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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122031/contempt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-where-the-modularity-of-the-mind-meets-the-modularity-of-the-brain
#1
Danilo Bzdok, Leonhard Schilbach
"Contempt" is proposed to be a unique aspect of human nature, yet a non-natural kind. Its psychological construct is framed as a sentiment emerging from a stratification of diverse basic emotions and dispositional attitudes. Accordingly, "contempt" might transcend traditional conceptual levels in social psychology, including experience and recognition of emotion, dyadic and group dynamics, context-conditioned attitudes, time-enduring personality structure, and morality. This strikes us as a modern psychological account of a high-level, social-affective cognitive facet that joins forces with recent developments in the social neuroscience by drawing psychological conclusions from brain biology...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099403/considerations-for-the-use-of-virally-delivered-genetic-tools-for-in-vivo-circuit-analysis-and-behavior-in-mutant-mice-a-practical-guide-to-optogenetics
#2
Dóra Zelena, Kornél Demeter, József Haller, Diána Balázsfi
Optogenetics was the method of the year in 2010 according to Nature Neuroscience. Since then, this method has become widespread, the use of virally delivered genetic tools has extended to other fields such as pharmacogenetics, and optogenetic techniques have become frequently applied in genetically manipulated animals for in-vivo circuit analysis and behavioral studies. However, several issues should be taken into consideration when planning such experiments. We aimed to summarize the critical points concerning optogenetic manipulation of a specific brain area in mutant mice...
December 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071353/linking-normative-models-of-natural-tasks-to-descriptive-models-of-neural-response
#3
Priyank Jaini, Johannes Burge
Understanding how nervous systems exploit task-relevant properties of sensory stimuli to perform natural tasks is fundamental to the study of perceptual systems. However, there are few formal methods for determining which stimulus properties are most useful for a given natural task. As a consequence, it is difficult to develop principled models for how to compute task-relevant latent variables from natural signals, and it is difficult to evaluate descriptive models fit to neural response. Accuracy maximization analysis (AMA) is a recently developed Bayesian method for finding the optimal task-specific filters (receptive fields)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071301/action-monitoring-cortical-activity-coupled-to-submovements
#4
Michael Pereira, Aleksander Sobolewski, José Del R Millán
Numerous studies have examined neural correlates of the human brain's action-monitoring system during experimentally segmented tasks. However, it remains unknown how such a system operates during continuous motor output when no experimental time marker is available (such as button presses or stimulus onset). We set out to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of action monitoring when hand position has to be repeatedly monitored and corrected. For this, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) during a visuomotor tracking task during which participants had to follow a target with the mouse cursor along a visible trajectory...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059185/decoding-brain-activity-using-a-large-scale-probabilistic-functional-anatomical-atlas-of-human-cognition
#5
Timothy N Rubin, Oluwasanmi Koyejo, Krzysztof J Gorgolewski, Michael N Jones, Russell A Poldrack, Tal Yarkoni
A central goal of cognitive neuroscience is to decode human brain activity-that is, to infer mental processes from observed patterns of whole-brain activation. Previous decoding efforts have focused on classifying brain activity into a small set of discrete cognitive states. To attain maximal utility, a decoding framework must be open-ended, systematic, and context-sensitive-that is, capable of interpreting numerous brain states, presented in arbitrary combinations, in light of prior information. Here we take steps towards this objective by introducing a probabilistic decoding framework based on a novel topic model-Generalized Correspondence Latent Dirichlet Allocation-that learns latent topics from a database of over 11,000 published fMRI studies...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059183/machine-learning-to-design-integral-membrane-channelrhodopsins-for-efficient-eukaryotic-expression-and-plasma-membrane-localization
#6
Claire N Bedbrook, Kevin K Yang, Austin J Rice, Viviana Gradinaru, Frances H Arnold
