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Fear extinction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#1
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329984/infralimbic-dopamine-d2-receptors-mediate-glucocorticoid-induced-facilitation-of-auditory-fear-memory-extinction-in-rats
#2
Masoumeh Dadkhah, Payman Raise Abdullahi, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Hamid Reza Sameni, Abbas Ali Vafaei
The infralimbic (IL) cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the extinction of fear memory. Also, it has been showed that both brain glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors are involved in many processes such as fear extinction that drive learning and memory; however, the interaction of these receptors in the IL cortex remains unclear. We examined a putative interaction between the effects of glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors stimulation in the IL cortex on fear memory extinction in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in male rats...
January 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311651/identification-of-a-novel-gene-regulating-amygdala-mediated-fear-extinction
#3
Ozge Gunduz-Cinar, Emma Brockway, Lauren Lederle, Troy Wilcox, Lindsay R Halladay, Ying Ding, Hyunjung Oh, Erica F Busch, Katie Kaugars, Shaun Flynn, Aaron Limoges, Olena Bukalo, Kathryn P MacPherson, Sophie Masneuf, Courtney Pinard, Etienne Sibille, Elissa J Chesler, Andrew Holmes
Recent years have seen advances in our understanding of the neural circuits associated with trauma-related disorders, and the development of relevant assays for these behaviors in rodents. Although inherited factors are known to influence individual differences in risk for these disorders, it has been difficult to identify specific genes that moderate circuit functions to affect trauma-related behaviors. Here, we exploited robust inbred mouse strain differences in Pavlovian fear extinction to uncover quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with this trait...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307664/chronic-nicotine-differentially-alters-spontaneous-recovery-of-contextual-fear-in-male-and-female-mice
#4
Jessica M Tumolo, Munir Gunes Kutlu, Thomas J Gould
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating disorder with symptoms such as flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance of reminders of the traumatic event. Exposure therapy, which attempts to extinguish fear responses, is a commonly used treatment for PTSD but relapse following successful exposure therapy is a frequent problem. In rodents, spontaneous recovery (SR), where extinguished fear responses resurface following extinction treatment, is used as a model of fear relapse. Previous studies from our lab showed that chronic nicotine impaired fear extinction and acute nicotine enhanced SR of contextual fear in adult male mice...
January 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306773/midlife-stress-alters-memory-and-mood-related-behaviors-in-old-age-role-of-locally-activated-glucocorticoids
#5
Nicola Wheelan, Christopher J Kenyon, Anjanette P Harris, Carolynn Cairns, Emad Al Dujaili, Jonathan R Seckl, Joyce L W Yau
Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice...
December 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304448/reinstatement-of-instrumental-actions-in-humans-possible-mechanisms-and-their-implications-to-prevent-it
#6
A Matías Gámez, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
The study of post-extinction recovery effects in humans has received significant attention. For instance, research on reinstatement has increased in the last decade. However, most of the studies focus on the return of fear responses. In the present experiments, we used a videogame task to explore the reinstatement of operant behavior in human participants. In Experiment 1, after participants learned to shoot at enemies, they received an extinction procedure that eliminated the shooting behavior. However, the mere reintroduction of the outcome reinstated the original response...
January 2, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281096/relating-experimentally-induced-fear-to-pre-existing-phobic-fear-in-the-human-brain
#7
Seth M Levine, Michael Pfaller, Jonas Reichenberger, Youssef Shiban, Andreas Mühlberger, Rainer Rupprecht, Jens V Schwarzbach
While prior work has demonstrated that fear-conditioning changes the neural representation of previously neutral stimuli, it remains unknown to what extent this new representation abstracts away from specific fears and which brain areas are involved therein. To investigate this question, we sought commonalities between experimentally-induced fear via electric shocks and pre-existing phobia. Using functional MRI, we tested the effect of fear-conditioning pictures of dogs in 21 spider-fearful participants across three phases: baseline, post-conditioning, and extinction...
