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Fear extinction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783162/a-peripheral-immune-response-to-remembering-trauma-contributes-to-the-maintenance-of-fear-memory-in-mice
#1
Matthew B Young, Leonard L Howell, Lauren Hopkins, Cassandra Moshfegh, Zhe Yu, Lauren Clubb, Jessica Seidenberg, Jeanie Park, Adam P Swiercz, Paul J Marvar
Alterations in peripheral immune markers are observed in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is characterized in part by impaired extinction of fear memory for a traumatic experience. We hypothesized that fear memory extinction is regulated by immune signaling stimulated when fear memory is retrieved. The relationship between fear memory and the peripheral immune response was tested using auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning in mice. Memory for the association was quantified by the amount of conditioned freezing exhibited in response to the conditioned stimulus (CS), extinction and time-dependent changes in circulating inflammatory cytokines...
May 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783059/disruption-of-medial-septum-and-diagonal-bands-of-broca-cholinergic-projections-to-the-ventral-hippocampus-disrupt-auditory-fear-memory
#2
Jennifer M Staib, Rebecca Della Valle, Dayan K Knox
In classical fear conditioning, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US), which leads to a fear memory. If the CS is repeatedly presented without the US after fear conditioning, the formation of an extinction memory occurs, which inhibits fear memory expression. A previous study has demonstrated that selective cholinergic lesions in the medial septum and vertical limb of the diagonal bands of Broca (MS/vDBB) prior to fear and extinction learning disrupt contextual fear memory discrimination and acquisition of extinction memory...
May 18, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780334/an-innovative-framework-for-delivering-psychotherapy-to-patients-with-treatment-resistant-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-rationale-for-interactive-motion-assisted-therapy
#3
Marieke J van Gelderen, Mirjam J Nijdam, Eric Vermetten
Despite an array of evidence-based psychological treatments for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a majority of patients do not fully benefit from the potential of these therapies. In veterans with PTSD, up to two-thirds retain their diagnosis after psychotherapy and often their disorder is treatment-resistant, which calls for improvement of therapeutic approaches for this population. One of the factors hypothesized to underlie low response in PTSD treatment is high behavioral and cognitive avoidance to traumatic reminders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773974/orexin-a-differentially-influences-the-extinction-retention-of-recent-and-remote-fear-memory
#5
Le Shi, Wenhao Chen, Jiahui Deng, Sijing Chen, Ying Han, Muhammad Z Khan, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Yanping Bao, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Recently the role of the orexin system in the learning and memory, especially orexin A, which could enhance fear memory through regulating the activity of amygdala, has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between orexin A and extinction memory remains unclear. To investigate the effect of orexin A on extinction memory in humans, we recruited 43 male subjects and divided them into a recent group and remote group. After acquiring Pavlovian fear conditioning, individuals in recent group experienced fear extinction 24 h after acquisition, and remote group underwent extinction 2 weeks later...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763633/estradiol-induced-enhancement-of-fear-extinction-in-female-rats-the-role-of-nmda-receptor-activation
#6
Bronwyn M Graham, Elliot Scott
Converging cross-species evidence indicates that fear extinction (the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders) in females is modulated by endogenous and exogenous estradiol. The mechanisms underlying estradiol's influences on fear extinction are largely undefined. However, one likely candidate is the NMDA-receptor (NMDAr), activation of which is necessary for estradiol-mediated enhancements in structural and functional neural plasticity, as well as extinction consolidation in males. Here, we demonstrate that systemic co-administration of the non-competitive NMDAr antagonist, MK801, blocked the enhancement of fear extinction by systemic estradiol in ovariectomized rats...
