-life reward processing dynamics is an important next step in order to guide fine-tuning of preventive treatments...
August 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771043/longitudinal-dynamics-of-3-dimensional-components-of-selfhood-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-qeeg-case-study
#5
Andrew A Fingelkurts, Alexander A Fingelkurts
In this report, we describe the case of a patient who sustained extremely severe traumatic brain damage with diffuse axonal injury in a traffic accident and whose recovery was monitored during 6 years. Specifically, we were interested in the recovery dynamics of 3-dimensional components of selfhood (a 3-dimensional construct model for the complex experiential selfhood has been recently proposed based on the empirical findings on the functional-topographical specialization of 3 operational modules of brain functional network responsible for the self-consciousness processing) derived from the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal...
September 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760691/elevated-cortisol-awakening-response-associated-with-early-life-stress-and-impaired-executive-function-in-healthy-adult-males
#6
Kevin Butler, Kristel Klaus, Laura Edwards, Kyla Pennington
Experiencing early life stress (ELS) and subsequent dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role in the aetiology of mental health disorders. However, the exact mechanisms linking HPA-axis dysregulation with the development of psychopathology have not been fully delineated. Progress in this area is hampered by the complex and often conflicting associations found between markers of HPA-axis function and risk factors for mental health disorders such as impaired executive function (EF) and ELS...
August 2, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752194/from-engineering-to-editing-the-rat-genome
#7
Stephen Meek, Tomoji Mashimo, Tom Burdon
Since its domestication over 100 years ago, the laboratory rat has been the preferred experimental animal in many areas of biomedical research (Lindsey and Baker The laboratory rat. Academic, New York, pp 1-52, 2006). Its physiology, size, genetics, reproductive cycle, cognitive and behavioural characteristics have made it a particularly useful animal model for studying many human disorders and diseases. Indeed, through selective breeding programmes numerous strains have been derived that are now the mainstay of research on hypertension, obesity and neurobiology (Okamoto and Aoki Jpn Circ J 27:282-293, 1963; Zucker and Zucker J Hered 52(6):275-278, 1961)...
July 27, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744327/mir-196a-enhances-neuronal-morphology-through-suppressing-ranbp10-to-provide-neuroprotection-in-huntington-s-disease
#8
Lu-Shiun Her, Su-Han Mao, Chih-Yi Chang, Pei-Hsun Cheng, Yu-Fan Chang, Han-In Yang, Chuan-Mu Chen, Shang-Hsun Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in several neurobiological processes, including the development and progression of diseases. Previously, we identified that one specific miRNA, miR-196a, provides neuroprotective effects on Huntington's disease (HD), although the detailed mechanism is still unclear. Based on our bioinformatic analyses, we hypothesize miR-196a might offer neuroprotective functions through improving cytoskeletons of brain cells. Here, we show that miR-196a could enhance neuronal morphology, further ameliorating intracellular transport, synaptic plasticity, neuronal activity, and learning and memory abilities...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738332/neuroprogression-and-immune-activation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Jeffrey H Meyer
Traditionally, the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been largely considered from the perspective of the state of major depressive episodes (MDE) versus being in remission, but the current accumulation of disease markers, largely acquired cross-sectionally, is strongly suggestive of neuroprogressive aspects of MDD. This chapter focuses on the changes in disease markers involved in the reorganization of the nervous system in MDD, including the translocator protein (TSPO; an index of microglial activation), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an index of astroglial activation), [11C]harmine (a marker of monoamine oxidase A; MAO-A), and several other indices (metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 [mGluR5], excitatory amino acid transporters, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy measurements) of glutamate dysregulation...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736541/hallucinations-in-healthy-older-adults-an-overview-of-the-literature-and-perspectives-for-future-research
#10
REVIEW
Johanna C Badcock, Hedwige Dehon, Frank Larøi
KEY POINTS ➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720520/neural-systems-mediating-the-inhibition-of-cocaine-seeking-behaviors
#11
REVIEW
Victória A Ewald, Ryan T LaLumiere
Over the past decades, research has targeted the neurobiology regulating cocaine-seeking behaviors, largely in the hopes of identifying potential targets for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Although much of this work has focused on those systems driving cocaine seeking, recently, studies examining the inhibition of cocaine-related behaviors have made significant progress in uncovering the neural systems that attenuate cocaine seeking. Such systems include the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and hypothalamus...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674997/adolescent-binge-alcohol-exposure-affects-the-brain-function-through-mitochondrial-impairment
#12
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Francisco J Carvajal, Rodrigo G Mira, Camila Arce, José Manuel Lerma-Cabrera, Juan A Orellana, Waldo Cerpa, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
In the young population, binge drinking is a pattern of problematic alcohol consumption, characterized by a short period of heavy drinking followed by abstinence which is frequently repeated over time. This drinking pattern is associated with mental problems, use of other drugs, and an increased risk of excessive alcohol intake during adulthood. However, little is known about the effects of binge drinking on brain function in adolescents and its neurobiological impact during the adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of alcohol on hippocampal memory, synaptic plasticity, and mitochondrial function in adolescent rats after a binge drinking episode in vivo...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674176/effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-and-circadian-rhythms-are-mitigated-by-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonism
#13
Audrey M Wells, Elysia Ridener, Clinton A Bourbonais, Woori Kim, Harry Pantazopoulos, F Ivy Carroll, Kwang-Soo Kim, Bruce M Cohen, William A Carlezon
Stress plays a critical role in the neurobiology of mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep and circadian rhythms are affected in many of these conditions. Here we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), an ethological form of stress, on sleep and circadian rhythms. We exposed male mice implanted with wireless telemetry transmitters to a 10-day CSDS regimen known to produce anhedonia (a depressive-like effect) and social avoidance (an anxiety-like effect). Electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), body temperature, and locomotor activity data were collected continuously during the CSDS regimen and a 5-day recovery period...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672838/recent-advances-in-conotoxin-classification-by-using-machine-learning-methods
#14
REVIEW
Fu-Ying Dao, Hui Yang, Zhen-Dong Su, Wuritu Yang, Yun Wu, Ding Hui, Wei Chen, Hua Tang, Hao Lin
Conotoxins are disulfide-rich small peptides, which are invaluable peptides that target ion channel and neuronal receptors. Conotoxins have been demonstrated as potent pharmaceuticals in the treatment of a series of diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. In addition, conotoxins are also ideal molecular templates for the development of new drug lead compounds and play important roles in neurobiological research as well. Thus, the accurate identification of conotoxin types will provide key clues for the biological research and clinical medicine...
