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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161678/preliminary-evaluation-of-pathogenic-bacteria-loading-on-organic-municipal-solid-waste-compost-and-vermicompost
#2
Nuhaa Soobhany
The use of composts or vermicomposts derived from organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) brought about certain disagreement in terms of high level of bacterial pathogens, thereby surpassing the legal restrictions. This preliminary study was undertaken to compare the evolution of pathogenic bacteria on OFMSW compost against vermicompost (generated by Eudrilus eugeniae) with promises of achieving sanitation goals. Analysis to quality data showed that OFMSW vermicomposting caused a moderately higher reduction in total coliforms in contrast to composting...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161394/managing-anaesthetic-provision-for-global-disasters
#3
R M Craven
The numbers of people affected by large-scale disasters has increased in recent decades. Disasters produce a huge burden of surgical morbidity at a time when the affected country is least able to respond. For this reason an international disaster response is often required. For many years this disaster response was not coordinated. The response consisted of what was available not what was needed and standards of care varied widely producing a healthcare lottery for the affected population. In recent years the World Health organisation has initiated the Emergency Medical Team programme to coordinate the response to disasters and set minimum standards for responding teams...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161356/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediates-effort-related-responding-in-rats
#4
Alexandra Münster, Wolfgang Hauber
The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161259/the-us-president-s-malaria-initiative-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-and-mortality-a-modelling-study
#5
Peter Winskill, Hannah C Slater, Jamie T Griffin, Azra C Ghani, Patrick G T Walker
BACKGROUND: Although significant progress has been made in reducing malaria transmission globally in recent years, a large number of people remain at risk and hence the gains made are fragile. Funding lags well behind amounts needed to protect all those at risk and ongoing contributions from major donors, such as the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI), are vital to maintain progress and pursue further reductions in burden. We use a mathematical modelling approach to estimate the impact of PMI investments to date in reducing malaria burden and to explore the potential negative impact on malaria burden should a proposed 44% reduction in PMI funding occur...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161224/viewing-sexual-desire-as-stable-vs-fluid-the-impact-of-implicit-beliefs-on-women-s-coping-with-sexual-desire-problems
#6
Siobhan Sutherland, Uzma S Rehman
Our goal was to examine how implicit theories can be applied to understanding women's coping responses to sexual problems. The belief that sexual desire changes over time is a type of incremental theory, while the belief that sexual desire is stable is a type of entity theory (Dweck, 2012). We examined how different implicit theories of sexual desire influence how women cope with sexual desire challenges. Also, we sought to determine whether women's perceptions of experiencing a sexual desire challenge moderate the relationship between their implicit beliefs and their coping responses...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160961/a-metal-organic-framework-with-exceptional-activity-for-c-h-bond-amination
#7
Le Wang, Douglas W Agnew, Xiao Yu, Joshua S Figueroa, Seth Mason Cohen
The development of catalysts capable of fast, robust C-H bond amination under mild conditions is an unrealized goal despite substantial progress in the field of C-H activation in recent years. Here we describe a Mn-based metal-organic framework (CPF-5) that promotes the direct amination of C-H bonds with exceptional activity. CPF-5 is capable of functionalizing C-H bonds in an intermolecular fashion with unrivaled catalytic stability producing an unrivaled >105 turnovers.
November 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160496/supported-self-care-for-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-disease-and-their-families
#8
Leiliane Teixeira Bento Fernandes, Vanessa Medeiros da Nóbrega, Maria Elizabete de Amorim Silva, Amanda Narciso Machado, Neusa Collet
OBJECTIVE: analyze the scientific production between 2006 and 2015 on strategies for supported self-care by children and adolescents with chronic disease and their families. METHOD: integrative review of the literature conducted July and August 2016 in the databases: BDENF, LILACS, IBECS, ADOLEC, MEDLINE/PubMed and SCIELO. The 27 selected studies were analyzed and categorized into the five pillars of supported self-care: evaluation, counseling, agreement, care and accompaniment...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160420/next-generation-sequencing-based-genomic-profiling-fostering-innovation-in-cancer-care
#9
Gustavo S Fernandes, Daniel F Marques, Daniel M Girardi, Maria Ignez F Braghiroli, Renata A Coudry, Sibele I Meireles, Artur Katz, Paulo M Hoff
OBJECTIVES: With the development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, DNA sequencing has been increasingly utilized in clinical practice. Our goal was to investigate the impact of genomic evaluation on treatment decisions for heavily pretreated patients with metastatic cancer. METHODS: We analyzed metastatic cancer patients from a single institution whose cancers had progressed after all available standard-of-care therapies and whose tumors underwent next-generation sequencing analysis...
October 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160026/enrichment-of-syngas-converting-communities-from-a-multi-orifice-baffled-bioreactor
#10
Ana L Arantes, Joana I Alves, Alfons J M Stams, M Madalena Alves, Diana Z Sousa
The substitution of natural gas by renewable biomethane is an interesting option to reduce global carbon footprint. Syngas fermentation has potential in this context, as a diverse range of low-biodegradable materials that can be used. In this study, anaerobic sludge acclimatized to syngas in a multi-orifice baffled bioreactor (MOBB) was used to start enrichments with CO. The main goals were to identify the key players in CO conversion and evaluate potential interspecies metabolic interactions conferring robustness to the process...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159371/care-planning-for-inpatients-referred-for-palliative-care-consultation
#11
Kara Bischoff, David L O'Riordan, Angela K Marks, Rebecca Sudore, Steven Z Pantilat
Importance: Care planning is a critical function of palliative care teams, but the impact of advance care planning and goals of care discussions by palliative care teams has not been well characterized. Objective: To describe the population of patients referred to inpatient palliative care consultation teams for care planning, the needs identified by palliative care clinicians, the care planning activities that occur, and the results of these activities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective cohort study conducted between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2016...
