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Fear extinction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888073/early-life-inflammation-with-lps-delays-fear-extinction-in-adult-rodents
#1
V M Doenni, C M Song, M N Hill, Q J Pittman
A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits...
November 22, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884768/intact-renewal-after-extinction-of-conditioned-suppression-with-lesions-of-either-the-retrosplenial-cortex-or-dorsal-hippocampus
#2
Travis P Todd, Matthew Y Jiang, Nicole E DeAngeli, David J Bucci
Extinction of fear to a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS) is known to be context-specific. When the CS is tested outside the context of extinction, fear returns, or renews. Several studies have demonstrated that renewal depends upon the hippocampus, although there are also studies where renewal was not impacted by hippocampal damage, suggesting that under some conditions context encoding and/or retrieval of extinction depends upon other regions. One candidate region is the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), which is known to contribute to contextual and spatial learning and memory...
November 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871027/trauma-exposure-relates-to-heightened-stress-altered-amygdala-morphology-and-deficient-extinction-learning-implications-for-psychopathology
#3
Raffaele Cacciaglia, Frauke Nees, Oliver Grimm, Stephanie Ridder, Sebastian T Pohlack, Slawomira J Diener, Claudia Liebscher, Herta Flor
Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume...
November 11, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870439/estradiol-shifts-interactions-between-the-infralimbic-cortex-and-central-amygdala-to-enhance-fear-extinction-memory-in-female-rats
#4
Lisa Y Maeng, Kara K Cover, Mohamad B Taha, Aaron J Landau, Mohammed R Milad, Kelimer Lebrón-Milad
There is growing evidence that estradiol (E2) enhances fear extinction memory consolidation. However, it is unclear how E2 influences the nodes of the fear extinction network to enhance extinction memory. This study begins to delineate the neural circuits underlying the influence of E2 on fear extinction acquisition and consolidation in female rats. After fear conditioning (day 1), naturally cycling female rats underwent extinction learning (day 2) in a low-E2 state, receiving a systemic administration of either E2 or vehicle prior to extinction training...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870431/sex-differences-in-stress-effects-on-emotional-learning
#5
REVIEW
Christian J Merz, Oliver T Wolf
Stress influences emotional learning and memory processes. These effects are thought to underlie stress-associated mental disorders. Sex differences in stress reactivity and in central nervous system stress sensitivity illustrate the important modulatory role of sex hormones. This Review outlines how stress hormones influence different stages of the fear conditioning process, such as fear acquisition, extinction, and retrieval. Results will be compared with findings on the impact of stress on episodic memory...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870416/sex-specific-mechanisms-for-responding-to-stress
#6
REVIEW
Debra A Bangasser, Brittany Wicks
Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression share stress as an etiological contributor and are more common in women than in men. Traditionally, preclinical studies investigating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress vulnerability have used only male rodents; however, recent studies that include females are finding sex-specific mechanisms for responding to stress. This Mini-Review examines recent literature using a framework developed by McCarthy and colleagues (2012; J Neurosci 32:2241-2247) that highlights different types of sex differences...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869801/direct-dorsal-hippocampal-prelimbic-cortex-connections-strengthen-fear-memories
#7
Xiaojing Ye, Dana Kapeller-Libermann, Alessio Travaglia, M Carmen Inda, Cristina M Alberini
The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867434/exploring-the-neurocircuitry-underpinning-predictability-of-threat-in-soldiers-with-ptsd-compared-to-deployment-exposed-controls
#8
Michael N Dretsch, Kimberly H Wood, Thomas A Daniel, Jeffrey S Katz, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Adam M Goodman, Muriah D Wheelock, Kayli B Wood, Thomas S Denney, Stephanie Traynham, David C Knight
BACKGROUND: Prior work examining emotional dysregulation observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has primarily been limited to fear-learning processes specific to anticipation, habituation, and extinction of threat. In contrast, the response to threat itself has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To explore potential disruption in fear conditioning neurocircuitry in service members with PTSD, specifically in response to predictable versus unpredictable threats...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867101/regulation-of-fear-extinction-by-long-term-depression-the-roles-of-endocannabinoids-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#9
REVIEW
Maxwell R Bennett, Jonathon Arnold, Sean N Hatton, Jim Lagopoulos
The extinction of a conditioned fear response is of great interest in the search for a means of ameliorating adverse neurobiological changes resulting from stress. The discovery that endocannibinoid (EC) levels are inversely related to the extent of such stress, and that the amygdala is a primary site mediating stress, suggests that ECs in this brain region might play a major role in extinction. Supporting this are the observations that the basolateral complex of the amygdala shows an increase in ECs only during extinction and that early clinical trials indicate that cannabinoid-like agents, when taken orally by patients suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reduce insomnia and nightmares...
November 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865918/enhanced-cued-fear-memory-following-post-training-whole-body-irradiation-of-3-month-old-mice
#10
Reid H J Olsen, Sydney J Weber, Tunde Akinyeke, Jacob Raber
Typically, in studies designed to assess effects of irradiation on cognitive performance the animals are trained and tested for cognitive function following irradiation. Little is known about post-training effects of irradiation on cognitive performance. In the current study, 3-month-old male mice were irradiated with X-rays 24h following training in a fear conditioning paradigm and cognitively tested starting two weeks later. Average motion during the extinction trials, measures of anxiety in the elevated zero maze, and body weight changes over the course of the study were assessed as well...
