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Cholinergic interneurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774449/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-following-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#1
Xuyan Jin, Dong Kyu Kim, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760524/what-does-dopamine-mean
#2
REVIEW
Joshua D Berke
Dopamine is a critical modulator of both learning and motivation. This presents a problem: how can target cells know whether increased dopamine is a signal to learn or to move? It is often presumed that motivation involves slow ('tonic') dopamine changes, while fast ('phasic') dopamine fluctuations convey reward prediction errors for learning. Yet recent studies have shown that dopamine conveys motivational value and promotes movement even on subsecond timescales. Here I describe an alternative account of how dopamine regulates ongoing behavior...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758221/inhibition-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-by-the-kv7-opener-retigabine-and-the-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-diclofenac
#3
Rodrigo Manuel Paz, Cecilia Tubert, Agostina Stahl, Analía López Díaz, Roberto Etchenique, Mario Gustavo Murer, Lorena Rela
Striatal cholinergic interneurons provide modulation to striatal circuits involved in voluntary motor control and goal-directed behaviors through their autonomous tonic discharge and their firing "pause" responses to novel and rewarding environmental events. Striatal cholinergic interneuron hyperactivity was linked to the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease and the adverse effects of chronic antiparkinsonian therapy like l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Here we addressed whether Kv7 channels, which provide negative feedback to excitation in other neuron types, are involved in the control of striatal cholinergic interneuron tonic activity and response to excitatory inputs...
May 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754751/pauses-in-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-are-driven-by-excitatory-input-and-delayed-rectification-with-dopamine-modulation
#4
Yan-Feng Zhang, John N J Reynolds, Stephanie J Cragg
Cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) of the striatum pause their firing in response to salient stimuli and conditioned stimuli after learning. Several different mechanisms for pause generation have been proposed, but a unifying basis has not previously emerged. Here, using in vivo and ex vivo recordings in rat and mouse brain and a computational model, we show that ChI pauses are driven by withdrawal of excitatory inputs to striatum and result from a delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr ) in concert with local neuromodulation...
May 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749407/peripheral-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-localization-and-role-in-gastric-acid-secretion-regulation-immunofluorescence-and-pharmacological-studies
#5
Iuliia Golovynska, Tatiana V Beregova, Tatiana M Falalyeyeva, Ludmila I Stepanova, Sergii Golovynskyi, Junle Qu, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy
The enteric nervous system (ENS) and a glutamate receptor (GluR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), participate in gastric acid secretion (GAS) regulation. NMDARs are localized in different stomach cells; however, knowledge of NMDAR expression and function in the ENS is limited. In the present study, we clarified the types of stomach cells that express the NMDARs that are involved in GAS regulation. The pharmacological method of isolated stomach perfusion by Ghosh and Shild combined with direct mapping of NMDARs by fluorescence microscopy in the rat stomach was employed...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739869/synaptic-release-of-acetylcholine-rapidly-suppresses-cortical-activity-by-recruiting-muscarinic-receptors-in-layer-4
#6
Rajan Dasgupta, Frederik Seibt, Michael Beierlein
Cholinergic afferents from the basal forebrain (BF) can influence cortical activity on rapid time scales, enabling sensory information processing and exploratory behavior. However, our understanding of how synaptically released acetylcholine (ACh) influences cellular targets in distinct cortical layers remains incomplete. Previous studies have shown that rapid changes in cortical dynamics induced by phasic BF activity can be mediated by the activation of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) expressed in distinct types of GABAergic interneurons...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735936/experimental-intrastriatal-applications-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Alexander Hawlitschka, Andreas Wree
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disorders. Its main pathophysiological characteristic is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta followed by a lack of striatal dopaminergic input and a consequent disinhibition of tonically active cholinergic interneurons. The resulting striatal hypercholinism causes major motor symptoms in PD. Anticholinergic pharmacotherapies have antiparkinsonian effects on motor symptoms, but, due to systemic actions, also numerous severe side effects occur on a regular basis...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714166/differential-inputs-to-striatal-cholinergic-and-parvalbumin-interneurons-imply-functional-distinctions
#8
Jason R Klug, Max D Engelhardt, Cara N Cadman, Hao Li, Jared B Smith, Sarah Ayala, Elora W Williams, Hilary Hoffman, Xin Jin
Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681847/cholinergic-hypofunction-in-presbycusis-related-tinnitus-with-cognitive-function-impairment-emerging-hypotheses
#9
Qingwei Ruan, Zhuowei Yu, Weibin Zhang, Jian Ruan, Chunhui Liu, Ruxin Zhang
Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659809/a-new-mouse-model-of-arx-dup24-recapitulates-the-patients-behavioural-and-fine-motor-alterations
#10
Aline Dubos, Hamid Meziane, Giovanni Iacono, Aurore Curie, Fabrice Riet, Christelle Martin, Nadège Loaëc, Marie-Christine Birling, Mohammed Selloum, Elisabeth Normand, Guillaume Pavlovic, Tania Sorg, Henk G Stunnenberg, Jamel Chelly, Yann Humeau, Gaëlle Friocourt, Yann Hérault
The Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) transcription factor is involved in the development of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ARX mutations have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, among which the most frequent, a 24bp duplication in the polyalanine tract 2 (c.428_451dup24), gives rise to intellectual disability, fine motor defects with or without epilepsy. To understand the functional consequences of this mutation, we generated a partially humanized mouse model carrying the c...
