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Progress in neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537555/identification-of-a-novel-spinal-nociceptive-motor-gate-control-for-a%C3%AE-pain-stimuli-in-rats
#1
Dvir Blivis, Gal Haspel, Philip Z Mannes, Michael James O'Donovan, Michael J Iadarola
Physiological responses to nociceptive stimuli are initiated within tens of milliseconds, but the corresponding sub-second behavioral responses have not been adequately explored in awake, unrestrained animals. A detailed understanding of these responses is crucial for progress in pain neurobiology. Here, high-speed videography during nociceptive Aδ fiber stimulation demonstrated engagement of a multi-segmental motor program coincident with, or even preceding, withdrawal of the stimulated paw. The motor program included early head orientation and adjustments of the torso and un-stimulated paws...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#2
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520803/multiple-modality-biomarker-prediction-of-cognitive-impairment-in-prospectively-followed-de-novo-parkinson-disease
#3
Chelsea Caspell-Garcia, Tanya Simuni, Duygu Tosun-Turgut, I-Wei Wu, Yu Zhang, Mike Nalls, Andrew Singleton, Leslie A Shaw, Ju-Hee Kang, John Q Trojanowski, Andrew Siderowf, Christopher Coffey, Shirley Lasch, Dag Aarsland, David Burn, Lana M Chahine, Alberto J Espay, Eric D Foster, Keith A Hawkins, Irene Litvan, Irene Richard, Daniel Weintraub
OBJECTIVES: To assess the neurobiological substrate of initial cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) to inform patient management, clinical trial design, and development of treatments. METHODS: We longitudinally assessed, up to 3 years, 423 newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic PD, untreated at baseline, from 33 international movement disorder centers. Study outcomes were four determinations of cognitive impairment or decline, and biomarker predictors were baseline dopamine transporter (DAT) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; volume and thickness), diffusion tensor imaging (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; amyloid beta [Aβ], tau and alpha synuclein), and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PD cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503039/the-possible-role-of-meditation-in-myofascial-pain-syndrome-a-new-hypothesis
#4
Prashanth Panta
BACKGROUND OF HYPOTHESIS: Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is the most common musculoskeletal pain disorder of the head and neck area. In the past, several theories were put forth to explain its origin and nature, but none proved complete. Myofascial pain responds to changing psychological states and stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, anger, depression and chronic pain are direct contributional factors. Myofascial pain syndrome may be considered as a psychosomatic disorder. There are numerous accepted palliative approaches, but of all, relaxation techniques stand out and initiate healing at the base level...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502732/swimming-exercise-prevents-behavioural-disturbances-induced-by-an-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-peptide-through-modulation-of-cytokine-nf-kappab-pathway-and-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-in-mouse-brain
#5
Leandro Cattelan Souza, Cristiano R Jesse, Lucian Del Fabbro, Marcelo de Gomes, André Tiago Rossito Goes, Carlos Borges Filho, Cristiane Luchese, Albanin Aparecida Mielniczki Pereira, Silvana Peterini Boeira
Emerging evidence indicates that the activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a first and rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, is involved in amyloid-beta (Aβ1-42)-neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Physical exercise has been considered an effective intervention in AD, attenuating or limiting their progression. Nevertheless, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of exercise have not yet been fully elucidated. In present study, we investigated the protective effect of an 8-week swimming training (ST) exercise on cognitive and non-cognitive functions and its role in modulating biomarkers of KYN pathway, before an intracerebroventricular (i...
May 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488766/brief-isoflurane-anesthesia-regulates-striatal-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-signaling-and-ameliorates-motor-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Juuso V Leikas, Samuel Kohtala, Wiebke Theilmann, Aaro J Jalkanen, Markus M Forsberg, Tomi Rantamäki
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The link between heightened activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and neurodegenerative processes has encouraged investigation into the potential disease modifying effects of novel GSK3β inhibitors in experimental models of PD. Therefore, the intriguing ability of several anesthetics to readily inhibit GSK3β within the cortex and hippocampus led us to investigate the effects of brief isoflurane anesthesia on striatal GSK3β signaling in naïve rats and in a rat model of early-stage PD...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486594/apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#7
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Apathy and impulsivity are common and disabling consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. They cause substantial carer distress, but their aetiology remains elusive. There are critical limitations to previous studies in this area including (i) the assessment of either apathy or impulsivity alone, despite their frequent co-existence; (ii) the assessment of behavioural changes within single diagnostic groups; and (iii) the use of limited sets of tasks or questions that relate to just one aspect of these multifactorial constructs...
