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Pavlovian Instrumental transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905678/negative-emotional-appraisal-selectively-disrupts-retrieval-of-expected-outcome-values-required-for-goal-directed-instrumental-choice
#1
Tanya L Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth
Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) tests...
September 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771019/inhibitory-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-in-humans
#2
Stephanie L Quail, Vincent Laurent, Bernard W Balleine
Although there has been extensive research in both humans and rodents regarding the influence of excitatory predictions on action selection, the influence of inhibitory reward predictions is less well understood. We used a feature-negative conditioned inhibition procedure to generate Pavlovian excitors and inhibitors, predicting the presence or absence of specific outcomes, and assessed their influence on action selection using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer test. Inhibitors predicting the absence of a specific outcome reversed the bias in action selection elicited by outcome-specific excitors; whereas excitors promoted responding on the action associated with the same outcome as the cue, inhibitors shifted responding away from such actions and toward other actions...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763064/strong-seduction-impulsivity-and-the-impact-of-contextual-cues-on-instrumental-behavior-in-alcohol-dependence
#3
C Sommer, M Garbusow, E Jünger, S Pooseh, N Bernhardt, J Birkenstock, D J Schad, B Jabs, T Glöckler, Q M Huys, A Heinz, M N Smolka, U S Zimmermann
Alcohol-related cues acquire incentive salience through Pavlovian conditioning and then can markedly affect instrumental behavior of alcohol-dependent patients to promote relapse. However, it is unclear whether similar effects occur with alcohol-unrelated cues. We tested 116 early-abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 91 healthy controls who completed a delay discounting task to assess choice impulsivity, and a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm employing both alcohol-unrelated and alcohol-related stimuli...
August 1, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743727/basolateral-amygdala-to-orbitofrontal-cortex-projections-enable-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#4
Nina T Lichtenberg, Zachary T Pennington, Sandra M Holley, Venuz Y Greenfield, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Kate M Wassum
To make an appropriate decision, one must anticipate potential future rewarding events, even when they are not readily observable. These expectations are generated by using observable information (e.g., stimuli or available actions) to retrieve often quite detailed memories of available rewards. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are two reciprocally connected key nodes in the circuitry supporting such outcome-guided behaviors. But there is much unknown about the contribution of this circuit to decision making, and almost nothing known about the whether any contribution is via direct, monosynaptic projections, or the direction of information transfer...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627906/evidence-of-a-goal-directed-process-in-human-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#5
Tina Seabrooke, Mike E Le Pelley, Lee Hogarth, Chris J Mitchell
Cues that signal rewards can motivate reward-seeking behaviors, even for outcomes that are not currently desired. Three experiments examined this phenomenon, using an outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design and an outcome devaluation procedure. In Experiment 1, participants learned to perform one response to earn crisps points and another response to earn popcorn points. One outcome was then devalued by adulterating it to make it taste unpleasant. On test, overall response choice was biased toward the outcome that had not been devalued, indicating goal-directed control...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612645/associative-mechanisms-involved-in-specific-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-pit-in-human-learning-tasks
#6
Daniel E Alarcón, Charlotte Bonardi, Andrew R Delamater
Four experiments compared the effect of forward and backward conditioning procedures on the ability of conditioned stimuli (CSs) to elevate instrumental responding in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) task. Two responses were each trained with one distinct outcome (R1->O1, R2->O2), either concurrently (Experiment 1) or separately (Experiments 2, 3 and 4). Then, in Experiments 1 and 2, four CSs were either followed or preceded by one outcome (A-->O1, B->O2,O1->C, O2->D). In Experiment 3 each CS was preceded and followed by an outcome: for one group of participants both outcomes were identical (e...
