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Pavlovian Instrumental transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454085/effects-of-orientation-and-differential-reinforcement-ii-transitivity-and-transfer-across-five-member-sets
#1
Micah Amd, Marlon A de Oliveira, Denise A Passarelli, Livia C Balog, Julio C de Rose
A recent report by Amd and colleagues (2017) demonstrated that orienting towards successively presented stimulus-stimulus pairs yielded significantly more transitive relations then when those same pairs were differentially reinforced following training for three, 3-member stimulus sets. We build on that work in four important ways. First, transitivity yields produced by Pavlovian and instrumental procedures were compared following training for three 5-member sets (A1-B1-C1-D1-E1, A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, A3-B3-C3-D3-E3), where the 'A' stimuli were emotional faces and all remaining stimuli were nonsense words...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381819/behavioral-signatures-of-backward-planning-in-animals
#2
Arsham Afsardeir, Mehdi Keramati
Goal-directed planning in behavioral and neural sciences is theorized to involve a prospective mental simulation that, starting from the animal's current state in the environment, expands a decision tree in a forward fashion. Backward planning in the artificial intelligence literature, however, suggests that agents expand a mental tree in a backward fashion starting from a certain goal state they have in mind. Here we show that several behavioral patterns observed in animals and humans, namely outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer and differential-outcome effect, can be parsimoniously explained by backward planning...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313106/neural-correlates-of-instrumental-responding-in-the-context-of-alcohol-related-cues-index-disorder-severity-and-relapse-risk
#3
Daniel J Schad, Maria Garbusow, Eva Friedel, Christian Sommer, Miriam Sebold, Claudia Hägele, Nadine Bernhardt, Stephan Nebe, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Shuyan Liu, Uta Eichmann, Anne Beck, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Henrik Walter, Philipp Sterzer, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael N Smolka, Florian Schlagenhauf, Quentin J M Huys, Andreas Heinz, Michael A Rapp
The influence of Pavlovian conditioned stimuli on ongoing behavior may contribute to explaining how alcohol cues stimulate drug seeking and intake. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer task, we investigated the effects of alcohol-related cues on approach behavior (i.e., instrumental response behavior) and its neural correlates, and related both to the relapse after detoxification in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 24 healthy controls underwent instrumental training, where approach or non-approach towards initially neutral stimuli was reinforced by monetary incentives...
January 8, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291424/enhanced-incentive-motivation-in-obesity-prone-rats-is-mediated-by-nac-core-cp-ampars
#4
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Studies in humans suggest that stronger incentive motivational responses to Pavlovian food cues may drive over-consumption leading to and maintaining obesity, particularly in susceptible individuals. However, whether this enhanced incentive motivation emerges as a consequence of obesity or rather precedes obesity is unknown. Moreover, while human imaging studies have provided important information about differences in striatal responsiveness between susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, the neural mechanisms mediating these behavioral differences are unknown...
December 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248689/pattern-of-access-determines-influence-of-junk-food-diet-on-cue-sensitivity-and-palatability
#5
Alisa R Kosheleff, Jingwen Araki, Jennifer Hsueh, Andrew Le, Kevin Quizon, Sean B Ostlund, Nigel T Maidment, Niall P Murphy
AIMS: Like drug addiction, cues associated with palatable foods can trigger food-seeking, even when sated. However, whether susceptibility to the motivating influence of food-related cues is a predisposing factor in overeating or a consequence of poor diet is difficult to determine in humans. Using a rodent model, we explored whether a highly palatable 'junk food' diet impacts responses to reward-paired cues in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer test, using sweetened condensed milk (SCM) as the reward...
December 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246977/temporal-specificity-in-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#6
Matthew S Matell, Rebecca B Della Valle
Presentation of a previously trained Pavlovian conditioned stimulus while an organism is engaged in operant responding can moderate the rate of responding, a phenomenon known as Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer. Although it is well known that Pavlovian contingencies will generate conditioned behavior that is temporally organized with respect to the arrival of the predicted outcome, little work has examined the temporal dynamics of responding during Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. We trained rats using a fixed time 60-sec, fixed time 120-sec, or random time 60-sec schedule in an appetitive Pavlovian task, and found that presentation of the conditioned stimulus potentiated operant responding in a manner that reflected these previously established temporal expectancies...