May 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486506/an-fmri-study-into-emotional-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-does-increased-medial-prefrontal-activation-compensate-for-striatal-dysfunction
#8
Anja J H Moonen, Peter H Weiss, Michael Wiesing, Ralph Weidner, Gereon R Fink, Jennifer S A M Reijnders, Wim M Weber, Albert F G Leentjens
BACKGROUND: Apart from a progressive decline of motor functions, Parkinson's disease (PD) is also characterized by non-motor symptoms, including disturbed processing of emotions. This study aims at assessing emotional processing and its neurobiological correlates in PD with the focus on how medicated Parkinson patients may achieve normal emotional responsiveness despite basal ganglia dysfunction. METHODS: Nineteen medicated patients with mild to moderate PD (without dementia or depression) and 19 matched healthy controls passively viewed positive, negative, and neutral pictures in an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging study (BOLD-fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464461/neural-circuits-involved-in-the-renewal-of-extinguished-fear
#9
REVIEW
Weihai Chen, Yan Wang, Xiaqing Wang, Hong Li
The last 10 years have witnessed a substantial progress in understanding the neural mechanisms for the renewal of the extinguished fear memory. Based on the theory of fear extinction, exposure therapy has been developed as a typical cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Although the fear memory can be extinguished by repeated presentation of conditioned stimulus without unconditioned stimulus, the fear memory is not erased and tends to relapse outside of extinction context, which is referred to as renewal...
May 2, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449557/wnt-and-gsk3-signaling-pathways-in-bipolar-disorder-clinical-and-therapeutic-implications
#10
REVIEW
Ather Muneer
The neurobiology of bipolar disorder, a chronic and systemic ailment is not completely understood. The bipolar phenotype manifests in myriad ways, and psychopharmacological agents like lithium have long term beneficial effects. The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) has come into focus, as lithium and several other mood stabilizing medications inhibit its activity. This kinase and its key upstream modulator, Wnt are dysregulated in mood disorders and there is a growing impetus to delineate the chief substrates involved in the development of these illnesses...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441895/ketamine-s-dose-related-effects-on-anxiety-symptoms-in-patients-with-treatment-refractory-anxiety-disorders
#11
Paul Glue, Natalie J Medlicott, Sarah Harland, Shona Neehoff, Bridie Anderson-Fahey, Martin Le Nedelec, Andrew Gray, Neil McNaughton
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine has rapid onset activity in treatment-resistant depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Due to similarities in brain network activity in depression and anxiety disorders, we hypothesized that ketamine might also be active in other refractory anxiety disorders. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of ketamine in 12 patients with refractory generalized anxiety disorder and/or social anxiety disorder who were not currently depressed, using an ascending single dose study design (0...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440493/the-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-pathway-in-neurological-diseases-a-potential-therapeutic-target-review
#12
Jing Sun, Guangxian Nan
Signaling pathways are critical modulators of a variety of physiological and pathological processes, and the abnormal activation of some signaling pathways can contribute to disease progression in various conditions. As a result, signaling pathways have emerged as an important tool through which the occurrence and development of diseases can be studied, which may then lead to the development of novel drugs. Accumulating evidence supports a key role for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling in the embryonic development of the central nervous system (CNS) and in the regulation of adult brain function...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440249/innovations-in-pediatric-cataract-surgery
#13
Sudarshan Kumar Khokhar, Ganesh Pillay, Esha Agarwal, Manish Mahabir
Advances in technology have made surgery in children safer and faster. The management of pediatric cataract has made rapid progress in the past decade with the availability of safer anesthesia, newer technique's, more predictable intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, a better understanding of neurobiology, genetics, amblyopia management, improved IOL designs for preventing visual axis opacification, and adjuvant postoperative care. Modern vitrectomy machines with minimally invasive instruments, radiofrequency, diathermy, and plasma blades help immensely in complicated cases...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410856/regional-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-hypometabolism-is-associated-with-higher-apathy-scores-over-time-in-early-alzheimer-disease
#14
Jennifer R Gatchel, Nancy J Donovan, Joseph J Locascio, J Alex Becker, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Gad A Marshall
OBJECTIVES: Apathy is among the earliest and most pervasive neuropsychiatric symptoms in prodromal and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia that correlates with functional impairment and disease progression. We investigated the association of apathy with regional 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396255/the-recent-progress-in-animal-models-of-depression
#15
REVIEW
Qingzhong Wang, Matthew A Timberlake, Kevin Prall, Yogesh Dwivedi
Major depression disorder (MDD) is a debilitating mental illness with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the growing number of studies that have emerged, the precise underlying mechanisms of MDD remain unknown. When studying MDD, tissue samples like peripheral blood or post-mortem brain samples are used to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Unfortunately, there are many uncontrollable factors with such samples such as medication history, age, time after death before post-mortem tissue was collected, age, sex, race, and living conditions...
