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Nature neuroscience

Henkjan Honing
In recent years, music and musicality have been the focus of an increasing amount of research effort. This has led to a growing role and visibility of the contribution of (bio)musicology to the field of neuroscience and cognitive sciences at large. While it has been widely acknowledged that there are commonalities between speech, language, and musicality, several researchers explain this by considering musicality as an epiphenomenon of language. However, an alternative hypothesis is that musicality is an innate and widely shared capacity for music that can be seen as a natural, spontaneously developing set of traits based on and constrained by our cognitive abilities and their underlying biology...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Kristina Jakob, Hanna Ehrentreich, Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Justin N Wood, Samantha M W Wood
How do newborns learn to recognize objects? According to temporal learning models in computational neuroscience, the brain constructs object representations by extracting smoothly changing features from the environment. To date, however, it is unknown whether newborns depend on smoothly changing features to build invariant object representations. Here, we used an automated controlled-rearing method to examine whether visual experience with smoothly changing features facilitates the development of view-invariant object recognition in a newborn animal model-the domestic chick (Gallus gallus)...
March 14, 2018: Cognitive Science
Marlysa B Sullivan, Matt Erb, Laura Schmalzl, Steffany Moonaz, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Stephen W Porges
Yoga therapy is a newly emerging, self-regulating complementary and integrative healthcare (CIH) practice. It is growing in its professionalization, recognition and utilization with a demonstrated commitment to setting practice standards, educational and accreditation standards, and promoting research to support its efficacy for various populations and conditions. However, heterogeneity of practice, poor reporting standards, and lack of a broadly accepted understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in yoga therapy limits the structuring of testable hypotheses and clinical applications...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Travis T Mallard, James R Ashenhurst, K Paige Harden, Kim Fromme
GABRA2, the gene encoding the α2 subunit of the GABAA receptor, potentially plays a role in the etiology of problematic drinking, as GABRA2 genotype has been associated with subjective response to alcohol and other alcohol-related reward processes. The GABRA2 gene has also been associated with illicit drug use, but the extent to which associations with drug use are independent of associations with alcohol use remains unclear, partly because most previous research has used a cross-sectional design that cannot discriminate comorbidity at the between-person level and co-occurrence within-persons...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Abdul H Mohammed, Krister Kristensson, Sharon L Juliano, Julius J Lutwama
The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ingvild E Bjerke, Martin Øvsthus, Eszter A Papp, Sharon C Yates, Ludovico Silvestri, Julien Fiorilli, Cyriel M A Pennartz, Francesco S Pavone, Maja A Puchades, Trygve B Leergaard, Jan G Bjaalie
The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed...
March 5, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Timothy J Petros
The mammalian brain develops from a simple sheet of neuroepithelial cells into an incredibly complex structure containing billions of neurons with trillions of synapses. Understanding how intrinsic genetic programs interact with environmental cues to generate neuronal diversity and proper connectivity is one of the most daunting challenges in developmental biology. We recently explored this issue in forebrain GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, an extremely diverse population of neurons that are classified into distinct subtypes based on morphology, neurochemical markers, and electrophysiological properties...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel, Aurelio Cortese, Toshinori Chiba, J D Knotts, Mitsuo Kawato, Hakwan Lau
Can "hardwired" physiological fear responses (e.g., for spiders and snakes) be reprogramed unconsciously in the human brain? Currently, exposure therapy is among the most effective treatments for anxiety disorders, but this intervention is subjectively aversive to patients, causing many to drop out of treatment prematurely. Here we introduce a method to bypass the subjective unpleasantness in conscious exposure, by directly pairing monetary reward with unconscious occurrences of decoded representations of naturally feared animals in the brain...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hillel Adesnik
A pair of 2009 papers by Cardin et al. and Sohal et al. marked a watershed moment as optogenetics exploded onto the scene of systems neuroscience. This pair of back-to-back papers in the June issue of Nature leveraged a powerful combination of the Cre/lox system, adeno-associated viral gene vectors, and optogenetics to re-examine the circuit basis of neuronal synchronization.