January 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225043/neurogranin-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-regulates-nmda-receptor-tolerance-and-motivation-for-ethanol-seeking
#7
Ashlie N Reker, Alfredo Oliveros, John M Sullivan, Lailun Nahar, David J Hinton, Taehyun Kim, Robert C Bruner, Doo-Sup Choi, Nicholas E Goeders, Hyung W Nam
Dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Neurogranin (Ng), a calmodulin-binding protein, is exclusively expressed in the post-synapse, and mediates NMDAR driven synaptic plasticity by regulating the calcium-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM) pathway. To study the functional role of Ng in AUD, we administrated behavior tests including Pavlovian instrument transfer (PIT), operant conditioning, and rotarod test using Ng null mice (Ng-/- mice)...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180968/food-predicting-stimuli-differentially-influence-eye-movements-and-goal-directed-behavior-in-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese-individuals
#8
Rea Lehner, Joshua H Balsters, Alexandra Bürgler, Todd A Hare, Nicole Wenderoth
Obese individuals have been shown to exhibit abnormal sensitivity to rewards and reward-predicting cues as for example food-associated cues frequently used in advertisements. It has also been shown that food-associated cues can increase goal-directed behavior but it is currently unknown, whether this effect differs between normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. Here, we investigate this question by using a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task in normal-weight (N = 20), overweight (N = 17), and obese (N = 17) individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161356/medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-mediates-effort-related-responding-in-rats
#9
Alexandra Münster, Wolfgang Hauber
The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071299/noradrenergic-regulation-of-central-amygdala-in-aversive-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#10
Vincent D Campese, Jose M Soroeta, Elena M Vazey, Gary Aston-Jones, Joseph E LeDoux, Robert M Sears
The neural mechanisms through which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) elicits innate defense responses are well understood. But a Pavlovian CS can also invigorate ongoing instrumental responding, as shown by studies of aversive Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT). While the neural circuitry of appetitive PIT has been studied extensively, little is known about the brain mechanisms of aversive PIT. We recently showed the central amygdala (CeA) is essential for aversive PIT. In the current studies, using pharmacology and designer receptors in rodents, we demonstrate that noradrenergic (NE) activity negatively regulates PIT via brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) activity and LC projections to CeA...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054742/failing-to-pay-heed-to-health-warnings-in-a-food-associated-environment
#11
Aukje A C Verhoeven, Poppy Watson, Sanne de Wit
People often fail to adhere to food-related health information. Increasing evidence suggests that environmental stimuli interfere with good intentions by triggering choices relatively automatically. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we examined whether food-associated stimuli reduce health warnings' effectiveness. We expected that people adhere to health warnings in the absence, but not presence, of food-associated stimuli. In addition, we examined timing effects, i.e., whether health warnings are more effective when they are given prior to associative learning rather than afterwards...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993726/pavlovian-extinction-and-recovery-effects-in-aversive-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#12
Vincent D Campese, Ian T Kim, Gerardo Rojas, Joseph E LeDoux
Three studies explored the sensitivity of aversive Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) to Pavlovian extinction in rodents. Rats underwent Pavlovian conditioning prior to avoidance training. The PIT test then involved assessment of the effects of the Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) on the performance of the avoidance response (AR). Conducting extinction prior to avoidance training and transfer testing, allowed spontaneous recovery and shock reinstatement of extinguished motivation, whereas conducting extinction following avoidance training and just prior to PIT testing successfully reduced transfer effects...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986462/the-lateral-habenula-and-its-input-to-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-mediates-outcome-specific-conditioned-inhibition
#13
Vincent Laurent, Felix L Wong, Bernard W Balleine
Animals can readily learn that stimuli predict the absence of specific appetitive outcomes; however, the neural substrates underlying such outcome-specific conditioned inhibition remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined the involvement of the lateral habenula (LHb) and of its inputs onto the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) in inhibitory learning using female and male rats as subjects. In these experiments, we used backward conditioning and contingency reversal to establish outcome-specific conditioned inhibitors for two distinct appetitive outcomes, and then assessed the effects of manipulations of the LHb and the LHb-RMTg pathway on that inhibitory encoding using the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer paradigm...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905678/negative-emotional-appraisal-selectively-disrupts-retrieval-of-expected-outcome-values-required-for-goal-directed-instrumental-choice
#14
Tanya L Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth
Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) tests...
