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Trends in neuroscience

Pamela Sarkar, Alice Cole, Neil J Scolding, Claire M Rice
Background/Aims: With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Endoscopy
Vincenzo Romei, Gregor Thut, Juha Silvanto
Progress in cognitive neuroscience relies on methodological developments to increase the specificity of knowledge obtained regarding brain function. For example, in functional neuroimaging the current trend is to study the type of information carried by brain regions rather than simply compare activation levels induced by task manipulations. In this context noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) in the study of cognitive functions may appear coarse and old fashioned in its conventional uses. However, in their multitude of parameters, and by coupling them with behavioral manipulations, NTBS protocols can reach the specificity of imaging techniques...
September 30, 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
Isabelle Lajoie, Felipe B Tancredi, Richard D Hoge
The current generation of calibrated MRI methods goes beyond simple localization of task-related responses to allow the mapping of resting-state cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in micromolar units and estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Prior to the adoption of such techniques in neuroscience research applications, knowledge about the precision and accuracy of absolute estimates of CMRO2 and OEF is crucial and remains unexplored to this day. In this study, we addressed the question of methodological precision by assessing the regional inter-subject variance and intra-subject reproducibility of the BOLD calibration parameter M, OEF, O2 delivery and absolute CMRO2 estimates derived from a state-of-the-art calibrated BOLD technique, the QUantitative O2 (QUO2) approach...
2016: PloS One
Joyce Keifer, Cliff H Summers
Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Nicole E Sunderland, Nancy E Villanueva, Susan J Pazuchanics
Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets...
October 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Katherine Bain, Jade Richards
OBJECTIVE: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. The applicability and utility of these Western-derived concepts in a low socio-economic South African setting is examined. METHOD: A concurrent mixed methods approach was used. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on the responses of 255 mothers on a structured questionnaire, designed to elicit levels of knowledge about the relational needs and awareness of infants and the psychosocial needs of mothers, to determine trends in mothers' knowledge...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Geoffrey A Manley
Comparative auditory studies make it possible both to understand the origins of modern ears and the factors underlying the similarities and differences in their performance. After all lineages of land vertebrates had independently evolved tympanic middle ears in the early Mesozoic era, the subsequent tens of millions of years led to the hearing organ of lizards, birds, and mammals becoming larger and their upper frequency limits higher. In extant species, lizard papillae remained relatively small (<2 mm), but avian papillae attained a maximum length of 11 mm, with the highest frequencies in both groups near 12 kHz...
August 18, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Anthony J Turner, Natalia N Nalivaeva, Frode Fonnum, Keith F Tipton, Laura Hausmann, Jörg B Schulz
This review reflects on the origins, development, publishing trends, and scientific directions of the Journal of Neurochemistry over its 60 year lifespan as seen by key contributors to the Journal's production. The Journal first appeared in May 1956 with just two issues published in that inaugural year. By 1963, it appeared monthly and, by 2002, 24 hard copy issues were published yearly. In 2014, the Journal became online only. For much of its time, the Journal was managed through two separate editorial offices each with their respective Chief Editor (the 'Western' and 'Eastern' hemispheres)...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Megan Smith Valentine, Judith L Van Houten
Paramecium is a useful model organism for the study of ciliary-mediated chemical sensing and response. Here we describe ways to take advantage of Paramecium to study chemoresponse.Unicellular organisms like the ciliated protozoan Paramecium sense and respond to chemicals in their environment (Van Houten, Ann Rev Physiol 54:639-663, 1992; Van Houten, Trends Neurosci 17:62-71, 1994). A thousand or more cilia that cover Paramecium cells serve as antennae for chemical signals, similar to ciliary function in a large variety of metazoan cell types that have primary or motile cilia (Berbari et al...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mike Hemberger, Lorenz Pammer, Gilles Laurent
Recent trends in neuroscience have narrowed the scope of this field, notably through the progressive elimination of 'model systems' that were key to the development of modern molecular, developmental and functional neuroscience. Although the fantastic opportunities offered by modern molecular biology entirely justify the use of selected organisms (e.g., for their genetic advantages), we argue that a diversity of model systems is essential if we wish to identify the brain's computational principles. It is through comparisons that we can hope to separate mechanistic details (results of each organism's specific history) from functional principles, those that will hopefully one day lead to a theory of the brain...
August 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Darya L Zabelina, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna
Recent advances in systems neuroscience have solidified the view that many cognitive processes are supported by dynamic interactions within and between large-scale brain networks. Here we synthesize this research, highlighting dynamic network interactions supporting a less explored aspect of cognition with important clinical relevance: internally-oriented cognition. We first present a brief overview of established resting-state networks, focusing on those supporting internally-oriented cognition, as well as those involved in dynamic control...