November 20, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158767/screening-of-shox-gene-sequence-variants-in-saudi-arabian-children-with-idiopathic-short-stature
#12
Abdulla A Alharthi, Ehab I El-Hallous, Iman M Talaat, Hamed A Alghamdi, Matar I Almalki, Ahmed Gaber
Purpose: Short stature affects approximately 2%-3% of children, representing one of the most frequent disorders for which clinical attention is sought during childhood. Despite assumed genetic heterogeneity, mutations or deletions in the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are frequently detected in subjects with short stature. Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to patients with short stature for various unknown reasons. The goal of this study was to screen all the exons of SHOX to identify related mutations...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158373/revisiting-expectations-in-an-era-of-precision-oncology
#13
Emily J Marchiano, Andrew C Birkeland, Paul L Swiecicki, Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Andrew G Shuman
As we enter an era of precision medicine and targeted therapies in the treatment of metastatic cancer, we face new challenges for patients and providers alike as we establish clear guidelines, regulations, and strategies for implementation. At the crux of this challenge is the fact that patients with advanced cancer may have disproportionate expectations of personal benefit when participating in clinical trials designed to generate generalizable knowledge. Patient and physician goals of treatment may not align, and reconciliation of their disparate perceptions must be addressed...
November 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157419/accumulating-visual-information-for-action
#14
Eli Brenner, Jeroen B J Smeets
In this chapter, we discuss the way in which visual information is gathered and try to relate this to the task at hand. It is well established that people direct their gaze toward the places at which they expect to be able to gather the most useful information. Studies of gaze during goal-directed actions show that people also make sure to gather information precisely at the moment that they need it. We argue that the eye movements that people make during interception tasks and the precision that people achieve in such tasks suggest that people constantly update their estimates of the details that are needed to successfully hit the target...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155741/directed-differentiation-of-primitive-and-definitive-hematopoietic-progenitors-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Carissa Dege, Christopher M Sturgeon
One of the major goals for regenerative medicine is the generation and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Until recently, efforts to differentiate hPSCs into HSCs have predominantly generated hematopoietic progenitors that lack HSC potential, and instead resemble yolk sac hematopoiesis. These resulting hematopoietic progenitors may have limited utility for in vitro disease modeling of various adult hematopoietic disorders, particularly those of the lymphoid lineages...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155707/optimized-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-high-throughput-analysis-of-clinical-samples-of-ivacaftor-its-major-metabolites-and-lumacaftor-in-biological-fluids-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#16
Elena K Schneider, Felisa Reyes-Ortega, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
Defects in the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are the cause of cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease with life-threatening pulmonary manifestations. Ivacaftor (IVA) and ivacaftor-lumacaftor (LUMA) combination are two new breakthrough CF drugs that directly modulate the activity and trafficking of the defective CFTR-protein. However, there is still a dearth of understanding on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters and the pharmacology of ivacaftor and lumacaftor. The HPLC-MS technique for the simultaneous analysis of the concentrations of ivacaftor, hydroxymethyl-ivacaftor, ivacaftor-carboxylate, and lumacaftor in biological fluids in patients receiving standard ivacaftor or ivacaftor-lumacaftor combination therapy has previously been developed by our group and partially validated to FDA standards...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155270/efficient-hemorrhage-control-skills-training-for-healthcare-employees
#17
Richard A Sidwell, Sarah K Spilman, Richard S Huntsman, Carlos A Pelaez
BACKGROUND: Several national initiatives are aimed at training citizens to assist bleeding victims. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an effort to quickly and efficiently teach basic bleeding control techniques to a clinical and nonclinical workforce. STUDY DESIGN: The research study was conducted at four hospitals in a mid-sized metropolitan area. In spring 2017, the trauma department at a Level 1 trauma center set an ambitious goal to provide hands-on training to 1000 employees over the course of 6 weeks...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154939/hypothesis-for-cognitive-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-externally-and-internally-directed-cognition
#18
REVIEW
Pamela M Greenwood, Eric J Blumberg, Melissa R Scheldrup
A comprehensive explanation is lacking for the broad array of cognitive effects modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We advanced the testable hypothesis that tDCS to the default mode network (DMN) increases processing of goals and stored information at the expense of external events. We further hypothesized that tDCS to the dorsal attention network (DAN) increases processing of external events at the expense of goals and stored information. A literature search (PsychINFO) identified 42 empirical studies and 3 meta-analyses examining effects of prefrontal and/or parietal tDCS on tasks that selectively required external and/or internal processing...
November 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154890/relating-to-the-experience-of-contingency-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-an-interview-study-in-american-patients
#19
Renske Kruizinga, Najmeh Jafari, Michael Scherer-Rath, Hans Schilderman, Jennifer Bires, Christina Puchalski, Hanneke van Laarhoven
INTRODUCTION: Being diagnosed with incurable cancer can be a life changing experience, evoking different spiritual questions and needs. Confronting a serious life-threatening event that occurs not only often unexpected but can also disrupt a person's self-image and ideals of their personhood. This confrontation makes it difficult for people to integrate it into their personal life story - otherwise referred to as an experience of contingency. Different modes of relating to the contingent life event of having cancer have been studied in a Dutch patient population...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154630/automatic-imitation-of-multiple-agents-simultaneous-or-random-representation
#20
Emiel Cracco, Marcel Brass
Research has shown that the observation of another's movement activates the corresponding motor representation in the observer. However, it is largely unknown how activation of these shared representations is influenced by the number of observed agents. In recent work, we have studied automatic imitation while participants saw 2 hands of which either one hand or both hands made a movement. These studies found that 2 hands produced a stronger imitative response than a single hand when the hands made an identical movement but not when they made different movements...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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