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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457493/the-impact-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children
#1
Hatem Hamed Elshorbagy, Naglaa Fathy Barseem, Waleed Elsayed Abdelghani, Hany Abdelaziz Ibrahim Suliman, Ashraf Hamed Al-Shokary, Sameh Elsayed Abdulsamea, Akram Elshafey Elsadek, Yehia Hamed Abdel Maksoud, Dalia Mohamed Abd El-Hassib Nour El Din
BACKGROUND: The role of nutrients and dietary factors in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate the serum vitamin D level in children with a diagnosis of ADHD. The secondary objective was to detect the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cognitive function in those with vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: A total of 50 children with ADHD and 40 healthy controls were included in the study...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454223/attention-as-the-glue-for-object-integration-in-parietal-extinction
#2
Markus Conci, Julia Groß, Ingo Keller, Hermann J Müller, Kathrin Finke
Patients with unilateral, parietal brain damage frequently show visual extinction, which manifests in a failure to identify contralesional stimuli when presented simultaneously with other, ipsilesional stimuli (but full awareness for single stimulus presentations). Extinction reflects an impairment of spatial selective attention, leaving basic preattentive processing unaffected. For instance, access to bilaterally grouped objects is usually spared in extinction, suggesting that grouping occurs at a stage preceding (in the patients: abnormally biased) spatial-attentional selection...
January 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453304/protocol-investigating-the-clinical-utility-of-an-objective-measure-of-attention-impulsivity-and-activity-qbtest-for-optimising-medication-management-in-children-and-young-people-with-adhd-qbtest-utility-for-optimising-treatment-in-adhd-quota-a-feasibility
#3
Charlotte L Hall, Marilyn James, Sue Brown, Jennifer L Martin, Nikki Brown, Kim Selby, Julie Clarke, Hena Vijayan, Boliang Guo, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis, Madeleine J Groom
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. To improve outcomes, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ADHD guidelines recommend regular monitoring of symptoms when children commence medication. However, research suggests that routine monitoring rarely happens, and clinicians often rely on subjective information such as reports from parents and teachers to ascertain improvement...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452000/optimal-items-for-assessing-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-across-mother-father-and-teacher-ratings
#4
Belén Sáez, Mateu Servera, Stephen P Becker, G Leonard Burns
A recent meta-analysis identified optimal items for assessing sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) as distinct from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN), and a preliminary study with teacher ratings of children in the United States found strong support for the convergent and discriminant validity of 15 SCT items. The current study evaluated whether the same 15 SCT items demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity from ADHD-IN in a large, community-based sample of children in Spain, and whether validity results were replicated across mother, father, and teacher ratings...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451590/by-the-book-adhd-prevalence-in-medical-students-varies-with-analogous-methods-of-addressing-dsm-items
#5
Paulo Mattos, Bruno P Nazar, Rosemary Tannock
OBJECTIVE: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. METHODS: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) adapted for adults...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446323/conners-3-self-report-scale-an-empirical-support-to-the-dimensionality-of-the-content-scales
#6
Viola Angela Izzo, Maria Anna Donati, Caterina Primi
The Conners' Rating Scales are one of the most used instruments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nonetheless, in the latest edition, the Inattention scale was not statistically supported. This study examined the dimensionality of the Italian version of the Conners 3-Self-Report scale testing both a five-factor structure including Inattention and a four-factor model combining Inattention and Learning Problems. Moreover, the generalizability of the detected structure through measurement invariance was verified...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445867/sustained-effects-of-neurofeedback-in-adhd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Jessica Van Doren, Martijn Arns, Hartmut Heinrich, Madelon A Vollebregt, Ute Strehl, Sandra K Loo
Neurofeedback (NF) has gained increasing interest in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Given learning principles underlie NF, lasting clinical treatment effects may be expected. This systematic review and meta-analysis addresses the sustainability of neurofeedback and control treatment effects by considering randomized controlled studies that conducted follow-up (FU; 2-12 months) assessments among children with ADHD. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched through November 2017...
