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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#1
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210955/the-effects-of-igf-1-on-tnf-%C3%AE-treated-drg-neurons-by-modulating-atf3-and-gap-43-expression-via-pi3k-akt-s6k-signaling-pathway
#2
Lei Zhang, Yaping Yue, Meishuo Ouyang, Huaxiang Liu, Zhenzhong Li
Upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in the development and progression of numerous neurological disorders. Recent reports have challenged the concept that TNF-α exhibits only deleterious effects of pro-inflammatory destruction, and have raised the awareness that it may play a beneficial role in neuronal growth and function in particular conditions, which prompts us to further investigate the role of this cytokine. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a cytokine possessing powerful neuroprotective effects in promoting neuronal survival, neuronal differentiation, neurite elongation, and neurite regeneration...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#3
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208601/surgical-neurostimulation-for-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Aswin Chari, Ian D Hentall, Marios C Papadopoulos, Erlick A C Pereira
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a constellation of symptoms including paralysis, paraesthesia, pain, cardiovascular, bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Current treatment for SCI involves acute resuscitation, aggressive rehabilitation and symptomatic treatment for complications. Despite the progress in scientific understanding, regenerative therapies are lacking. In this review, we outline the current state and future potential of invasive and non-invasive neuromodulation strategies including deep brain stimulation (DBS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS), motor cortex stimulation (MCS), transcutaneous direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the context of SCI...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191447/reexamining-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-surprising-activity-for-a-dormant-parasite
#5
Anthony P Sinai, Elizabeth A Watts, Animesh Dhara, Robert D Murphy, Matthew S Gentry, Abhijit Patwardhan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite over a third of the world's population being chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii, little is known about this largely asymptomatic phase of infection. This stage is mediated in vivo by bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The absence of overt symptoms has been attributed to the dormancy of bradyzoites. In this review, we reexamine the conventional view of chronic toxoplasmosis in light of emerging evidence challenging both the nature of dormancy and the consequences of infection in the CNS...
December 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184334/mixed-states-in-bipolar-disorder-etiology-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Ather Muneer
Many bipolar disorder patients exhibit mixed affective states, which portend a generally more severe illness course and treatment resistance. In the previous renditions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual mixed states were narrowly defined in the context of bipolar I disorder, but with the advent of DSM-5 the term "mixed episode" was dropped and replaced by "mixed features" specifier which could be broadly applied to manic, hypomanic and depressive episodes in both the bipolar spectrum and major depressive disorders...
January 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168596/the-need-to-take-a-staging-approach-to-the-biological-mechanisms-of-ptsd-and-its-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Cowell McFarlane, Eleanor Lawrence-Wood, Miranda Van Hooff, Gin S Malhi, Rachel Yehuda
Despite the substantial body of neurobiological research, no specific drug target has been developed to treat PTSD and there are substantial limitations with the available interventions. We propose that advances are likely to depend on the development of better classification of the heterogeneity of PTSD using a staging approach of disease. A primary rationale for staging is to highlight the probability that distinct therapeutic approaches need to be utilised according to the degree of biological progression of the disorder...
February 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163986/neurobiologically-based-treatments-in-rett-syndrome-opportunities-and-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Walter E Kaufmann, Jennifer L Stallworth, David B Everman, Steven A Skinner
Introduction: Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that primarily affects females, typically resulting in a period of developmental regression in early childhood followed by stabilization and severe chronic cognitive, behavioral, and physical disability. No known treatment exists beyond symptomatic management, and while insights into the genetic cause, pathophysiology, neurobiology, and natural history of RTT have been gained, many challenges remain. Areas covered: Based on a comprehensive survey of the primary literature on RTT, this article describes and comments upon the general and unique features of the disorder, genetic and neurobiological bases of drug development, and the history of clinical trials in RTT, with an emphasis on drug trial design, outcome measures, and implementation...
October 2, 2016: Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153380/grn-deletion-in-familial-frontotemporal-dementia-showing-association-with-clinical-variability-in-3-familial-cases
#9
Graziella Milan, Sabrina Napoletano, Sabina Pappatà, Maria Teresa Gentile, Luca Colucci-D'Amato, Gennaro Della Rocca, Anna Maciag, Carmen Palermo Rossetti, Laura Fucci, Annibale Puca, Dario Grossi, Alfredo Postiglione, Emilia Vitale
Progranulin (GRN) gene mutations have been genetically associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and are present in about 23% of patients with familial FTD. However, the neurobiology of this secreted glycoprotein remains unclear. Here, we report the identification of 3 pedigrees of Southern Italian extraction in whom FTD segregates with autosomal dominant inheritance patterns. We present evidence that all the available patients in these 3 familial cases are carrying the rare GRN gene exon 6 deletion g10325_10331delCTGCTGT (relative to nt 1 inNG_007886...
January 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#10
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089267/probes-for-monitoring-regulated-exocytosis
#11
REVIEW
Wen-Hong Li
Regulated secretion is a fundamental cellular process that serves diverse functions in neurobiology, endocrinology, immunology, and numerous other aspects of animal physiology. In response to environmental or biological cues, cells release contents of secretory granules into an extracellular medium to communicate with or impact neighboring or distant cells through paracrine or endocrine signaling. To investigate mechanisms governing stimulus-secretion coupling, to better understand how cells maintain or regulate their secretory activity, and to characterize secretion defects in human diseases, probes for tracking various exocytotic events at the cellular or sub-cellular level have been developed over the years...