There is growing interest in studying and engineering integral membrane proteins (MPs) that play key roles in sensing and regulating cellular response to diverse external signals. A MP must be expressed, correctly inserted and folded in a lipid bilayer, and trafficked to the proper cellular location in order to function. The sequence and structural determinants of these processes are complex and highly constrained. Here we describe a predictive, machine-learning approach that captures this complexity to facilitate successful MP engineering and design...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#7
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051552/auditory-evoked-bold-responses-in-awake-compared-to-lightly-anaesthetized-zebra-finches
#8
L Van Ruijssevelt, J Hamaide, M T Van Gurp, M Verhoye, A Van der Linden
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used in cognitive neuroscience and has become a valuable tool in the study of auditory processing in zebra finches, a well-established model of learned vocal communication. Due to its sensitivity to head motion, most fMRI studies in animals are performed in anaesthetized conditions, which might significantly impact neural activity evoked by stimuli and cognitive tasks. In this study, we (1) demonstrate the feasibility of fMRI in awake zebra finches and (2) explore how light anaesthesia regimes affect auditory-evoked BOLD responses to biologically relevant songs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033780/evolutionary-musicology-meets-embodied-cognition-biocultural-coevolution-and-the-enactive-origins-of-human-musicality
#9
REVIEW
Dylan van der Schyff, Andrea Schiavio
Despite evolutionary musicology's interdisciplinary nature, and the diverse methods it employs, the field has nevertheless tended to divide into two main positions. Some argue that music should be understood as a naturally selected adaptation, while others claim that music is a product of culture with little or no relevance for the survival of the species. We review these arguments, suggesting that while interesting and well-reasoned positions have been offered on both sides of the debate, the nature-or-culture (or adaptation vs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019233/pegylated-red-emitting-calcium-probe-with-improved-sensing-properties-for-neuroscience
#10
Flavien Ponsot, Weida Shen, Pichandi Ashokkumar, Etienne Audinat, Andrey S Klymchenko, Mayeul Collot
Monitoring calcium concentration in the cytosol is of main importance as this ion drives many biological cascades within the cell. To this end, molecular calcium probes are widely used. Most of them, especially the red emitting probes, suffer from nonspecific interactions with inner membranes due to the hydrophobic nature of their fluorophore. To circumvent this issue, calcium probes conjugated to dextran can be used to enhance the hydrophilicity and reduce the nonspecific interaction and compartmentalization...
October 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018336/encoding-and-decoding-models-in-cognitive-electrophysiology
#11
REVIEW
Christopher R Holdgraf, Jochem W Rieger, Cristiano Micheli, Stephanie Martin, Robert T Knight, Frederic E Theunissen
Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of "Encoding" models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and "Decoding" models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972851/culture-embrained-going-beyond-the-nature-nurture-dichotomy
#12
Shinobu Kitayama, Cristina E Salvador
Over the past three decades, the cultural psychology literature has established that there is systematic cultural variation in the nature of agency in the domains of cognition, emotion, and motivation. This literature adopted both self-report and performance-based (or behavioral) indicators of these processes, which set the stage for a more recent systematic exploration of cultural influences at the neural and biological level. Moreover, previous work has largely focused on East-West differences, thereby calling for a systematic exploration of other ethnic groups...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972125/submillisecond-optogenetic-control-of-neuronal-firing-with-two-photon-holographic-photoactivation-of-chronos
#13
Emiliano Ronzitti, Rossella Conti, Valeria Zampini, Dimitrii Tanese, Amanda J Foust, Nathan Klapoetke, Edward S Boyden, Eirini Papagiakoumou, Valentina Emiliani
Optogenetic neuronal network manipulation promises to unravel a long-standing mystery in neuroscience: how does microcircuit activity relate causally to behavioral and pathological states? The challenge to evoke spikes with high spatial and temporal complexity necessitates further joint development of light-delivery approaches and custom opsins. Two-photon (2P) light-targeting strategies demonstrated in-depth generation of action potentials in photosensitive neurons both in vitro and in vivo, but thus far lack the temporal precision necessary to induce precisely timed spiking events...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971346/combined-pet-mri-global-warming-summary-report-of-the-6th-international-workshop-on-pet-mri-march-27-29-2017-t%C3%A3-bingen-germany
#14
REVIEW
