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Nature neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782993/generalized-recurrent-neural-network-accommodating-dynamic-causal-modeling-for-functional-mri-analysis
#2
Yuan Wang, Yao Wang, Yvonne W Lui
Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) is an advanced biophysical model which explicitly describes the entire process from experimental stimuli to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals via neural activity and cerebral hemodynamics. To conduct a DCM study, one needs to represent the experimental stimuli as a compact vector-valued function of time, which is hard in complex tasks such as book reading and natural movie watching. Deep learning provides the state-of-the-art signal representation solution, encoding complex signals into compact dense vectors while preserving the essence of the original signals...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773510/implications-of-the-abcd-study-for-developmental-neuroscience
#3
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, James M Bjork, Monica Luciana
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) will capture a breadth of multi-faceted biobehavioral, environmental, familial, and genetic longitudinal developmental open-access data from over 11,000 9-10 year olds throughout the United States of America (USA) for an envisioned ten-year span. This will subsequently represent the largest study ever attempted with this level of brain phenotypic detail. This study holds the opportunity for exciting advances in the understanding of typical adolescent neurodevelopment, discovery of neurodevelopmental underpinnings of mental illness, as well as the neurodevelopmental influences of (and on) social factors, substance use, and critically - their interaction...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763744/characterization-of-electroencephalography-signals-for-estimating-saliency-features-in-videos
#4
Zhen Liang, Yasuyuki Hamada, Shigeyuki Oba, Shin Ishii
Understanding the functions of the visual system has been one of the major targets in neuroscience formany years. However, the relation between spontaneous brain activities and visual saliency in natural stimuli has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we developed an optimized machine learning-based decoding model to explore the possible relationships between the electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics and visual saliency. The optimal features were extracted from the EEG signals and saliency map which was computed according to an unsupervised saliency model ( Tavakoli and Laaksonen, 2017)...
May 12, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755333/top-mysteries-of-the-mind-insights-from-the-default-space-model-of-consciousness
#5
Ravinder Jerath, Connor Beveridge
Aside from the nature of consciousness itself, there are still many unsolved problems in the neurosciences. Despite the vast and quickly growing body of work in this field, we still find ourselves perplexed at seemingly simple qualities of our mental being such as why we need to sleep. The neurosciences are at least beginning to take a hold on these mysteries and are working toward solving them. We hold a perspective that metastable consciousness models, specifically the Default Space Model (DSM), provide insights into these mysteries...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755332/neurofeedback-and-the-neural-representation-of-self-lessons-from-awake-state-and-sleep
#6
Andreas A Ioannides
Neurofeedback has been around for half a century, but despite some promising results it is not yet widely appreciated. Recently, some of the concerns about neurofeedback have been addressed with functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography adding their contributions to the long history of neurofeedback with electroencephalography. Attempts to address other concerns related to methodological issues with new experiments and meta-analysis of earlier studies, have opened up new questions about its efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752468/foraging-for-foundations-in-decision-neuroscience-insights-from-ethology
#7
REVIEW
Dean Mobbs, Pete C Trimmer, Daniel T Blumstein, Peter Dayan
Modern decision neuroscience offers a powerful and broad account of human behaviour using computational techniques that link psychological and neuroscientific approaches to the ways that individuals can generate near-optimal choices in complex controlled environments. However, until recently, relatively little attention has been paid to the extent to which the structure of experimental environments relates to natural scenarios, and the survival problems that individuals have evolved to solve. This situation not only risks leaving decision-theoretic accounts ungrounded but also makes various aspects of the solutions, such as hard-wired or Pavlovian policies, difficult to interpret in the natural world...
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740306/topological-schemas-of-memory-spaces
#8
Andrey Babichev, Yuri A Dabaghian
Hippocampal cognitive map-a neuronal representation of the spatial environment-is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework-the memory space-that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as "networks of interconnections among the representations of events," have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729890/understanding-the-emergence-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-with-network-neuroscience
#9
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Major neuropsychiatric disorders such as psychosis are increasingly acknowledged to be disorders of brain connectivity. Yet tools to map, model, predict, and change connectivity are difficult to develop, largely because of the complex, dynamic, and multivariate nature of interactions between brain regions. Network neuroscience (NN) provides a theoretical framework and mathematical toolset to address these difficulties. Building on areas of mathematics such as graph theory, NN in its simplest form summarizes neuroimaging data by treating brain regions as nodes in a graph and by treating interactions or connections between nodes as edges in the graph...