June 14, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486716/pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-of-nicotine-and-food-cues-in-deprived-cigarette-smokers
#7
Heena R Manglani, Andrea H Lewis, Stephen J Wilson, Mauricio R Delgado
Introduction: Smoking-related cues can promote drug-seeking behavior and curtail attempts to quit. One way to understand the potential impact of such cues is to compare cue-elicited behaviors for smoking and other reinforcers (eg, food) using the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer paradigm, which measures how much control cues can exert over reward-seeking responses. Methods: We tested the influence of appetitive cues on smokers' behavior following 12 hours of abstinence from smoking and eating...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473252/alcohol-seeking-and-relapse-a-focus-on-incentive-salience-and-contextual-conditioning
#8
REVIEW
Milan D Valyear, Franz R Villaruel, Nadia Chaudhri
Environmental stimuli that reliably accompany alcohol intake can become associated with the pharmacological effects of alcohol through classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. Of growing interest to addiction researchers is whether or not this process results in the attribution of incentive salience to alcohol-predictive cues, which could motivate alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse. To evaluate this question, we present a review of rodent behavioral studies that examined the capacity of alcohol-predictive cues to (i) support sign-tracking behavior, (ii) serve as conditioned reinforcers, and (iii) produce Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471226/extinction-of-specific-stimulus-outcome-s-o-associations-in-pavlovian-learning-with-an-extended-cs-procedure
#9
Andrew R Delamater, Kevin Schneider, Rifka C Derman
Three experiments with male and female rats were conducted to examine the effects of Pavlovian extinction training on Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) in a task in which the unconditioned stimulus (US) was presented at an early time point within an extended conditioned stimulus (CS). Two instrumental responses were trained with different reinforcing outcomes (R1-O1, R2-O2) and then, independently, 2 stimuli were trained with those outcomes (S1-O1, S2-O2). One group then underwent an extinction treatment (S1-, S2-) and a second was merely exposed to the experimental contexts without any stimulus events...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465027/quantitative-models-of-persistence-and-relapse-from-the-perspective-of-behavioral-momentum-theory-fits-and-misfits
#10
REVIEW
John A Nevin, Andrew R Craig, Paul J Cunningham, Christopher A Podlesnik, Timothy A Shahan, Mary M Sweeney
We review quantitative accounts of behavioral momentum theory (BMT), its application to clinical treatment, and its extension to post-intervention relapse of target behavior. We suggest that its extension can account for relapse using reinstatement and renewal models, but that its application to resurgence is flawed both conceptually and in its failure to account for recent data. We propose that the enhanced persistence of target behavior engendered by alternative reinforcers is limited to their concurrent availability within a distinctive stimulus context...
August 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450844/stimulus-control-over-action-for-food-in-obese-versus-healthy-weight-individuals
#11
Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Victor E A Gerdes, Sanne de Wit
In the current study we examined an associative learning mechanism by which food cues (signaling low- versus high-calorie food) can bias instrumental responses directed toward those foods. To investigate the clinical relevance of this mechanism, we used a computerized Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task and compared performance of 19 severely obese individuals to that of 19 healthy-weight controls matched for age, education and gender. During the response-priming test we exposed participants to both food pictures and to Pavlovian cues predictive of those food pictures, and examined their biasing effect on instrumental choice...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446868/triggering-avoidance-dissociable-influences-of-aversive-pavlovian-conditioned-stimuli-on-human-instrumental-behavior
#12
Sara Garofalo, Trevor W Robbins
The present study investigates human aversive Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) and possible influences of outcome devaluation and instrumental overtraining on this effect. PIT measures the extent to which a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) can increase instrumental responses independently paired with the same (outcome-specific transfer) or a different (general transfer) reinforcer. Two measures of PIT were obtained: the percentage of instrumental responses and the vigor of such responses. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a standard PIT task sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444823/dissociable-corticostriatal-circuits-underlie-goal-directed-vs-cue-elicited-habitual-food-seeking-after-satiation-evidence-from-a-multimodal-mri-study
#13
Henk van Steenbergen, Poppy Watson, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel, Sanne de Wit
The present multimodal MRI study advances our understanding of the corticostriatal circuits underlying goal-directed vs. cue-driven, habitual food seeking. To this end, we employed a computerized Pavlovian-instrumental transfer paradigm. During the test phase, participants were free to perform learned instrumental responses (left and right key presses) for popcorn and Smarties outcomes. Importantly, prior to this test half of the participants had been sated on popcorn and the other half on Smarties - resulting in a reduced desirability of those outcomes...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412771/drug-cue-reactivity-involves-hierarchical-instrumental-learning-evidence-from-a-biconditional-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-task
#14
Lorna Hardy, Chris Mitchell, Tina Seabrooke, Lee Hogarth
RATIONALE: Drug cue reactivity plays a crucial role in addiction, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. According to the binary associative account, drug stimuli retrieve an expectation of the drug outcome, which, in turn, elicits the associated drug-seeking response (S-O-R). By contrast, according to the hierarchical account, drug stimuli retrieve an expectation that the contingency between the drug-seeking response and the drug outcome is currently more effective, promoting performance of the drug-seeking response (S:R-O)...
