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Pavlovian Instrumental transfer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916139/effects-of-an-ethanol-paired-cs-on-responding-for-ethanol-and-food-comparisons-with-a-stimulus-in-a-truly-random-control-group-and-to-a-food-paired-cs-on-responding-for-food
#1
R J Lamb, Brett C Ginsburg, Charles W Schindler
Motivational increases due to exposure to alcohol-paired Conditioned Stimuli (CS) are central to some accounts of alcoholism. However, few studies isolate a stimulus's function as a CS from its other potential functions. Pavlovian-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) procedures isolate a stimulus's function as a CS from its other functions. Though there are several relevant studies using PIT, knowledge gaps exist. Particularly, it is not clear that an alcohol-paired CS will increase alcohol seeking compared to the same stimulus in a Truly-Random-Control group, nor whether such increases are specific to alcohol seeking...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862489/amygdala-mu-opioid-receptors-mediate-the-motivating-influence-of-cue-triggered-reward-expectations
#2
Nina T Lichtenberg, Kate M Wassum
Environmental reward-predictive stimuli can retrieve from memory a specific reward expectation that allows them to motivate action and guide choice. This process requires the basolateral amygdala (BLA), but little is known about the signaling systems necessary within this structure. Here we examined the role of the neuromodulatory opioid receptor system in the BLA in such cue-directed action using the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) test in rats. Inactivation of BLA mu-, but not delta-opioid receptors was found to dose-dependently attenuate the ability of a reward-predictive cue to selectively invigorate the performance of actions directed at the same unique predicted reward (i...
November 12, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813263/modulation-of-cue-triggered-reward-seeking-by-cholinergic-signaling-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum
#3
Sean B Ostlund, Angela T Liu, Kate M Wassum, Nigel T Maidment
The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been strongly implicated in flexible, outcome-based decision making, including the outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effect (PIT), which measures the tendency for a reward-predictive cue to preferentially motivate actions that have been associated with the predicted reward over actions associated with different rewards. Although the neurochemical underpinnings of this effect are not well understood, there is growing evidence that striatal acetylcholine signaling may play an important role...
November 4, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777560/changes-in-the-influence-of-alcohol-paired-stimuli-on-alcohol-seeking-across-extended-training
#4
Laura H Corbit, Patricia H Janak
Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol-seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here, we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for 2 or 8 weeks. Previous work has shown that 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693829/extinction-and-renewal-of-cue-elicited-reward-seeking
#5
Louise Bezzina, Jessica C Lee, Peter F Lovibond, Ben Colagiuri
Reward cues can contribute to overconsumption of food and drugs and can relapse. The failure of exposure therapies to reduce overconsumption and relapse is generally attributed to the context-specificity of extinction. However, no previous study has examined whether cue-elicited reward-seeking (as opposed to cue-reactivity) is sensitive to context renewal. We tested this possibility in 160 healthy volunteers using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design involving voluntary responding for a high value natural reward (chocolate)...
September 20, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693227/appetitive-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Emilio Cartoni, Bernard Balleine, Gianluca Baldassarre
Reward-related cues are an important part of our daily life as they often influence and guide our actions. This paper reviews one of the experimental paradigms used to study the effects of cues, the Pavlovian to Instrumental Transfer paradigm. In this paradigm, cues associated with rewards through Pavlovian conditioning alter motivation and choice of instrumental actions. The first transfer experiments date back to the 1940s, but only in the last decade has it been fully recognised that there are two types of transfer, specific and general...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521247/ghrelin-receptor-activation-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-amplified-instrumental-responding-but-not-the-excitatory-influence-of-pavlovian-stimuli-on-instrumental-responding
#7
Susanne Sommer, Wolfgang Hauber
Pavlovian stimuli predictive of food are able to amplify instrumental responding for food. This phenomenon termed Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) critically depends on intact VTA function and mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission. Considerable evidence suggests that food-predictive stimuli can enhance the release of ghrelin, an orexigen hormone that promotes food-directed responding. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) appears to be a key region through which stimulation of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) invigorates food-directed responding, in part by activating the mesoaccumbens dopamine system...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378550/dopamine-d2-3-and-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonists-reduce-cue-induced-responding-and-reward-impulsivity-in-humans
#8
S C Weber, B Beck-Schimmer, M-E Kajdi, D Müller, P N Tobler, B B Quednow
Increased responding to drug-associated stimuli (cue reactivity) and an inability to tolerate delayed gratification (reward impulsivity) have been implicated in the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Whereas data from animal studies suggest that both the dopamine and opioid system are involved in these two reward-related processes, their role in humans is less clear. Moreover, dopaminergic and opioidergic drugs have not been directly compared with regard to these functions, even though a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms might inform the development of specific treatments for elevated cue reactivity and reward impulsivity...
