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Trends in neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424572/functional-sensitivity-of-2d-simultaneous-multi-slice-echo-planar-imaging-effects-of-acceleration-on-g-factor-and-physiological-noise
#1
Nick Todd, Oliver Josephs, Peter Zeidman, Guillaume Flandin, Steen Moeller, Nikolaus Weiskopf
Accelerated data acquisition with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging for functional MRI studies leads to interacting and opposing effects that influence the sensitivity to blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes. Image signal to noise ratio (SNR) is decreased with higher SMS acceleration factors and shorter repetition times (TR) due to g-factor noise penalties and saturation of longitudinal magnetization. However, the lower image SNR is counteracted by greater statistical power from more samples per unit time and a higher temporal Nyquist frequency that allows for better removal of spurious non-BOLD high frequency signal content...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413092/resisting-the-urge-to-act-dreadds-modifying-habits-trends-in-neurosciences-40-61-62-2017
#2
M A G Eldridge, B J Richmond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370288/a-core-avenue-for-transcultural-research-on-dementia-on-the-cross-linguistic-generalization-of-language-related-effects-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Noelia Calvo, Agustín Ibáñez, Edinson Muñoz, Adolfo M García
OBJECTIVE: Language is a key source of cross-cultural variability, which may have both subtle and major effects on neurocognition. However, this issue has been largely overlooked in two flourishing lines of research assessing the relationship between language-related neural systems and dementia. This paper assesses the limitations of the evidence on (i) the neuroprotective effects of bilingualism in Alzheimer's disease and (ii) specific language deficits as markers of Parkinson's disease...
March 28, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#4
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221003/trends-in-high-throughput-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
REVIEW
Yongmin Cho, Charles L Zhao, Hang Lu
The nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the development and function of larger, more complex nervous systems. It is prized for its ease of handling, rapid life cycle, and stereotyped, well-cataloged development, with the development of all 302 neurons mapped all the way from zygote to adult. The combination of easy genetic manipulation and optical transparency of the worm allows for the direct imaging of its interior with fluorescent microscopy, without physically compromising the normal physiology of the animal itself...
February 21, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191550/mapping-lifetime-brain-volumetry-with-covariate-adjusted-restricted-cubic-spline-regression-from-cross-sectional-multi-site-mri
#6
Yuankai Huo, Katherine Aboud, Hakmook Kang, Laurie E Cutting, Bennett A Landman
Understanding brain volumetry is essential to understand neurodevelopment and disease. Historically, age-related changes have been studied in detail for specific age ranges (e.g., early childhood, teen, young adults, elderly, etc.) or more sparsely sampled for wider considerations of lifetime aging. Recent advancements in data sharing and robust processing have made available considerable quantities of brain images from normal, healthy volunteers. However, existing analysis approaches have had difficulty addressing (1) complex volumetric developments on the large cohort across the life time (e...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178034/the-neurobiology-of-health-communication
#7
Peter A Hall, Kirk I Erickson, Peter J Gianaros
This issue of Psychosomatic Medicine describes findings from an innovative study by Kang et al. employing neuroimaging methods to quantify neural responses to health communications. Findings indicated that those sedentary individuals who hold self-transcendent values show attenuated limbic threat responses to communications about the benefits of physical activity. Furthermore, participants who were instructed to articulate such values showed some evidence of additional blunting of the same neural response. In this editorial we provide context for the interpretation of these findings within the existing research using the brain-as-predictor approach, and other recent trends within biobehavioral medicine involving the use of neuroscience methods in the service of health behavior change...
February 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074581/conflating-capacity-authority-why-we-re-asking-the-wrong-question-in-the-adolescent-decision-making-debate
#8
Erica K Salter
Whether adolescents should be allowed to make their own medical decisions has been a topic of discussion in bioethics for at least two decades now. Are adolescents sufficiently capacitated to make their own medical decisions? Is the mature-minor doctrine, an uncommon legal exception to the rule of parental decision-making authority, something we should expand or eliminate? Bioethicists have dealt with the curious liminality of adolescents-their being neither children nor adults-in a variety of ways. However, recently there has been a trend to rely heavily, and often exclusively, on emerging neuroscientific and psychological data to answer these questions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995512/clevidipine-versus-nicardipine-for-acute-blood-pressure-reduction-in-a-neuroscience-intensive-care-population
#9
Jacqueline R Finger, Lisa M Kurczewski, Gretchen M Brophy
BACKGROUND: Currently, a lack of published literature exists regarding the use of clevidipine in the neuroscience population. This agent may be preferred in some patients because of its short half-life, potentially leading to more narrow blood pressure (BP) control in comparison with other agents. The purpose of this study was to compare the difference in time to achieve target systolic blood pressure (SBP) goals with clevidipine versus nicardipine infusions in patients admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) at our institution...