April 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393474/application-of-ipscs-to-understand-neurobiological-basis-of-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#16
Yao-Nan Liu, Si-Yao Lu, Jun Yao
The etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder usually involves complex combinations of genetic defects/variations and environmental impacts, which hindered, for a long time, research efforts based on animal models and patients' non-neuronal cells or postmortem tissues. However, the development of human induced pluripotent stem cell technology by the Yamanaka group was immediately applied to establish cell research models for neuronal disorders. Since then, techniques to achieve highly efficient differentiation of different types of neural cells following iPSC modeling have made much progress...
April 10, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377046/the-convergence-of-psychology-and-neurobiology-in-flavor-nutrient-learning
#17
Kevin P Myers
Flavor evaluation is influenced by learning from experience with foods. One main influence is flavor-nutrient learning (FNL), a Pavlovian process whereby a flavor acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS) that becomes associated with the postingestive effects of ingested nutrients (the US). As a result that flavor becomes preferred and intake typically increases. This learning powerfully influences food choice and meal patterning. This paper summarizes how research elucidating the physiological and neural substrates of FNL has progressed in parallel with work characterizing how FNL affects perception, motivation, and behavior...
April 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370449/the-role-of-high-field-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-parkinsonian-disorders-pushing-the-boundaries-forward
#18
REVIEW
Stéphane Lehericy, David E Vaillancourt, Klaus Seppi, Oury Monchi, Irena Rektorova, Angelo Antonini, Martin J McKeown, Mario Masellis, Daniela Berg, James B Rowe, Simon J G Lewis, Caroline H Williams-Gray, Alessandro Tessitore, Hartwig R Siebner
Historically, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has contributed little to the study of Parkinson's disease (PD), but modern MRI approaches have unveiled several complementary markers that are useful for research and clinical applications. Iron- and neuromelanin-sensitive MRI detect qualitative changes in the substantia nigra. Quantitative MRI markers can be derived from diffusion weighted and iron-sensitive imaging or volumetry. Functional brain alterations at rest or during task performance have been captured with functional and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI...
April 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351169/pharmacotherapeutic-agents-in-the-treatment-of-methamphetamine-dependence
#19
Kirsten C Morley, Jennifer L Cornish, Alon Faingold, Katie Wood, Paul S Haber
Methamphetamine use is a serious public health concern in many countries and is second to cannabis as the most widely abused illicit drug in the world. Effective management for methamphetamine dependence remains elusive and the large majority of methamphetamine users relapse following treatment. Areas covered: Progression in the understanding of the pharmacological basis of methamphetamine use has provided us with innovative opportunities to develop agents to treat dependence. The current review summarizes relevant literature on the neurobiological and clinical correlates associated with methamphetamine use...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349773/epileptic-encephalopathies
#20
Blair Germain, Bernard L Maria
Epileptic encephalopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of epilepsy syndromes that manifest with cognitive, behavioral, and neurologic deficits, seizures that are often intractable and multiform, aggressive electroencephalographic paroxysmal activity, and sometimes early death. As more is learned about the etiologies and manifestations of epileptic encephalopathies, progress has been made toward better treatment options. However, there is still a great need for further randomized controlled trials and research to help create clinically effective therapies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
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