January 9, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086980/inflammation-in-epileptogenesis-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
REVIEW
Kyria M Webster, Mujun Sun, Peter Crack, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Bridgette D Semple
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common and debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seizures contribute to progressive neurodegeneration and poor functional and psychosocial outcomes for TBI survivors, and epilepsy after TBI is often resistant to existing anti-epileptic drugs. The development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) occurs in a complex neurobiological environment characterized by ongoing TBI-induced secondary injury processes. Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury process, though how it contributes to epileptogenesis, and the development of chronic, spontaneous seizure activity, remains poorly understood...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073112/space-and-objects-on-the-phenomenology-and-cognitive-neuroscience-of-anomalous-perception-in-schizophrenia-ancillary-article-to-eawe-domain-1
#13
Steven M Silverstein, Docia Demmin, Borut Škodlar
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Perception of space and objects is a traditional focus within phenomenology, and disturbances in these aspects of perception among people with schizophrenia have long been discussed within phenomenological psychiatry. Despite this, there has been little empirical work on the causes and effects of most of these perceptual alterations in people with schizophrenia. Progress towards this goal can be accelerated by the use of EAWE (Examination of Anomalous World Experience), an interview-based tool to elicit, categorize, and quantify abnormal perceptual and other experiential phenomena...
January 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051947/early-life-effects-on-adult-physical-activity-concepts-relevance-and-experimental-approaches
#14
Theodore Garland, Marcell D Cadney, Robert A Waterland
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044063/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-noncoding-risk-variations-in-psychiatric-genetic-studies
#15
REVIEW
X Xiao, H Chang, M Li
Recent large-scale genetic approaches such as genome-wide association studies have allowed the identification of common genetic variations that contribute to risk architectures of psychiatric disorders. However, most of these susceptibility variants are located in noncoding genomic regions that usually span multiple genes. As a result, pinpointing the precise variant(s) and biological mechanisms accounting for the risk remains challenging. By reviewing recent progresses in genetics, functional genomics and neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, as well as gene expression analyses of brain tissues, here we propose a roadmap to characterize the roles of noncoding risk loci in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illnesses (that is, identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms explaining the genetic risk conferred by those genomic loci, and recognizing putative functional causative variants)...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035782/wonoep-appraisal-biomarkers-of-epilepsy-associated-comorbidities
#16
REVIEW
Teresa Ravizza, Filiz Y Onat, Amy R Brooks-Kayal, Antoine Depaulis, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Andrey Mazarati, Adam L Numis, Raman Sankar, Alon Friedman
Neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients with epilepsy. Diagnostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic biomarkers of such comorbidities do not exist. They may share pathogenetic mechanisms with epileptogenesis/ictogenesis, and as such are an unmet clinical need. The objectives of the subgroup on biomarkers of comorbidities at the XIII Workshop on the Neurobiology of Epilepsy (WONOEP) were to present the state-of-the-art recent research findings in the field that highlighting potential biomarkers for comorbidities in epilepsy...
December 30, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994114/nicotine-and-tobacco-as-substances-of-abuse-in-children-and-adolescents
#17
Lorena M Siqueira
Nicotine is the primary pharmacologic component of tobacco, and users of tobacco products seek out its effects. The highly addictive nature of nicotine is responsible for its widespread use and difficulty with quitting. This technical report focuses on nicotine and discusses the stages of use in progression to dependence on nicotine-containing products; the physiologic characteristics, neurobiology, metabolism, pharmacogenetics, and health effects of nicotine; and acute nicotine toxicity. Finally, some newer approaches to cessation are noted...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993603/the-neural-diathesis-stress-model-of-schizophrenia-revisited-an-update-on-recent-findings-considering-illness-stage-and-neurobiological-and-methodological-complexities
#18
REVIEW
Marita Pruessner, Alexis E Cullen, Monica Aas, Elaine F Walker
Over the past decade, our understanding of the role of stress in serious mental illness has become more sophisticated. In this paper, we revisit the neural diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia that was initially proposed in 1997 and updated in 2008. In light of cumulative research findings, we must now encompass evidence on the premorbid periods of psychosis, and our more nuanced understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and its association with neurodevelopmental, epigenetic, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes, as well as brain structure and function...
February 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934853/clinical-and-biological-progress-over-50-years-in-rett-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Helen Leonard, Stuart Cobb, Jenny Downs
In the 50 years since Andreas Rett first described the syndrome that came to bear his name, and is now known to be caused by a mutation in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, a compelling blend of astute clinical observations and clinical and laboratory research has substantially enhanced our understanding of this rare disorder. Here, we document the contributions of the early pioneers in Rett syndrome (RTT) research, and describe the evolution of knowledge in terms of diagnostic criteria, clinical variation, and the interplay with other Rett-related disorders...
January 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933543/integrative-analysis-of-genetic-genomic-and-phenotypic-data-for-ethanol-behaviors-a-network-based-pipeline-for-identifying-mechanisms-and-potential-drug-targets
#20
James W Bogenpohl, Kristin M Mignogna, Maren L Smith, Michael F Miles
Complex behavioral traits, such as alcohol abuse, are caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, producing deleterious functional adaptations in the central nervous system. The long-term behavioral consequences of such changes are of substantial cost to both the individual and society. Substantial progress has been made in the last two decades in understanding elements of brain mechanisms underlying responses to ethanol in animal models and risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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