July 5, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240658/nucleus-accumbens-acetylcholine-receptors-modulate-dopamine-and-motivation
#9
Anne L Collins, Tara J Aitken, Venuz Y Greenfield, Sean B Ostlund, Kate M Wassum
Environmental reward-predictive cues can motivate reward-seeking behaviors. Although this influence is normally adaptive, it can become maladaptive in disordered states, such as addiction. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc) is known to mediate the motivational impact of reward-predictive cues, but little is known about how other neuromodulatory systems contribute to cue-motivated behavior. Here, we examined the role of the NAc cholinergic receptor system in cue-motivated behavior using a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task designed to assess the motivating influence of a reward-predictive cue over an independently-trained instrumental action...
November 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223341/habitual-alcohol-seeking-neural-bases-and-possible-relations-to-alcohol-use-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Laura H Corbit, Patricia H Janak
Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli...
July 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194796/motivational-state-reward-value-and-pavlovian-cues-differentially-affect-skilled-forelimb-grasping-in-rats
#11
Alice C Mosberger, Larissa de Clauser, Hansjörg Kasper, Martin E Schwab
Motor skills represent high-precision movements performed at optimal speed and accuracy. Such motor skills are learned with practice over time. Besides practice, effects of motivation have also been shown to influence speed and accuracy of movements, suggesting that fast movements are performed to maximize gained reward over time as noted in previous studies. In rodents, skilled motor performance has been successfully modeled with the skilled grasping task, in which animals use their forepaw to grasp for sugar pellet rewards through a narrow window...
June 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145766/dimensional-psychiatry-mental-disorders-as-dysfunctions-of-basic-learning-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf, Anne Beck, Carolin Wackerhagen
It has been questioned that the more than 300 mental disorders currently listed in international disease classification systems all have a distinct neurobiological correlate. Here, we support the idea that basic dimensions of mental dysfunctions, such as alterations in reinforcement learning, can be identified, which interact with individual vulnerability and psychosocial stress factors and, thus, contribute to syndromes of distress across traditional nosological boundaries. We further suggest that computational modeling of learning behavior can help to identify specific alterations in reinforcement-based decision-making and their associated neurobiological correlates...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26970240/nucleus-accumbens-core-and-shell-are-differentially-involved-in-general-and-outcome-specific-forms-of-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-with-alcohol-and-sucrose-rewards
#13
Laura H Corbit, Sarah C Fischbach, Patricia H Janak
Alcohol-associated stimuli contribute to relapse risk. Therefore, understanding the behavioural and neural mechanisms underlying the ability of such stimuli to promote alcohol-seeking is important for developing effective treatments for alcohol-use disorders. The Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm can be used to study the influence of Pavlovian cues on independently-trained instrumental responses earning reward. The effects can be either general, increasing the vigour of reward-related behaviours, or specific to responses that earn a common outcome...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942321/don-t-think-just-feel-the-music-individuals-with-strong-pavlovian-to-instrumental-transfer-effects-rely-less-on-model-based-reinforcement-learning
#14
Miriam Sebold, Daniel J Schad, Stephan Nebe, Maria Garbusow, Elisabeth Jünger, Nils B Kroemer, Norbert Kathmann, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Michael N Smolka, Michael A Rapp, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys
Behavioral choice can be characterized along two axes. One axis distinguishes reflexive, model-free systems that slowly accumulate values through experience and a model-based system that uses knowledge to reason prospectively. The second axis distinguishes Pavlovian valuation of stimuli from instrumental valuation of actions or stimulus-action pairs. This results in four values and many possible interactions between them, with important consequences for accounts of individual variation. We here explored whether individual variation along one axis was related to individual variation along the other...
