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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727965/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction-yes-no-and-maybe
#1
Carol S Dweck
In this piece, I first celebrate the growing contribution of psychology to the understanding and solution of pressing social issues. Then, despite these exciting developments, I worry about whether we have created a field that our students want to spend their lives in, and I suggest concerns that might fruitfully be addressed. Finally, I worry about the potential fragmentation of psychology and applaud programs of research that have shown the unique and important contributions to be made when the methods and perspectives of neuroscience, cognitive science, and computational modeling are integrated with those of social, personality, and developmental psychology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721746/a-new-calm-a-story-of-breakthrough-neuroscience-technology-patented-to-quickly-and-naturally-reduce-stress-and-improve-performance
#2
Dan Jenkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719603/the-%C3%A2-100-lab-a-3d-printable-open-source-platform-for-fluorescence-microscopy-optogenetics-and-accurate-temperature-control-during-behaviour-of-zebrafish-drosophila-and-caenorhabditis-elegans
#3
Andre Maia Chagas, Lucia L Prieto-Godino, Aristides B Arrenberg, Tom Baden
Small, genetically tractable species such as larval zebrafish, Drosophila, or Caenorhabditis elegans have become key model organisms in modern neuroscience. In addition to their low maintenance costs and easy sharing of strains across labs, one key appeal is the possibility to monitor single or groups of animals in a behavioural arena while controlling the activity of select neurons using optogenetic or thermogenetic tools. However, the purchase of a commercial solution for these types of experiments, including an appropriate camera system as well as a controlled behavioural arena, can be costly...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718304/the-role-of-surgery-in-low-grade-gliomas-do-timing-and-extent-of-resection-matter
#4
Hugues Duffau
Hugues Duffau is a Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team "plasticity of the central nervous system, human stem cells and glial tumors" at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors, such as low-grade gliomas, a routine which he has developed since 20 years. His fundamental approach is centered on the concepts of the brain connectomics and neuroplasticity, breaking with the traditional localizationist view of cerebral processing...
July 18, 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706080/power-up-a-reanalysis-of-power-failure-in-neuroscience-using-mixture-modelling
#5
Camilla L Nord, Vincent Valton, John Wood, Jonathan P Roiser
Evidence for endemically low statistical power has recently cast neuroscience findings into doubt. If low statistical power plagues neuroscience, this reduces confidence in reported effects. However, if statistical power is not uniformly low, such blanket mistrust might not be warranted. Here, we provide a different perspective on this issue, analysing data from an influential paper reporting a median power of 21% across 49 meta-analyses (Button et al., 2013). We demonstrate, using Gaussian mixture modelling, that the sample of 730 studies included in that analysis comprises several subcomponents; therefore the use of a single summary statistic is insufficient to characterise the nature of the distribution...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697300/direct-laser-writing-of-tubular-microtowers-for-3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neuronal-cells
#6
Sanna Turunen, Tiina Joki, Maiju Leena Hiltunen, Teemu Olavi Ihalainen, Susanna Narkilahti, Minna Kellomäki
As the complex structure of nervous tissue cannot be mimicked in 2D cultures, the development of 3D neuronal cell culture platforms is a topical issue in the field of neuroscience and neural tissue engineering. Computer-assisted laser-based fabrication techniques such as direct laser writing by two-photon polymerization (2PP-DLW) offer a versatile tool to fabricate 3D cell culture platforms with highly ordered geometries in the size scale of natural 3D cell environments. In this study, we present the design and 2PP-DLW fabrication process of a novel 3D neuronal cell culture platform based on tubular microtowers...
July 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680783/johann-gaspar-spurzheim-a-life-dedicated-to-phrenology
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad Bilal, Bryan Edwards, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Loved for his empathetic nature but admired for his analytical mind, Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832) was a prominent contributor to phrenology, a field of neuroscience focused on studying the shapes of the skulls in relation to the activity levels of certain functional areas of the brain. This curiosity about the connection between physical characteristics and brain function was seeded in the young mind of Spurzheim when he observed that classmates with seemingly superb memories also appeared to have bright eyes...