April 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725317/psychopathy-to-altruism-neurobiology-of-the-selfish-selfless-spectrum
#10
REVIEW
James W H Sonne, Don M Gash
The age-old philosophical, biological, and social debate over the basic nature of humans as being "universally selfish" or "universally good" continues today highlighting sharply divergent views of natural social order. Here we analyze advances in biology, genetics and neuroscience increasing our understanding of the evolution, features and neurocircuitry of the human brain underlying behavior in the selfish-selfless spectrum. First, we examine evolutionary pressures for selection of altruistic traits in species with protracted periods of dependence on parents and communities for subsistence and acquisition of learned behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721353/immunoexcitotoxicity-as-the-central-mechanism-of-etiopathology-and-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-possible-role-of-fluoride-and-aluminum
#11
REVIEW
Anna Strunecka, Russell L Blaylock, Jiri Patocka, Otakar Strunecky
Our review suggests that most autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk factors are connected, either directly or indirectly, to immunoexcitotoxicity. Chronic brain inflammation is known to enhance the sensitivity of glutamate receptors and interfere with glutamate removal from the extraneuronal space, where it can trigger excitotoxicity over a prolonged period. Neuroscience studies have clearly shown that sequential systemic immune stimulation can activate the brain's immune system, microglia, and astrocytes, and that with initial immune stimulation, there occurs CNS microglial priming...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718955/active-learning-of-cortical-connectivity-from-two-photon-imaging-data
#12
Martín A Bertrán, Natalia L Martínez, Ye Wang, David Dunson, Guillermo Sapiro, Dario Ringach
Understanding how groups of neurons interact within a network is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. Instead of passively observing the ongoing activity of a network, we can typically perturb its activity, either by external sensory stimulation or directly via techniques such as two-photon optogenetics. A natural question is how to use such perturbations to identify the connectivity of the network efficiently. Here we introduce a method to infer sparse connectivity graphs from in-vivo, two-photon imaging of population activity in response to external stimuli...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709207/viral-strategies-for-targeting-the-central-and-peripheral-nervous-systems
#13
Claire N Bedbrook, Benjamin E Deverman, Viviana Gradinaru
Recombinant viruses allow for targeted transgene expression in specific cell populations throughout the nervous system. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) is among the most commonly used viruses for neuroscience research. Recombinant AAVs (rAAVs) are highly versatile and can package most cargo composed of desired genes within the capsid's ∼5-kb carrying capacity. Numerous regulatory elements and intersectional strategies have been validated in rAAVs to enable cell type-specific expression. rAAVs can be delivered to specific neuronal populations or globally throughout the animal...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706879/experimental-directory-structure-exdir-an-alternative-to-hdf5-without-introducing-a-new-file-format
#14
Svenn-Arne Dragly, Milad Hobbi Mobarhan, Mikkel E Lepperød, Simen Tennøe, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting, Anders Malthe-Sørenssen
Natural sciences generate an increasing amount of data in a wide range of formats developed by different research groups and commercial companies. At the same time there is a growing desire to share data along with publications in order to enable reproducible research. Open formats have publicly available specifications which facilitate data sharing and reproducible research. Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) is a popular open format widely used in neuroscience, often as a foundation for other, more specialized formats...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705849/application-of-chemogenetics-and-optogenetics-to-dissect-brain-immune-interactions
#15
Ben Korin, Asya Rolls
For many years, the complexity and multifactorial nature of brain-immune interactions limited our ability to dissect their underlying mechanisms. An especially challenging question was how the brain controls immunity, since the repertoire of techniques to control the brain's activity was extremely limited. New tools, such as optogenetics and chemogenetics (e.g., DREADDs), developed over the last decade, opened new frontiers in neuroscience with major implications for neuroimmunology. These tools enable mapping the causal effects of activating/attenuating defined neurons in the brain, on the immune system...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701483/on-task-considerations-and-future-directions-for-studies-of-corticospinal-excitability-in-exercise-neuroscience-and-related-disciplines
#16
Jayne M Kalmar
Over the last few decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as a conventional laboratory technique in human neurophysiological research. Exercise neuroscientists have used TMS to study central nervous system contributions to fatigue, training, and performance in health, injury, and disease. In such studies, corticospinal excitability is often assessed at rest or during simple isometric tasks with the implication that the results may be extrapolated to more functional and complex movement outside of the laboratory...
April 27, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696602/translational-shifts-in-preclinical-models-of-depression-implications-for-biomarkers-for-improved-treatments
#17
Chloe Slaney, Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Emma S J Robinson
Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience. The disease is heterogeneous in nature, and patients present with a varied symptom profile. Studies seeking to identify biomarkers for MDD diagnosis and treatment have not yet found any one candidate which achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we consider whether neuropsychological impairments, specifically affective biases, could provide a behavioural biomarker...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695872/celebrating-20-years-of-nature-neuroscience
#18
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691954/children-s-neural-processing-of-moral-scenarios-provides-insight-into-the-formation-and-reduction-of-in-group-biases
#19
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Jean Decety
Survival is dependent on sociality within groups which ensure sustenance and protection. From an early age, children show a natural tendency to sort people into groups and discriminate among them. The computations guiding evaluation of third-party behaviors are complex, requiring integration of intent, consequences, and knowledge of group affiliation. This study examined how perceiving third-party morally laden behavior influences children's likelihood to exhibit or reduce group bias. Following a minimal group paradigm assignment, young children (4-7 years) performed a moral evaluation task where group affiliations and moral actions were systematically juxtaposed, so that they were exposed to disproportionately antisocial in-group and prosocial out-group scenarios...
April 25, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684646/granger-geweke-causality-estimation-and-interpretation
#20
Mukesh Dhamala, Hualou Liang, Steven L Bressler, Mingzhou Ding
In a recent PNAS article1 , Stokes and Purdon performed numerical simulations to argue that Granger-Geweke causality (GGC) estimation is severely biased, or of high variance, and GGC application to neuroscience is problematic because the GGC measure is independent of 'receiver' dynamics. Here, we use the same simulation examples to show that GGC measures, when properly estimated either via the spectral factorization-enabled nonparametric approach or the VAR-model based parametric approach, do not have the claimed bias and high variance problems...
April 21, 2018: NeuroImage
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