D L Bailey, B J Pichler, B Gückel, G Antoch, H Barthel, Z M Bhujwalla, S Biskup, S Biswal, M Bitzer, R Boellaard, R F Braren, C Brendle, K Brindle, A Chiti, C la Fougère, R Gillies, V Goh, M Goyen, M Hacker, L Heukamp, G M Knudsen, A M Krackhardt, I Law, J C Morris, K Nikolaou, J Nuyts, A A Ordonez, K Pantel, H H Quick, K Riklund, O Sabri, B Sattler, E G C Troost, M Zaiss, L Zender, Thomas Beyer
The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how best to characterise the tumour microenvironment, optimise the complementary information available from PET and MRI, and how advanced data mining and bioinformatics, as well as information from liquid biomarkers (circulating tumour cells and nucleic acids) and pathology, can be integrated to give a more complete characterisation of disease phenotype...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961088/cross-disciplinary-medical-advances-with-neuroengineering-challenges-spur-development-of-unique-rehabilitative-and-therapeutic-interventions
#15
Sherif Elbasiouny
Neuroengineering brings tools and techniques from the engineering fields into neuroscience to create new approaches for investigating the central nervous system (CNS). This fusion of disciplines is advancing our knowledge of how the CNS works and how we can enhance our natural cognitive and emotional function and restore neurological functions that are compromised by disease or injury.
September 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959219/investigating-behavioral-and-psychophysiological-reactions-to-conflict-related-and-individualized-stimuli-as-potential-correlates-of-repression
#16
Henrik Kessler, Anna Christine Schmidt, Oliver Hildenbrand, Daniela Scharf, Aram Kehyayan, Nikolai Axmacher
Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which "unbearable" mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theoretical background. This relationship is particularly relevant because it relates repression to current research in the affective neurosciences as well as to experimental studies on emotion regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959198/distributed-neural-processing-predictors-of-multi-dimensional-properties-of-affect
#17
Keith A Bush, Cory S Inman, Stephan Hamann, Clinton D Kilts, G Andrew James
Recent evidence suggests that emotions have a distributed neural representation, which has significant implications for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotion regulation and dysregulation as well as the potential targets available for neuromodulation-based emotion therapeutics. This work adds to this evidence by testing the distribution of neural representations underlying the affective dimensions of valence and arousal using representational models that vary in both the degree and the nature of their distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941805/foundations-of-anticipatory-logic-in-biology-and-physics
#18
REVIEW
Jesse S Bettinger, Timothy E Eastman
Recent advances in modern physics and biology reveal several scenarios in which top-down effects (Ellis, 2016) and anticipatory systems (Rosen, 1980) indicate processes at work enabling active modeling and inference such that anticipated effects project onto potential causes. We extrapolate a broad landscape of anticipatory systems in the natural sciences extending to computational neuroscience of perception in the capacity of Bayesian inferential models of predictive processing. This line of reasoning also comes with philosophical foundations, which we develop in terms of counterfactual reasoning and possibility space, Whitehead's process thought, and correlations with Eastern wisdom traditions...
September 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937343/effaced-enigmata
#19
Grant Gillett
Severe head injury or brain injury presents clinical neuroscientists with a unique challenge. Based on an objective assessment of cognitive and neurological function, it is sometimes hard to recognize our patients as members of our moral community (actually or potentially) but we treat them as if that were is the case, and, therefore, as if they need rescuing. Thus their existences as enigmata-beings who may or may not reveal themselves to us through social and personal function realized in conversations and relationships-are in doubt...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924628/a-recurrent-neural-model-for-proto-object-based-contour-integration-and-figure-ground-segregation
#20
Brian Hu, Ernst Niebur
Visual processing of objects makes use of both feedforward and feedback streams of information. However, the nature of feedback signals is largely unknown, as is the identity of the neuronal populations in lower visual areas that receive them. Here, we develop a recurrent neural model to address these questions in the context of contour integration and figure-ground segregation. A key feature of our model is the use of grouping neurons whose activity represents tentative objects ("proto-objects") based on the integration of local feature information...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
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