December 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258546/hippocampal-calpain-is-required-for-the-consolidation-and-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-contextual-fear-memory
#8
Taikai Nagayoshi, Kiichiro Isoda, Nori Mamiya, Satoshi Kida
Memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been shown to share similar molecular signatures, including new gene expression. Calpain is a Ca2+-dependent protease that exerts its effects through the proteolytic cleavage of target proteins. Neuron-specific conditional deletions of calpain 1 and 2 impair long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and spatial learning. Moreover, recent studies have suggested distinct roles of calpain 1 and 2 in synaptic plasticity. However, the role of hippocampal calpain in memory processes, especially memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction, is still unclear...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250000/social-fear-conditioning-paradigm-in-virtual-reality-social-vs-electrical-aversive-conditioning
#9
Jonas Reichenberger, Sonja Porsch, Jasmin Wittmann, Verena Zimmermann, Youssef Shiban
In a previous study we could show that social fear can be induced and extinguished using virtual reality (VR). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the belongingness effect in an operant social fear conditioning (SFC) paradigm which consisted of an acquisition and an extinction phase. Forty-three participants used a joystick to approach different virtual male agents that served as conditioned stimuli. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two experimental conditions. In the electroshock condition, the unconditioned stimulus (US) used during acquisition was an electric stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249946/moderate-partially-reduplicated-conditioned-stimuli-as-retrieval-cue-can-increase-effect-on-preventing-relapse-of-fear-to-compound-stimuli
#10
Junjiao Li, Wei Chen, Jingwen Caoyang, Wenli Wu, Jing Jie, Liang Xu, Xifu Zheng
The theory of memory reconsolidation argues that consolidated memory is not unchangeable. Once a memory is reactivated it may go back into an unstable state and need new protein synthesis to be consolidated again, which is called "memory reconsolidation". Boundary studies have shown that interfering with reconsolidation through pharmacologic or behavioral intervention can lead to the updating of the initial memory, for example, erasing undesired memories. Behavioral procedures based on memory reconsolidation interference have been shown to be an effective way to inhibit fear memory relapse after extinction...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246436/prefrontal-cortex-stimulation-enhances-fear-extinction-memory-in-humans
#11
Tommi Raij, Aapo Nummenmaa, Marie-France Marin, Daria Porter, Sharon Furtak, Kawin Setsompop, Mohammed R Milad
BACKGROUND: Animal fear conditioning studies have illuminated neuronal mechanisms of learned associations between sensory stimuli and fear responses. In rats, brief electrical stimulation of the infralimbic cortex has been shown to reduce conditioned freezing during recall of extinction memory. Here, we translated this finding to humans with magnetic resonance imaging-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Subjects (N = 28) were aversively conditioned to two different cues (day 1)...
November 6, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241651/distinct-roles-of-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-probdnf-in-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#12
Wei Sun, Xiaoliang Li, Lei An
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated for its positive role in regulation of fear acquisition and memory. The precursor of BDNF, proBDNF, has been identified as different protein from its mature form. The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are functionally distinct in fear behavior. However, the role of PL and IL proBDNF in fear memory is unclear. Here, through the infusion of cleavage-resistant proBDNF and its antibody, we identified the dissociable roles of PL and IL proBDNF in fear expression and extinction memory as well as explored proBDNF's potential mechanism of action...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238619/hippocampal-regulation-of-postsynaptic-density-homer1-by-associative-learning
#13
Nicholas E Clifton, Darren Cameron, Simon Trent, Lucy H Sykes, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233642/acute-inescapable-stress-alleviates-fear-extinction-recall-deficits-caused-by-serotonin-transporter-abolishment
#14
Pieter Schipper, Marloes J A G Henckens, Dora Lopresto, Tamas Kozicz, Judith R Homberg
Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT-/-) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT-/- rats and wildtype controls...