July 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294355/conditioned-stimulus-form-does-not-explain-failures-to-see-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-with-ethanol-paired-conditioned-stimuli
#15
Richard J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Charles W Schindler
BACKGROUND: Pavlovian-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) examines the effects of associative learning upon instrumental responding. Previous studies examining PIT with ethanol (EtOH)-maintained responding showed increases in responding following presentation of an EtOH-paired conditioned stimulus (CS). Recently, we conducted 2 studies examining PIT with an EtOH-paired CS. One of these found increases in responding, while the other did not. This less robust demonstration of PIT may have resulted from the form of the CS used, as we used a 120-second light stimulus as a CS, while the previous studies used either a 120-second auditory stimulus or a 10-second light stimulus...
May 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011174/predictive-but-not-emotional-value-of-pavlovian-stimuli-leads-to-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer
#16
Stephens Jeffs, Theodora Duka
Reward-predictive stimuli augment instrumental reward-seeking in humans, an effect denoted Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), but the role of differential reward value of these stimuli and of emotional conditioned responses in PIT remains unknown. Fifty one participants experienced a Pavlovian phase that associated two stimuli with either 10p (CS10) or 50p (CS50). Next, participants underwent instrumental training for two responses reinforced with either 10p or 50p. Finally, the transfer phase continued as had instrumental training, now in the presence of the Pavlovian stimuli...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916139/effects-of-an-ethanol-paired-cs-on-responding-for-ethanol-and-food-comparisons-with-a-stimulus-in-a-truly-random-control-group-and-to-a-food-paired-cs-on-responding-for-food
#17
R J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Charles W Schindler
Motivational increases due to exposure to alcohol-paired Conditioned Stimuli (CS) are central to some accounts of alcoholism. However, few studies isolate a stimulus's function as a CS from its other potential functions. Pavlovian-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) procedures isolate a stimulus's function as a CS from its other functions. Though there are several relevant studies using PIT, knowledge gaps exist. Particularly, it is not clear that an alcohol-paired CS will increase alcohol seeking compared to the same stimulus in a Truly-Random-Control group, nor whether such increases are specific to alcohol seeking...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862489/amygdala-mu-opioid-receptors-mediate-the-motivating-influence-of-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#18
Nina T Lichtenberg, Kate M Wassum
Environmental reward-predictive stimuli can retrieve from memory a specific reward expectation that allows them to motivate action and guide choice. This process requires the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but little is known about the signaling systems necessary within this structure. Here we examined the role of the neuromodulatory opioid receptor system in the BLA in such cue-directed action using the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) test in rats. Inactivation of BLA mu-, but not delta-opioid receptors was found to dose-dependently attenuate the ability of a reward-predictive cue to selectively invigorate the performance of actions directed at the same unique predicted reward (i...
February 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813263/modulation-of-cue-triggered-reward-seeking-by-cholinergic-signaling-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum
#19
Sean B Ostlund, Angela T Liu, Kate M Wassum, Nigel T Maidment
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been strongly implicated in flexible, outcome-based decision making, including the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effect (PIT), which measures the tendency for a reward-predictive cue to preferentially motivate actions that have been associated with the predicted reward over actions associated with different rewards. Although the neurochemical underpinnings of this effect are not well understood, there is growing evidence that striatal acetylcholine signaling may play an important role...
February 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777560/changes-in-the-influence-of-alcohol-paired-stimuli-on-alcohol-seeking-across-extended-training
#20
Laura H Corbit, Patricia H Janak
Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol-seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here, we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for 2 or 8 weeks. Previous work has shown that 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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