July 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878746/stress-associated-changes-in-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer-in-humans
#15
Stephanie L Quail, Richard W Morris, Bernard W Balleine
Predictive learning is known to influence instrumental responding for reward. Cues associated with an instrumental outcome can influence performance in two ways: (a) by selectively promoting actions associated with the outcome predicted by the cue (specific transfer), and (b) by increasing motivation and the vigour of instrumental responding (general transfer). To examine these two distinct processes in humans we developed a novel behavioural task in which participants were able to liberate junk-food snacks from a virtual vending machine...
March 15, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841896/the-specificity-of-pavlovian-regulation-is-associated-with-recovery-from-depression
#16
Q J M Huys, M Gölzer, E Friedel, A Heinz, R Cools, P Dayan, R J Dolan
BACKGROUND: Changes in reflexive emotional responses are hallmarks of depression, but how emotional reflexes make an impact on adaptive decision-making in depression has not been examined formally. Using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) task, we compared the influence of affectively valenced stimuli on decision-making in depression and generalized anxiety disorder compared with healthy controls; and related this to the longitudinal course of the illness. METHOD: A total of 40 subjects with a current DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, or a combination thereof, and 40 matched healthy controls performed a PIT task that assesses how instrumental approach and withdrawal behaviours are influenced by appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs)...
April 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802728/the-antagonism-of-ghrelin-alters-the-appetitive-response-to-learned-cues-associated-with-food
#17
Megan J Dailey, Timothy H Moran, Peter C Holland, Alexander W Johnson
The rapid increase in obesity may be partly mediated by an increase in the exposure to cues for food. Food-paired cues play a role in food procurement and intake under conditions of satiety. The mechanism by which this occurs requires characterization, but may involve ghrelin. This orexigenic peptide alters the response to food-paired conditioned stimuli, and neural responses to food images in reward nuclei. Therefore, we tested whether a ghrelin receptor antagonist alters the influence of food-paired cues on the performance of instrumental responses that earn food and the consumption of food itself using tests of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) and cue potentiated feeding (CPF), respectively...
April 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26800688/conditioned-stimuli-s-role-in-relapse-preclinical-research-on-pavlovian-instrumental-transfer
#18
REVIEW
R J Lamb, Charles W Schindler, Jonathan W Pinkston
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Pavlovian learning is central to many theories of addiction. In these theories, stimuli paired with drug ingestion become conditioned stimuli (CS) and subsequently elicit drug-seeking and drug-taking. However, in most relevant studies, Pavlovian and instrumental learning are confounded. This confound may be avoided in Pavlovian-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) procedures. In PIT, Pavlovian and instrumental learning are established separately and then combined. In order to better understand the role of CSs in addiction, we review the relevant studies using PIT...
May 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715366/nucleus-accumbens-core-dopamine-signaling-tracks-the-need-based-motivational-value-of-food-paired-cues
#19
Tara J Aitken, Venuz Y Greenfield, Kate M Wassum
Environmental reward-predictive stimuli provide a major source of motivation for instrumental reward-seeking activity and this has been linked to dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. This cue-induced incentive motivation can be quite general, not restricted to instrumental actions that earn the same unique reward, and is also typically regulated by one's current need state, such that cues only motivate actions when this is adaptive. But it remains unknown whether cue-evoked dopamine signaling is similarly regulated by need state...
March 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26691586/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-mediate-the-excitatory-influence-of-pavlovian-stimuli-on-instrumental-performance
#20
Susanne Sommer, Wolfgang Hauber
Pavlovian stimuli predictive of food can markedly amplify instrumental responding for food. This effect is termed Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT). The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a key role in mediating PIT, however, it is yet unknown whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors in the VTA are involved in PIT. Here, we examined the effects of an NMDA-receptor blockade in the VTA on PIT. Immediately prior to PIT testing, rats were subjected to intra-VTA infusions of vehicle or of the NMDA-receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5) (1, 5 µg/side)...
December 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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