May 12, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762867/shaping-memory-consolidation-via-targeted-memory-reactivation-during-sleep
#7
REVIEW
Nicola Cellini, Alessandra Capuozzo
Recent studies have shown that the reactivation of specific memories during sleep can be modulated using external stimulation. Specifically, it has been reported that matching a sensory stimulus (e.g., odor or sound cue) with target information (e.g., pairs of words, pictures, and motor sequences) during wakefulness, and then presenting the cue alone during sleep, facilitates memory of the target information. Thus, presenting learned cues while asleep may reactivate related declarative, procedural, and emotional material, and facilitate the neurophysiological processes underpinning memory consolidation in humans...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747244/nucleus-reuniens-of-the-thalamus-controls-fear-memory-intensity-specificity-and-long-term-maintenance-during-consolidation
#8
Fernanda Troyner, Maira A Bicca, Leandro J Bertoglio
The thalamic nucleus reuniens (NR) has been shown to support bidirectional medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampus communication and synchronization relevant for cognitive processing. Using non-selective or prolonged inactivation of the NR, previous studies reported its activity positively modulates aversive memory consolidation. Here we examined the NR's role in consolidating contextual fear memories with varied strength, at both recent and more remote time points, using muscimol-induced temporary inactivation in rats...
May 10, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747141/social-and-monetary-incentives-counteract-fear-driven-avoidance-evidence-from-approach-avoidance-decisions
#9
Andre Pittig, Kristina Hengen, Florian Bublatzky, Georg W Alpers
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The reduction of avoidance behavior is a central target in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but it has rarely been studied how approach of fear-relevant stimuli may be initiated. In two studies, the impact of hypothetical monetary and symbolic social incentives on approach-avoidance behavior was examined. METHODS: In Study 1, individuals high or low on fear of spiders (N = 84) could choose to approach a fear-relevant versus a neutral stimulus, which were equally rewarded...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744810/correction-to-intranasal-cotinine-plus-krill-oil-facilitates-fear-extinction-decreases-depressive-like-behavior-and-increases-hippocampal-calcineurin-a-levels-in-mice
#10
Nathalie Alvarez-Ricartes, Patricia Oliveros-Matus, Cristhian Mendoza, Nelson Perez-Urrutia, Florencia Echeverria, Alexandre Iarkov, George E Barreto, Valentina Echeverria
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistake in its Funding inforation.
April 26, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744783/behavioral-interventions-to-eliminate-fear-responses
#11
REVIEW
Jingli Yue, Le Shi, Xiao Lin, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Fear memory underlies anxiety-related disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD is a fear-based disorder, characterized by difficulties in extinguishing the learned fear response and maintaining extinction. Currently, the first-line treatment for PTSD is exposure therapy, which forms an extinction memory to compete with the original fear memory. However, the extinguished fear often returns under numerous circumstances, suggesting that novel methods are needed to eliminate fear memory or facilitate extinction memory...
May 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743496/complex-housing-causes-a-robust-increase-in-dendritic-complexity-and-spine-density-of-medial-prefrontal-cortical-neurons
#12
Archana Ashokan, Jamien Wee Han Lim, Nicholas Hang, Rupshi Mitra
Prelimbic cortex and infralimbic cortex, parts of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, are critical brain regions for generating a flexible behavioral response to changing environmental contingencies. This includes the role of these brain structures in the extinction of learned fear, decision making and retrieval of remote memories. Dendritic structure of medial prefrontal cortex neurons retains significant structural plasticity in adulthood. This has been mainly demonstrated as dendritic atrophy and loss of dendritic spines due to chronic stress...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734227/fear-processing-psychophysiology-and-ptsd
#13
Seth Davin Norrholm, Tanja Jovanovic
The processing and regulation of fear is one of the key components of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fear can involve both acute and potential threats that can manifest in different behaviors and result from activity within different neural nodes and networks. Fear circuits have been studied extensively in animal models for several decades and in human neuroimaging research for almost 20 years. Therefore, the centrality of fear processing to PTSD lends the disorder to be more tractable to investigation at the level of brain and behavior, and provides several observable phenotypes that can be linked to PTSD symptoms...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734226/functional-neuroanatomy-of-emotion-and-its-regulation-in-ptsd
#14
Jacklynn M Fitzgerald, Julia A DiGangi, K Luan Phan
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating disorder, linked to profound mental, physical, occupational, and functional impairment. In addition, it is a highly complex disorder, characterized by symptom heterogeneity across multiple domains. Nevertheless, emotion dysregulation arising from the exaggerated response to threat or from the inability to regulate negative emotional states plays a defining role in the pathophysiology of PTSD. In order to improve our understanding of how emotion dysregulation manifests in this illness, functional neuroimaging research over the past 20 years provides great insight into underlying neuroanatomy of each component of emotion dysregulation in the context of PTSD...