November 16, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852895/ras-and-rab-interactor-1-controls-neuronal-plasticity-by-coordinating-dendritic-filopodial-motility-and-ampa-receptor-turnover
#11
Zsófia Szíber, Hanna Liliom, Carlos O Oueslati Morales, Attila Ignácz, Anikó Erika Rátkai, Kornelia Ellwanger, Gisela Link, Attila Szűcs, Angelika Hausser, Katalin Schlett
Ras and Rab interactor 1 (RIN1) is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. RIN1 knockout animals have deficits in latent inhibition and fear extinction in the amygdala, suggesting a critical role for RIN1 in preventing the persistence of unpleasant memories. At the molecular level, RIN1 signals through Rab5 GTPases that control endocytosis of cell-surface receptors and Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinases that participate in actin cytoskeleton remodelling.Here, we report that RIN1 controls the plasticity of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844053/involvement-of-crfr1-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-in-the-immediate-fear-extinction-deficit
#12
Fiona Hollis, Yannick Sevelinges, Jocelyn Grosse, Olivia Zanoletti, Carmen Sandi
Several animal and clinical studies have highlighted the ineffectiveness of fear extinction sessions delivered shortly after trauma exposure. This phenomenon, termed the immediate extinction deficit, refers to situations in which extinction programs applied shortly after fear conditioning may result in the reduction of fear behaviors (in rodents, frequently measured as freezing responses to the conditioned cue) during extinction training, but failure to consolidate this reduction in the long term. The molecular mechanisms driving this immediate extinction resistance remain unclear...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825907/thiamine-and-benfotiamine-improve-cognition-and-ameliorate-gsk-3%C3%AE-associated-stress-induced-behaviours-in-mice
#13
Nataliia Markova, Nataliia Bazhenova, Daniel C Anthony, Julie Vignisse, Andrey Svistunov, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Lucien Bettendorff, Tatyana Strekalova
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling the activities of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β. While decreased GSK-3β activity appears to impair memory, increased GSK-3β activity is associated with the distressed/depressed state. However, hitherto direct evidence for the effects of thiamine on GSK-3β function has not been reported...
November 4, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818625/molecular-mechanisms-of-stress-induced-increases-in-fear-memory-consolidation-within-the-amygdala
#14
Antonio V Aubry, Peter A Serrano, Nesha S Burghardt
Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818267/postnatal-development-of-neurotransmitter-systems-and-their-relevance-to-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#15
REVIEW
Jee Hyun Kim, Christina J Perry, Despina E Ganella, Heather B Madsen
Remembering and forgetting are fundamental features of an organism. Extinction is a type of forgetting where there is a decrease in the significance and/or the meaning of an associative memory when elements of that memory no longer predict one another. The neural mechanisms underlying extinction of fear memories have been extensively studied in the laboratory because extinction processes are clinically relevant to exposure therapies that treat anxiety disorders. However, only in the last decade have we begun to unveil the similarities and differences in plasticity underlying extinction across development...
November 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816082/emotional-mental-imagery-as-simulation-of-reality-fear-and-beyond-a-tribute-to-peter-lang
#16
REVIEW
Julie L Ji, Stephanie Burnett Heyes, Colin MacLeod, Emily A Holmes
This article pays tribute to the seminal paper by Peter J. Lang (1977; this journal), "Imagery in Therapy: Information Processing Analysis of Fear." We review research and clinical practice developments in the past five decades with reference to key insights from Lang's theory and experimental work on emotional mental imagery. First, we summarize and recontextualize Lang's bio-informational theory of emotional mental imagery (1977, 1979) within contemporary theoretical developments on the function of mental imagery...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816078/updating-watson-marks-1971-how-has-our-understanding-of-the-mechanisms-of-extinction-learning-evolved-and-where-is-our-field-going-next
#17
Anu Asnaani, Carmen P McLean, Edna B Foa
J. P. Watson and I. M. Marks published a seminal article in Behavior Therapy entitled "Relevant and Irrelevant Fear in Flooding-A Crossover Study of Phobic Patients" in 1971 that paved the way for important theoretical developments and empirical studies that examined the mechanisms underlying extinction learning. Indeed, in the 44 years since their article was published, our knowledge about how exposure therapy works has increased considerably. In this review, we explore the progress our field has made in understanding extinction learning and how Watson and Marks' important work has influenced this progress...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816071/phobias-and-preparedness-republished-article
#18
Martin E P Seligman
Some inadequacies of the classical conditioning analysis of phobias are discussed: phobias are highly resistant to extinction, whereas laboratory fear conditioning, unlike avoidance conditioning, extinguishes rapidly; phobias comprise a nonarbitrary and limited set of objects, whereas fear conditioning is thought to occur to an unlimited range of conditioned stimuli. Furthermore, phobias, unlike laboratory fear conditioning, are often acquired in one trial and seem quite resistant to change by "cognitive" means...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816070/honoring-the-past-and-looking-to-the-future-updates-on-seminal-behavior-therapy-publications-on-etiology-and-mechanisms-of-change
#19
Michelle G Newman
This is the introduction to the first of two special issues in honor of the 50th anniversary of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies. The goal of this issue is to pay tribute to prior seminal Behavior Therapy publications on etiology and mechanisms of change, to provide an updated review of important topics covered by these papers, and to make recommendations for the future. Each invited paper highlights a particular Behavior Therapy publication's contribution to our understanding and also provides an updated review or meta-analysis on the topic of the original paper...
September 2016: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815216/pharmacological-evidence-that-a-failure-to-recruit-nmda-receptors-contributes-to-impaired-fear-extinction-retention-in-adolescent-rats
#20
Kathryn D Baker, Rick Richardson
Adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction of fear relative to younger and older groups which could be caused by a failure to efficiently recruit NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in adolescence. It is well-established that systemic administration of NMDAR antagonists (e.g., MK801) before extinction training impairs the retention of extinction in adult and juvenile rodents, but it is unknown whether this is also the case for adolescents. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of pharmacologically manipulating the NMDAR on extinction retention in adolescent rats...
November 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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