July 12, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Simon Buttrick, Kristy OʼPhelan, Kenneth Goodman, Ronald Jay Benveniste
INTRODUCTION: Our health care system spends a significant amount of resources on futile care, ie, continued medical therapy when there is no reasonable hope of cure or benefit. Nowhere is this more evident than in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU), because intensive care medicine has become exceedingly proficient at maintaining cardiopulmonary function even in the face of catastrophic brain injury. METHODS: We identified patients who were admitted to the NSICU with partial loss of brainstem reflexes even after initial stabilization...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Nat Ato Yawson, Aaron Opoku Amankwaa, Bernice Tali, Velma Owusua Shang, Emmanuella Nsenbah Batu, Kwame Asiemoah, Ahmed Denkeri Fuseini, Louis Nana Tene, Leticia Angaandi, Isaac Blewusi, Makafui Borbi, Linda Nana Esi Aduku, Pheonah Badu, Henrietta Abbey, Thomas K Karikari
The scientific capacity in many African countries is low. Ghana, for example, is estimated to have approximately twenty-three researchers per a million inhabitants. In order to improve interest in science among future professionals, appropriate techniques should be developed and employed to identify barriers and correlates of science education among pre-university students. Young students' attitudes towards science may affect their future career choices. However, these attitudes may change with new experiences...
2016: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
A K M Rezaul Karim, Michael J Proulx, Lora T Likova
Orientation bias and directionality bias are two fundamental functional characteristics of the visual system. Reviewing the relevant literature in visual psychophysics and visual neuroscience we propose here a three-stage model of directionality bias in visuospatial functioning. We call this model the 'Perception-Action-Laterality' (PAL) hypothesis. We analyzed the research findings for a wide range of visuospatial tasks, showing that there are two major directionality trends in perceptual preference: clockwise versus anticlockwise...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz, Katherine A Cooke
In this review we provide a broad overview of major trends in the cognitive neuroscience of aging and illustrate their roots in the pioneering ideas and discoveries of Morris Moscovitch and his close collaborators, especially Gordon Winocur. These trends include an on-going focus on the specific and dissociable contributions of medial temporal and frontal lobe processes to cognitive aging, especially in the memory domain, the role of individual variability stemming from different patterns of underlying neural decline, the possibility of compensatory neural and cognitive influences that alter the expression of neurobiological aging, and the investigation of lifestyle and psychosocial factors that affect plasticity and may contribute to the rate and level of neurocognitive decline...
September 2016: Neuropsychologia
Cornelius Borck
A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity...
July 2016: Medical History
Ellis Wickering, Nicolas Gaspard, Sahar Zafar, Valdery J Moura, Siddharth Biswal, Sophia Bechek, Kathryn OʼConnor, Eric S Rosenthal, M Brandon Westover
The purpose of this study is to evaluate automated implementations of continuous EEG monitoring-based detection of delayed cerebral ischemia based on methods used in classical retrospective studies. We studied 95 patients with either Fisher 3 or Hunt Hess 4 to 5 aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were admitted to the Neurosciences ICU and underwent continuous EEG monitoring. We implemented several variations of two classical algorithms for automated detection of delayed cerebral ischemia based on decreases in alpha-delta ratio and relative alpha variability...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Ronny Geva, Edna Orr
Walking is of interest to psychology, robotics, zoology, neuroscience and medicine. Human's ability to walk on two feet is considered to be one of the defining characteristics of hominoid evolution. Evolutionary science propses that it emerged in response to limited environmental resources; yet the processes supporting its emergence are not fully understood. Developmental psychology research suggests that walking elicits cognitive advancements. We postulate that the relationship between cognitive development and walking is a bi-directional one; and further suggest that the initiation of novel capacities, such as walking, is related to internal socio-cognitive resource reallocation...
2016: PloS One
Julia F Christensen, Frank E Pollick, Anna Lambrechts, Antoni Gomila
The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness)...
May 25, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Margaret C Grabb, Jogarao V S Gobburu
Many psychiatric and behavioral disorders manifest in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, etc.) and the opportunity for intervening early may attenuate full development of the disorder and lessen long term disability. Yet, pediatric drug approvals for CNS indications are limited, and pediatric testing generally occurs only after establishing adult efficacy, more as an afterthought rather than with the initial goal of developing the medication for a pediatric CNS indication...
May 20, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
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