September 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771019/inhibitory-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-in-humans
#15
Stephanie L Quail, Vincent Laurent, Bernard W Balleine
Although there has been extensive research in both humans and rodents regarding the influence of excitatory predictions on action selection, the influence of inhibitory reward predictions is less well understood. We used a feature-negative conditioned inhibition procedure to generate Pavlovian excitors and inhibitors, predicting the presence or absence of specific outcomes, and assessed their influence on action selection using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer test. Inhibitors predicting the absence of a specific outcome reversed the bias in action selection elicited by outcome-specific excitors; whereas excitors promoted responding on the action associated with the same outcome as the cue, inhibitors shifted responding away from such actions and toward other actions...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763064/strong-seduction-impulsivity-and-the-impact-of-contextual-cues-on-instrumental-behavior-in-alcohol-dependence
#16
C Sommer, M Garbusow, E Jünger, S Pooseh, N Bernhardt, J Birkenstock, D J Schad, B Jabs, T Glöckler, Q M Huys, A Heinz, M N Smolka, U S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues acquire incentive salience through Pavlovian conditioning and then can markedly affect instrumental behavior of alcohol-dependent patients to promote relapse. However, it is unclear whether similar effects occur with alcohol-unrelated cues. We tested 116 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 91 healthy controls who completed a delay discounting task to assess choice impulsivity, and a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm employing both alcohol-unrelated and alcohol-related stimuli...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743727/basolateral-amygdala-to-orbitofrontal-cortex-projections-enable-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#17
Nina T Lichtenberg, Zachary T Pennington, Sandra M Holley, Venuz Y Greenfield, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Kate M Wassum
To make an appropriate decision, one must anticipate potential future rewarding events, even when they are not readily observable. These expectations are generated by using observable information (e.g., stimuli or available actions) to retrieve often quite detailed memories of available rewards. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are two reciprocally connected key nodes in the circuitry supporting such outcome-guided behaviors. But there is much unknown about the contribution of this circuit to decision making, and almost nothing known about the whether any contribution is via direct, monosynaptic projections, or the direction of information transfer...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627906/evidence-of-a-goal-directed-process-in-human-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#18
Tina Seabrooke, Mike E Le Pelley, Lee Hogarth, Chris J Mitchell
Cues that signal rewards can motivate reward-seeking behaviors, even for outcomes that are not currently desired. Three experiments examined this phenomenon, using an outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design and an outcome devaluation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants learned to perform one response to earn crisps points and another response to earn popcorn points. One outcome was then devalued by adulterating it to make it taste unpleasant. On test, overall response choice was biased toward the outcome that had not been devalued, indicating goal-directed control...
October 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612645/associative-mechanisms-involved-in-specific-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-pit-in-human-learning-tasks
#19
Daniel E Alarcón, Charlotte Bonardi, Andrew R Delamater
Four experiments compared the effect of forward and backward conditioning procedures on the ability of conditioned stimuli (CSs) to elevate instrumental responding in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task. Two responses were each trained with one distinct outcome (R1->O1, R2->O2), either concurrently (Experiment 1) or separately (Experiments 2, 3 and 4). Then, in Experiments 1 and 2, four CSs were either followed or preceded by one outcome (A-->O1, B->O2,O1->C, O2->D). In Experiment 3 each CS was preceded and followed by an outcome: for one group of participants both outcomes were identical (e...
June 14, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486716/pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-of-nicotine-and-food-cues-in-deprived-cigarette-smokers
#20
Heena R Manglani, Andrea H Lewis, Stephen J Wilson, Mauricio R Delgado
Introduction: Smoking-related cues can promote drug-seeking behavior and curtail attempts to quit. One way to understand the potential impact of such cues is to compare cue-elicited behaviors for smoking and other reinforcers (eg, food) using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer paradigm, which measures how much control cues can exert over reward-seeking responses. Methods: We tested the influence of appetitive cues on smokers' behavior following 12 hours of abstinence from smoking and eating...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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