May 30, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668576/functional-outcomes-following-lesions-in-visual-cortex-implications-for-plasticity-of-high-level-vision
#8
Tina T Liu, Marlene Behrmann
Understanding the nature and extent of neural plasticity in humans remains a key challenge for neuroscience. Importantly, however, a precise characterization of plasticity and its underlying mechanism has the potential to enable new approaches for enhancing reorganization of cortical function. Investigations of the impairment and subsequent recovery of cognitive and perceptual functions following early-onset cortical lesions in humans provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how the brain changes, adapts, and reorganizes...
June 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665327/green-mind-theory-how-brain-body-behaviour-links-into-natural-and-social-environments-for-healthy-habits
#9
Jules Pretty, Mike Rogerson, Jo Barton
We propose a Green Mind Theory (GMT) to link the human mind with the brain and body, and connect the body into natural and social environments. The processes are reciprocal: environments shape bodies, brains, and minds; minds change body behaviours that shape the external environment. GMT offers routes to improved individual well-being whilst building towards greener economies. It builds upon research on green exercise and nature-based therapies, and draws on understanding derived from neuroscience and brain plasticity, spiritual and wisdom traditions, the lifeways of original cultures, and material consumption behaviours...
June 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654358/predicting-motivation-computational-models-of-pfc-can-explain-neural-coding-of-motivation-and-effort-based-decision-making-in-health-and-disease
#10
Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial pFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646400/a-brief-assessment-tool-for-investigating-facets-of-moral-judgment-from-realistic-vignettes
#11
Michael Kruepke, Erin K Molloy, Konrad Bresin, Aron K Barbey, Edelyn Verona
Humans make moral judgments every day, and research demonstrates that these evaluations are based on a host of related event features (e.g., harm, legality). In order to acquire systematic data on how moral judgments are made, our assessments need to be expanded to include real-life, ecologically valid stimuli that take into account the numerous event features that are known to influence moral judgment. To facilitate this, Knutson et al. (in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4), 378-384, 2010) developed vignettes based on real-life episodic memories rated concurrently on key moral features; however, the method is time intensive (~1...
June 23, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645840/autoreject-automated-artifact-rejection-for-meg-and-eeg-data
#12
Mainak Jas, Denis A Engemann, Yousra Bekhti, Federico Raimondo, Alexandre Gramfort
We present an automated algorithm for unified rejection and repair of bad trials in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Our method capitalizes on cross-validation in conjunction with a robust evaluation metric to estimate the optimal peak-to-peak threshold - a quantity commonly used for identifying bad trials in M/EEG. This approach is then extended to a more sophisticated algorithm which estimates this threshold for each sensor yielding trial-wise bad sensors. Depending on the number of bad sensors, the trial is then repaired by interpolation or by excluding it from subsequent analysis...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642938/correlation-weighted-sparse-group-representation-for-brain-network-construction-in-mci-classification
#13
Renping Yu, Han Zhang, Le An, Xiaobo Chen, Zhihui Wei, Dinggang Shen
Analysis of brain functional connectivity network (BFCN) has shown great potential in understanding brain functions and identifying biomarkers for neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and its early stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In all these applications, the accurate construction of biologically meaningful brain network is critical. Due to the sparse nature of the brain network, sparse learning has been widely used for complex BFCN construction. However, the conventional l1-norm penalty in the sparse learning equally penalizes each edge (or link) of the brain network, which ignores the link strength and could remove strong links in the brain network...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#14
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633990/cellular-gauge-symmetry-and-the-li-organization-principle-a-mathematical-addendum-quantifying-energetic-dynamics-in-physical-and-biological-systems-through-a-simple-geometric-tool-and-geodetic-curves
#15
REVIEW
Alexander Yurkin, Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Pedro C Marijuán
The present Addendum complements the accompanying paper "Cellular Gauge Symmetry and the Li Organization Principle"; it illustrates a recently-developed geometrical physical model able to assess electronic movements and energetic paths in atomic shells. The model describes a multi-level system of circular, wavy and zigzag paths which can be projected onto a horizontal tape. This model ushers in a visual interpretation of the distribution of atomic electrons' energy levels and the corresponding quantum numbers through rather simple tools, such as compasses, rulers and straightforward calculations...