April 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973611/publication-trends-in-acupuncture-research-a-20-year-bibliometric-analysis-based-on-pubmed
#10
Yan Ma, Ming Dong, Kehua Zhou, Carol Mita, Jianping Liu, Peter M Wayne
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. METHODS: A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845941/magnetic-resonance-elastography-mre-of-the-human-brain-technique-findings-and-clinical-applications
#11
Lucy V Hiscox, Curtis L Johnson, Eric Barnhill, Matt D J McGarry, John Huston, Edwin J R van Beek, John M Starr, Neil Roberts
Neurological disorders are one of the most important public health concerns in developed countries. Established brain imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and x-ray computerised tomography (CT) have been essential in the identification and diagnosis of a wide range of disorders, although usually are insufficient in sensitivity for detecting subtle pathological alterations to the brain prior to the onset of clinical symptoms-at a time when prognosis for treatment is more favourable. The mechanical properties of biological tissue provide information related to the strength and integrity of the cellular microstructure...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823566/parallel-computing-for-brain-simulation
#12
L A Pastur-Romay, A B Porto-Pazos, F Cedrón, A Pazos
The human brain is the most complex system in the known universe, but it is the most unknown system. It allows the human beings to possess extraordinary capacities. However, we don´t understand yet how and why most of these capacities are produced. For decades, it have been tried that the computers reproduces these capacities. On one hand, to help understanding the nervous system. On the other hand, to process the data in a more efficient way than before. It is intended to make the computers process the information like the brain does it...
November 4, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737522/percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-tube-insertion-in-neurodegenerative-disease-a-retrospective-study-and-literature-review
#13
Pamela Sarkar, Alice Cole, Neil J Scolding, Claire M Rice
Background/Aims: With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697295/information-based-approaches-of-noninvasive-transcranial-brain-stimulation
#14
Vincenzo Romei, Gregor Thut, Juha Silvanto
Progress in cognitive neuroscience relies on methodological developments to increase the specificity of knowledge obtained regarding brain function. For example, in functional neuroimaging the current trend is to study the type of information carried by brain regions rather than simply compare activation levels induced by task manipulations. In this context noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) in the study of cognitive functions may appear coarse and old fashioned in its conventional uses. However, in their multitude of parameters, and by coupling them with behavioral manipulations, NTBS protocols can reach the specificity of imaging techniques...
September 30, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649493/regional-reproducibility-of-bold-calibration-parameter-m-oef-and-resting-state-cmro2-measurements-with-quo2-mri
#15
Isabelle Lajoie, Felipe B Tancredi, Richard D Hoge
The current generation of calibrated MRI methods goes beyond simple localization of task-related responses to allow the mapping of resting-state cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in micromolar units and estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Prior to the adoption of such techniques in neuroscience research applications, knowledge about the precision and accuracy of absolute estimates of CMRO2 and OEF is crucial and remains unexplored to this day. In this study, we addressed the question of methodological precision by assessing the regional inter-subject variance and intra-subject reproducibility of the BOLD calibration parameter M, OEF, O2 delivery and absolute CMRO2 estimates derived from a state-of-the-art calibrated BOLD technique, the QUantitative O2 (QUO2) approach...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597819/putting-the-biology-back-into-neurobiology-the-strength-of-diversity-in-animal-model-systems-for-neuroscience-research
#16
Joyce Keifer, Cliff H Summers
Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579963/external-ventricular-catheters-is-it-appropriate-to-use-an-open-monitor-position-to-adequately-trend-intracranial-pressure-in-a-neuroscience-critical-care-environment
#17
Nicole E Sunderland, Nancy E Villanueva, Susan J Pazuchanics
Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets...
October 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561997/mothers-perinatal-and-infant-mental-health-knowledge-in-a-johannesburg-township-setting
#18
Katherine Bain, Jade Richards
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. The applicability and utility of these Western-derived concepts in a low socio-economic South African setting is examined. METHOD: A concurrent mixed methods approach was used. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the responses of 255 mothers on a structured questionnaire, designed to elicit levels of knowledge about the relational needs and awareness of infants and the psychosocial needs of mothers, to determine trends in mothers' knowledge...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539715/comparative-auditory-neuroscience-understanding-the-evolution-and-function-of-ears
#19
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Manley
Comparative auditory studies make it possible both to understand the origins of modern ears and the factors underlying the similarities and differences in their performance. After all lineages of land vertebrates had independently evolved tympanic middle ears in the early Mesozoic era, the subsequent tens of millions of years led to the hearing organ of lizards, birds, and mammals becoming larger and their upper frequency limits higher. In extant species, lizard papillae remained relatively small (<2 mm), but avian papillae attained a maximum length of 11 mm, with the highest frequencies in both groups near 12 kHz...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534601/reflections-on-60%C3%A2-years-of-publication-of-the-journal-of-neurochemistry
#20
Anthony J Turner, Natalia N Nalivaeva, Frode Fonnum, Keith F Tipton, Laura Hausmann, Jörg B Schulz
This review reflects on the origins, development, publishing trends, and scientific directions of the Journal of Neurochemistry over its 60 year lifespan as seen by key contributors to the Journal's production. The Journal first appeared in May 1956 with just two issues published in that inaugural year. By 1963, it appeared monthly and, by 2002, 24 hard copy issues were published yearly. In 2014, the Journal became online only. For much of its time, the Journal was managed through two separate editorial offices each with their respective Chief Editor (the 'Western' and 'Eastern' hemispheres)...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
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