February 14, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432029/overdiagnosis-of-adhd-in-boys-stereotype-impact-on-neuropsychological-assessment
#8
Megan Fresson, Thierry Meulemans, Benoit Dardenne, Marie Geurten
There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions...
February 12, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429199/-impact-of-maternal-risky-behaviors-on-the-behaviors-of-children-born-to-adolescent-and-young-mothers
#9
S M Wong, S X Tung, Q S Wong, Y Y Tso, J R Ho, Z B Chow, L N Lam, F Y Chan, H F Cheng, G L Chan, B B Ip
Objective: To examine the impact of maternal risky behaviors on the behaviors of children born to adolescent and young mothers. Methods: Adolescents and young Chinese mothers were recruited from an integrated young mother supportive program in Hong Kong between January and June 2015. Eligible mothers were asked to complete a questionnaire on their sociodemographic characteristics and history of risky behavior as well as their children's behaviors. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between maternal risky behaviors and their children's behaviors...
February 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427578/hippocampal-subfield-volume-changes-in-subtypes-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#10
Mamun Al-Amin, Artyom Zinchenko, Thomas Geyer
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by reduction of total hippocampal volume. However, disorder-related fine-grained structural alterations of hippocampal subfields remain unclear. METHOD: Here we compared hippocampal subfield volumes in a large sample of patients with ADHD and healthy controls. We used T1-weighted structural 3-Tesla MRI images of 880 individuals (7-21 years old) from the ADHD-200 database. The images were acquired from 553 healthy individuals and 327 children and adolescents with combined (N = 196) and inattentive (N = 131) ADHD subtypes...
February 7, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424005/the-gift-of-time-school-starting-age-and-mental-health
#11
Thomas S Dee, Hans Henrik Sievertsen
Using linked Danish survey and register data, we estimate the causal effect of age at kindergarten entry on mental health. Danish children are supposed to enter kindergarten in the calendar year in which they turn 6 years. In a "fuzzy" regression-discontinuity design based on this rule and exact dates of birth, we find that a 1-year delay in kindergarten entry dramatically reduces inattention/hyperactivity at age 7 (effect size = -0.73), a measure of self-regulation with strong negative links to student achievement...
February 9, 2018: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422921/developing-the-symptoms-and-functional-impairment-rating-scale-a-multi-dimensional-adhd-scale
#12
Yasong Du, Mengyao Li, Wenqing Jiang, Yan Li, David R Coghill
Objective: This research developed a practical, multi-dimensional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale (i.e., the Symptoms and Functional Impairment Rating Scale, SFIRS) for Chinese children, aged 6-12 years, with ADHD. Methods: The structural validity, criterion validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the scale were evaluated. Item screening was conducted with 412 ADHD patients and 322 developmentally typical controls...
January 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422636/childhood-epilepsy-and-adhd-comorbidity-in-an-indian-tertiary-medical-center-outpatient-population
#13
Anita Choudhary, Sheffali Gulati, Rajesh Sagar, Naveen Sankhyan, Kam Sripada
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its characteristics and risk factors in children with epilepsy at a tertiary medical center in New Delhi. Children with active epilepsy, aged 6 to 12 years, were assessed for ADHD using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Epilepsy and psychiatric characteristics, sociodemographic indicators, and use of antiepileptic drugs were analyzed for differences between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Among the 73 children with epilepsy, 23% (n = 17) had comorbid ADHD, of whom 59% (n = 10) had predominantly inattentive type, 35% (n = 6) combined type, and 6% (n = 1) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415788/children-with-adhd-symptoms-show-deficits-in-reactive-but-not-proactive-inhibition-irrespective-of-their-formal-diagnosis
#14
Branko M van Hulst, Patrick de Zeeuw, Chantal Vlaskamp, Yvonne Rijks, Bram B Zandbelt, Sarah Durston
BACKGROUND: Attenuated inhibitory control is one of the most robust findings in the neuropsychology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is unclear whether this represents a deficit in outright stopping (reactive inhibition), whether it relates to a deficit in anticipatory response slowing (proactive inhibition), or both. In addition, children with other development disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), often have symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity similar to children with ADHD...