June 17, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630894/next-generation-probes-particles-and-proteins-for-neural-interfacing
#16
REVIEW
Jonathan Rivnay, Huiliang Wang, Lief Fenno, Karl Deisseroth, George G Malliaras
Bidirectional interfacing with the nervous system enables neuroscience research, diagnosis, and therapy. This two-way communication allows us to monitor the state of the brain and its composite networks and cells as well as to influence them to treat disease or repair/restore sensory or motor function. To provide the most stable and effective interface, the tools of the trade must bridge the soft, ion-rich, and evolving nature of neural tissue with the largely rigid, static realm of microelectronics and medical instruments that allow for readout, analysis, and/or control...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626813/hallucinations-as-top-down-effects-on-perception
#17
Albert R Powers, Megan Kelley, Philip R Corlett
The problem of whether and how information is integrated across hierarchical brain networks embodies a fundamental tension in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, and by extension, cognitive neuropsychiatry. Indeed, the penetrability of perceptual processes in a 'top-down' manner by higher-level cognition-a natural extension of hierarchical models of perception-may contradict a strictly modular view of mental organization. Furthermore, some in the cognitive science community have challenged cognitive penetration as an unlikely, if not impossible, process...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619652/frontal-temporal-and-parietal-systems-synchronize-within-and-across-brains-during-live-eye-to-eye-contact
#18
Joy Hirsch, Xian Zhang, J Adam Noah, Yumie Ono
Human eye-to-eye contact is a primary source of social cues and communication. In spite of the biological significance of this interpersonal interaction, the underlying neural processes are not well-understood. This knowledge gap, in part, reflects limitations of conventional neuroimaging methods, including solitary confinement in the bore of a scanner and minimal tolerance of head movement that constrain investigations of natural, two-person interactions. However, these limitations are substantially resolved by recent technical developments in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive spectral absorbance technique that detects changes in blood oxygen levels in the brain by using surface-mounted optical sensors...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614726/visual-sensitivity-for-luminance-and-chromatic-stimuli-during-the-execution-of-smooth-pursuit-and-saccadic-eye-movements
#19
Doris I Braun, Alexander C Schütz, Karl R Gegenfurtner
Visual sensitivity is dynamically modulated by eye movements. During saccadic eye movements, sensitivity is reduced selectively for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli and largely unaffected for high-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli (Nature 371 (1994), 511-513). During smooth pursuit eye movements, sensitivity for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is moderately reduced while sensitivity for chromatic and high-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is even increased (Nature Neuroscience, 11 (2008), 1211-1216)...
July 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588367/neuroscience-symposium-and-workshop-on-saapcon-2016-nepal
#20
Prakash Limbu, Barun Mahat, Bipin Kumar Shrestha, Bikalp Thapa, Mukesh Kumar Jha, Amrendra Jha, Tara Man Amatya, Ajaya Jung Kunwar, Sunil Dhungel
Physiological Society of Nepal, with support from the South Asian Association of Physiologists (SAAP), organized the 5th Biennial Conference of the South Asian Association of Physiologists in conjunction with the 2nd Annual Conference of Physiological Society of Nepal. The purpose of this conference is to bring the scientists, researchers, and students from the South Asian countries in one platform to share and discuss the recent advances and achievements in the field of physiology. Since physiology is the backbone of medical science which deals with the functions of the human body, the theme of the conference was given as "Redefining health in nature...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
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