June 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668365/recurrent-neural-networks-as-versatile-tools-of-neuroscience-research
#15
REVIEW
Omri Barak
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are a class of computational models that are often used as a tool to explain neurobiological phenomena, considering anatomical, electrophysiological and computational constraints. RNNs can either be designed to implement a certain dynamical principle, or they can be trained by input-output examples. Recently, there has been large progress in utilizing trained RNNs both for computational tasks, and as explanations of neural phenomena. I will review how combining trained RNNs with reverse engineering can provide an alternative framework for modeling in neuroscience, potentially serving as a powerful hypothesis generation tool...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665789/return-to-work-program-efficacy-with-self-regulation-therapy-srt%C3%A2-case-study-with-complex-trauma-and-concurrent-disorders
#16
Tara Miller
Background This study shows the efficacy of treating complex cases neurobiologically using Self-Regulation Therapy (SRT®) within the context of return to work goals. Case presentation This is a single case study of a 32-year-old white female. This case study follows a client with concurrent diagnoses of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar disorder I and substance abuse over the course of 2 years of treatment with SRT®. Using SRT® as primary modality and Likert Scale self-report on the Zettl Scale of Dysregulation, psychiatric medication monitoring and pharmaceutical tracking, this study shows session summaries and progress...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664196/postinflammatory-hyperpigmentation-after-human-cold-pain-testing
#17
Melissa J Wolz, Katelyn E Sadler, Caela C Long, Daniel S Brenner, Brian S Kim, Robert W Gereau, Benedict J Kolber
Changes in cold temperature sensitivity are often associated with chronic pain conditions. Progress in understanding the neurobiological mechanism underlying these changes and resulting development of effective therapies has been slowed by the accessibility and affordability of devices used to measure thermal sensitivity in humans. To address this gap, we developed an inexpensive method to measure cold pain thresholds in healthy adult volunteers using dry ice and a thermode. However, early in preliminary testing, a subject presented with epidermal postinflammatory hyperpigmentation that lasted for >200 days...
August 2016: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659755/osthole-stimulated-neural-stem-cells-differentiation-into-neurons-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-cell-model-via-upregulation-of-microrna-9-and-rescued-the-functional-impairment-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#18
Shao-Heng Li, Peng Gao, Li-Tong Wang, Yu-Hui Yan, Yang Xia, Jie Song, Hong-Yan Li, Jing-Xian Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most serious neurodegenerative disease worldwide and is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and multiple neurological changes, including neuronal loss in the brain. However, there are no available drugs to delay or cure this disease. Consequently, neuronal replacement therapy may be a strategy to treat AD. Osthole (Ost), a natural coumarin derivative, crosses the blood-brain barrier and exerts strong neuroprotective effects against AD in vitro and in vivo. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have demonstrated a crucial role in pathological processes of AD, implying that targeting miRNAs could be a therapeutic approach to AD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626971/genetics-and-developmental-biology-of-cooperation
#19
Claudia Kasper, Maddalena Vierbuchen, Ulrich Ernst, Stefan Fischer, Reinder Radersma, Aura Raulo, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Min Wu, Kenyon Mobley, Barbara Taborsky
Despite essential progress towards understanding the evolution of cooperative behaviour, we still lack detailed knowledge about its underlying molecular mechanisms, genetic basis, evolutionary dynamics and ontogeny. An international workshop 'Genetics and Development of Cooperation', organized by the University of Bern (Switzerland), aimed at discussing the current progress in this research field and suggesting avenues for future research. This review uses the major themes of the meeting as a springboard to synthesize the concepts of genetic and non-genetic inheritance of cooperation, and to review a quantitative genetic framework that allows for the inclusion of indirect genetic effects...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602232/the-neurobiology-of-gustation-in-insect-disease-vectors-progress-and-potential
#20
REVIEW
Richard Benton
For insect vectors of human diseases, mealtimes are a key moment of infection. Understanding how and when such species decide on what to feed is both an interesting problem in sensory neurobiology and a source of information for intervention of these behaviors to control spread of infectious agents. Here I review the current knowledge of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of gustation in insect disease vectors, covering blood-feeders as well as scavengers that spread pathogens indirectly. I also consider how these behaviors are modulated over short and long timescales, and describe efforts to artificially modulate them...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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