March 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Weidong Cai, Tianwen Chen, Luca Szegletes, Kaustubh Supekar, Vinod Menon
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is thought to stem from aberrancies in large-scale cognitive control networks. However, the exact nature of aberrant brain circuit dynamics involving these control networks is poorly understood. Using a saliency-based triple-network model of cognitive control, we tested the hypothesis that dynamic cross-network interactions among the salience, central executive, and default mode networks are dysregulated in children with ADHD, and we investigated how these dysregulations contribute to inattention...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Christo Joannidis
This paper investigates the concept of "total situation" which, even though introduced into psychoanalytic thinking via sister disciplines, such as sociology, the neurosciences, etc., has gradually acquired a relatively prominent position in current therapeutic practice. It is used as a metaphor for the envelopment of the unfolding transferential and related events in the analytic process. Irrespective of whether one focuses on the individual analytic condition or the group-analytic one, contemporary psychoanalytic perspectives include both the bi-personal unconscious interactions and the various levels of the total situation in their conceptualizations of the nature of the process...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Marc Tittgemeyer, Lionel Rigoux, Thomas R Knösche
One of the major challenges in systems neuroscience is to identify brain networks and unravel their significance for brain function -this has led to the concept of the 'connectome'. Connectomes are currently extensively studied in large-scale international efforts at multiple scales, and follow different definitions with respect to their connections as well as their elements. Perhaps the most promising avenue for defining the elements of connectomes originates from the notion that individual brain areas maintain distinct (long-range) connection profiles...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Dana R Jorgensen, C Elizabeth Shaaban, Clayton A Wiley, Peter J Gianaros, Joseph Mettenburg, Caterina Rosano
Aging in later life engenders numerous changes to the cerebral microvasculature. Such changes can remain clinically silent, but are associated with greater risk for negative health outcomes over time. Knowledge is limited about the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of potentially detrimental changes in the cerebral microvasculature that occur with advancing age. In this review, we summarize literature on aging of the cerebral microvasculature, and we propose a conceptual framework to fill existing research gaps and advance future work on this heterogeneous phenomenon...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Vaibhav Wasnik
At the point of a second-order phase transition also termed as a critical point, systems display long-range order and their macroscopic behaviors are independent of the microscopic details making up the system. Due to these properties, it has long been speculated that biological systems that show similar behavior despite having very different microscopics, may be operating near a critical point. Recent methods in neuroscience are making it possible to explore whether criticality exists in neural networks. Despite being large in size, many datasets are only a minute sample of the neural system and methods have to be developed to expand these datasets to study criticality...
January 31, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Serena di Santo, Pablo Villegas, Raffaella Burioni, Miguel A Muñoz
Understanding the origin, nature, and functional significance of complex patterns of neural activity, as recorded by diverse electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques, is a central challenge in neuroscience. Such patterns include collective oscillations emerging out of neural synchronization as well as highly heterogeneous outbursts of activity interspersed by periods of quiescence, called "neuronal avalanches." Much debate has been generated about the possible scale invariance or criticality of such avalanches and its relevance for brain function...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Luyao Lu, Philipp Gutruf, Li Xia, Dionnet L Bhatti, Xinying Wang, Abraham Vazquez-Guardado, Xin Ning, Xinru Shen, Tian Sang, Rongxue Ma, Grace Pakeltis, Gabriel Sobczak, Hao Zhang, Dong-Oh Seo, Mantian Xue, Lan Yin, Debashis Chanda, Xing Sheng, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Capabilities for recording neural activity in behaving mammals have greatly expanded our understanding of brain function. Some of the most sophisticated approaches use light delivered by an implanted fiber-optic cable to optically excite genetically encoded calcium indicators and to record the resulting changes in fluorescence. Physical constraints induced by the cables and the bulk, size, and weight of the associated fixtures complicate studies on natural behaviors, including social interactions and movements in environments that include obstacles, housings, and other complex features...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Salim Senturk, Mesut Emre Yaman, Hasan Emre Aydin, Guven Guney, Ismail Bozkurt, Kemal Paksoy, Ahmet Atilla Abdioglu
AIM: Reversing the disastrous effects spinal cord injury has become the most prominent topic of neuroscience. Although many therapeutic interventions are being examined, there is yet no definitive cure for spinal cord injury (SCI). In view of this, an experimental study on rats after spinal trauma was performed to test the effects of a natural phenol; Resveratrol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 18 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. All groups underwent thoracic laminectomy...
December 6, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
Snehasis Biswas, Naay Balodia, Jayesh Bellare
Zebrafish behavioral model is a powerful tool for neuroscience research. Behavioral changes in the zebrafish are studied by administering drugs. With the aid of automated and open-source MATLAB program, high-accuracy tracking of zebrafish can be achieved, and the important behavioral parameters can be calculated. Although mercury is accepted as a potent neurotoxin, used as a key element for preparing certain Ayurvedic medicines. In this work, mercury-based inorganic compounds, including HgCl2, HgS, and Ayurvedic medicines (Rasasindura and Kajjali) were administrated in zebrafish, and the effects on various behavioral parameters and cortisol levels were studied...
January 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Haemy Lee Masson, Hans Op de Beeck
Socio-affective touch communication conveys a vast amount of information about emotions and intentions in social contexts. In spite of the complexity of the socio-affective touch expressions we use daily, previous studies addressed only a few aspects of social touch mainly focusing on hedonics, such as stroking, leaving a wide range of social touch behaviour unexplored. To overcome this limit, we present the Socio-Affective Touch Expression Database (SATED), which includes a large range of dynamic interpersonal socio-affective touch events varying in valence and arousal...
2018: PloS One
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