December 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229398/can-an-aversive-extinction-resistant-memory-trigger-impairments-in-walking-adaptability-an-experimental-study-using-adult-rats
#15
Filipe Mello Medeiros, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw, Pedro Porto Alegre Baptista, Laura Tartari Neves, Lucas Athaydes Martins, Cristiane Regina Guerino Furini, Iván Izquierdo, Léder Leal Xavier, Kristen Hollands, Régis Gemerasca Mestriner
Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225045/post-reexposure-administration-of-riluzole-attenuates-the-reconsolidation-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-rats
#16
Kie Akagi, Misa Yamada, Akiyoshi Saitoh, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
Recently, we demonstrated that riluzole, which has been shown to block the glutamatergic system, facilitates fear extinction in rats. Here, we undertook experiments on contextual fear conditioning to clarify the actions of riluzole on the reconsolidation of fear memory in rats. We used the fast-acting benzodiazepine midazolam as a reconsolidation-inhibiting control drug. We demonstrated that riluzole (3 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) impaired the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Results from spontaneous recovery experiments also suggested that riluzole attenuated reconsolidation...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225044/fear-extinction-in-an-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-animal-model-influence-of-sex-and-estrous-cycle
#17
Adriano Edgar Reimer, Amanda Ribeiro de Oliveira, Juliana Belo Diniz, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Mohammed Ragib Milad, Marcus Lira Brandão
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric condition that affects men and women equally, but with a sexually dimorphic pattern of development. Reproductive cycle events can influence symptom severity of OCD in females, indicating that ovarian hormones or their interaction with distinct neurotransmitter systems may play a role in OCD pathophysiology. Clinical studies and animal models have confirmed the importance of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of OCD. Accordingly, the non-selective 5-HT2c agonist, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), exacerbates symptoms in untreated OCD patients...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203805/a-novel-paradigm-to-study-interpersonal-threat-related-learning-and-extinction-in-children-using-virtual-reality
#18
Hilary A Marusak, Craig A Peters, Aneesh Hehr, Farrah Elrahal, Christine A Rabinak
Disruptions in fear-extinction learning are centrally implicated in a range of stress-related disorders, including anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. Given that these disorders frequently begin in childhood/adolescence, an understanding of fear-extinction learning in children is essential for (1) detecting the source of developmental susceptibility, (2) identifying mechanisms leading to pathology, and (3) informing the development and/or more judicious application of treatments for youth. Here, we offer and validate a novel virtual reality paradigm to study threat-related learning and extinction in children that models real-world cues, environments, and fear-inducing events that children are likely to experience, and are linked to the development of fear- and stress-related pathologies...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175512/altering-d1-receptor-activity-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-fear-suppression-during-a-safety-cue
#19
Ka H Ng, Michael W Pollock, Phillip J Urbanczyk, Susan Sangha
Accurate discrimination among cues signifying reward, danger or safety initiates the proper emotional response in order to guide behavior. Appropriate conditioned inhibition of fear in the presence of a safety cue would allow an organism to engage in reward seeking behaviors. There is currently little known about the mechanisms of reward, fear and safety cue discrimination and how a safety cue can inhibit fear and release reward seeking from inhibition. Here we assess reward, fear and safety cue learning together using a behavioral paradigm that has identified neurons that discriminate among these cues in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) (Sangha, Chadick, & Janak, 2013)...
November 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174948/divergent-prefrontal-dopaminergic-mechanisms-mediate-drug-and-fear-associated-cue-extinction-during-adolescence-versus-adulthood
#20
REVIEW
Isabel C Zbukvic, Jee Hyun Kim
Cue-associated learning is vital to guiding behaviour for survival. Adolescence represents a key developmental stage for perturbations in cue-related learning, including a characteristic deficit in cue extinction learning. The present review summarizes evidence from animal and human literature that cue extinction is critically mediated by prefrontal dopamine, a system that undergoes dramatic reorganization during adolescence. We propose that extinction learning and memory is governed by a developmentally dynamic balance of dopamine receptors in the prefrontal cortex, which changes across adolescence into adulthood...
November 23, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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