May 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724018/neural-oscillatory-correlates-for-conditioning-and-extinction-of-fear
#15
REVIEW
Carlos Trenado, Nicole Pedroarena-Leal, Laura Cif, Michael Nitsche, Diane Ruge
The extinction of conditioned-fear represents a hallmark of current exposure therapies as it has been found to be impaired in people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety. A large body of knowledge focusing on psychophysiological animal and human studies suggests the involvement of key brain structures that interact via neural oscillations during the acquisition and extinction of fear. Consequently, neural oscillatory correlates of such mechanisms appear relevant regarding the development of novel therapeutic approaches to counterbalance abnormal activity in fear-related brain circuits, which, in turn, could alleviate fear and anxiety symptoms...
May 1, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723713/multiple-fear-related-stimuli-enhance-physiological-arousal-during-extinction-and-reduce-physiological-arousal-to-novel-stimuli-and-the-threat-conditioned-stimulus
#16
Allison M Waters, Rachel Kershaw, Ottmar V Lipp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707269/causal-role-of-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-on-successful-memory-consolidation-of-fear-extinction
#17
EDITORIAL
Si-Zhi Ai, Xi-Jian Dai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705576/estradiol-moderates-the-relationship-between-state-trait-anxiety-and-attentional-bias-to-threat-in-women
#18
Bronwyn M Graham, Geena Shin
Anxiety disorders are characterized by impaired fear extinction and heightened attentional allocation to threatening stimuli. The sex hormones estradiol and progesterone modulate fear extinction in female rats and women; whether these hormones are similarly related to attentional biases to threat has not been examined. In the present study 74 women (53 cycling, 21 using hormonal contraception), and a comparison group of 30 men, completed standard assessments of state-trait anxiety, as well symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, followed by a computerized assessment of attentional bias, the dot-probe task...
April 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704972/safety-behavior-after-extinction-triggers-a-return-of-threat-expectancy
#19
Sophie L van Uijen, Arne Leer, Iris M Engelhard
Safety behavior is involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders, presumably because it prevents the violation of negative expectancies. Recent research showed that safety behavior is resistant to fear extinction. This fear conditioning study investigated whether safety behavior after fear extinction triggers a return of fear in healthy participants. Participants learned that two stimuli (A and C) were followed by an aversive loud noise ("threat"), and one stimulus (B) was not. Participants then learned to use safety behavior that prevented the loud noise...
May 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702257/verbal-instruction-can-induce-extinction-of-fear-of-movement-related-pain
#20
Yoshiki Maeda, Shigeyuki Kan, Yuji Fujino, Masahiko Shibata
The fear avoidance model of chronic musculoskeletal pain highlights the importance of pain-related fear in chronification of pain. Although several interventions have been developed based on this model, the following issues remain unresolved: first, whether movement conditioned to pain can evoke fear responses particularly sympathetic activation; second, whether verbal instructions can attenuate conditioned fear of movement-related pain as with direct experience. To investigate these issues, we induced proprioceptive conditioning (learning the relationship between proprioceptive sensations and an aversive event) and extinction learning in healthy volunteers, and we compared psychophysiological and subjective indices of fear between an Instructed and a Normal extinction group...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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