February 8, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414540/psychiatric-symptoms-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-children-with-epilepsy-and-their-mothers
#15
Ayhan Bilgiç, Ümit Işık, Rukiye Sivri Çolak, Hatice Derin, Hüseyin Çaksen
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children with epilepsy and psychiatric symptoms of their mothers, and compared them to those of healthy children and their mothers. This study also explored the influence of the child-related and maternal psychiatric variables and seizure-specific factors on the HRQLs of children with epilepsy according to both the children's and parents' perspectives. METHOD: Ninety-nine children with epilepsy (8 to 17years old), their mothers, and a control group (n=51) participated in this study...
February 1, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413870/what-s-past-is-past-neither-perceptual-preactivation-nor-prior-motivational-relevance-decrease-subsequent-inattentional-blindness
#16
Carina Kreitz, Robert Schnuerch, Philip A Furley, Daniel Memmert
Inattentional blindness-the phenomenon that clearly visible, yet currently unexpected objects go unnoticed when our attention is focused elsewhere-is an ecologically valid failure of awareness. It is currently subject to debate whether previous events and experiences determine whether or not inattentional blindness occurs. Using a simple two-phase paradigm in the present study, we found that the likelihood of missing an unexpected object due to inattention did not change when its defining characteristic (its color) was perceptually preactivated (Experiment 1; N = 188)...
January 29, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413097/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-relationship-between-infant-thimerosal-containing-hepatitis-b-vaccine-exposure-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a marked pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is inconsistent with developmental level and interferes with normal functioning in at least two settings. This study evaluated the hypothesis that infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HepB) exposure would increase the risk of an ADHD diagnosis. This cross-sectional study examined 4393 persons between 13 and 19 years of age from the combined 1999-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) by analyzing demographic, immunization, socioeconomic, and health-related variables using the SAS system...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409566/brain-behavior-patterns-define-a-dimensional-biotype-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky, Jinglei Lv, Alistair Perry, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Prantik Kundu, Michael Breakspear, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: Childhood-onset attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is clinically heterogeneous and commonly presents with different patterns of cognitive deficits. It is unclear if this clinical heterogeneity expresses a dimensional or categorical difference in ADHD. METHODS: We first studied differences in functional connectivity in multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) acquired from 80 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 123 matched healthy controls...
February 7, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407747/pre-and-postprandial-variation-in-implicit-attention-to-food-images-reflects-appetite-and-sensory-specific-satiety
#19
Graeme R Davidson, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna M Thomas, Tim C Kirkham
Implicit attentional processes are biased toward food-related stimuli, with the extent of that bias reflecting relative motivation to eat. These interactions have typically been investigated by comparisons between fasted and sated individuals. In this study, temporal changes in implicit attention to food were assessed in relation to natural, spontaneous changes in appetite occurring before and after an anticipated midday meal. Non-fasted adults performed an emotional blink of attention (EBA) task at intervals, before and after consuming preferred, pre-selected sandwiches to satiety...
February 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406596/novelty-related-behavior-of-young-and-adult-dat-ko-rats-implication-for-cognitive-and-emotional-phenotypic-patterns
#20
Annalisa Adinolfi, Cristiana Carbone, Damiana Leo, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
ADHD is a neuro-psychiatric disorder characterized by a developmentally inappropriate, pervasive and persistent pattern of severe inattention, hyper-activity and impulsivity. Despite onset in early childhood, ADHD may continue into adulthood with substantial impairment in social, academic and occupational functioning. A new animal model of this disorder was developed in rats with genetic deletion of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene (dopamine transporter knockout rats; DAT-KO rats). We analyzed the behavior of DAT-KO rats for a deeper phenotypical characterization of this model...
February 6, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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