April 5, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651049/gabaergic-inhibition-in-dual-transmission-cholinergic-and-gabaergic-striatal-interneurons-is-abolished-in-parkinson-disease
#11
N Lozovaya, S Eftekhari, R Cloarec, L A Gouty-Colomer, A Dufour, B Riffault, M Billon-Grand, A Pons-Bennaceur, N Oumar, N Burnashev, Y Ben-Ari, C Hammond
We report that half striatal cholinergic interneurons are dual transmitter cholinergic and GABAergic interneurons (CGINs) expressing ChAT, GAD65, Lhx7, and Lhx6 mRNAs, labeled with GAD and VGAT, generating monosynaptic dual cholinergic/GABAergic currents and an inhibitory pause response. Dopamine deprivation increases CGINs ongoing activity and abolishes GABAergic inhibition including the cortico-striatal pause because of high [Cl- ]i levels. Dopamine deprivation also dramatically increases CGINs dendritic arbors and monosynaptic interconnections probability, suggesting the formation of a dense CGINs network...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615610/alcohol-exposure-disrupts-mu-opioid-receptor-mediated-long-term-depression-at-insular-cortex-inputs-to-dorsolateral-striatum
#12
Braulio Muñoz, Brandon M Fritz, Fuqin Yin, Brady K Atwood
Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, ablate the expression of specific forms of long-term synaptic depression (LTD) at glutamatergic synapses in dorsal striatum (DS), a brain region involved in goal-directed and habitual behaviors. This loss of LTD is associated with altered DS-dependent behavior. Given the role of the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) in behavioral responding for alcohol, we explored the impact of alcohol on various forms of MOR-mediated synaptic depression that we find are differentially expressed at specific DS synapses...
April 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578407/pauses-in-cholinergic-interneuron-firing-exert-an-inhibitory-control-on-striatal-output-in-vivo
#13
Stefano Zucca, Aya Zucca, Takashi Nakano, Sho Aoki, Jeffery Wickens
The cholinergic interneurons (CINs) of the striatum are crucial for normal motor and behavioral functions of the basal ganglia. Striatal CINs exhibit tonic firing punctuated by distinct pauses. Pauses occur in response to motivationally significant events, but their function is unknown. Here we investigated the effects of pauses in CIN firing on spiny projection neurons (SPNs) - the output neurons of the striatum - using in vivo whole cell and juxtacellular recordings in mice. We found that optogenetically-induced pauses in CIN firing inhibited subthreshold membrane potential activity and decreased firing of SPNs...
March 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523815/intensify3d-normalizing-signal-intensity-in-large-heterogenic-image-stacks
#14
Nadav Yayon, Amir Dudai, Nora Vrieler, Oren Amsalem, Michael London, Hermona Soreq
Three-dimensional structures in biological systems are routinely evaluated using large image stacks acquired from fluorescence microscopy; however, analysis of such data is muddled by variability in the signal across and between samples. Here, we present Intensify3D: a user-guided normalization algorithm tailored for overcoming common heterogeneities in large image stacks. We demonstrate the use of Intensify3D for analyzing cholinergic interneurons of adult murine brains in 2-Photon and Light-Sheet fluorescence microscopy, as well as of mammary gland and heart tissues...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492663/the-striatal-cholinergic-system-in-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesias
#15
REVIEW
X A Perez, T Bordia, M Quik
Cholinergic signaling plays a key role in regulating striatal function. The principal source of acetylcholine in the striatum is the cholinergic interneurons which, although low in number, densely arborize to modulate striatal neurotransmission. This modulation occurs via strategically positioned nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors that influence striatal dopamine, GABA and other neurotransmitter release. Cholinergic interneurons integrate multiple striatal synaptic inputs and outputs to regulate motor activity under normal physiological conditions...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487212/target-selectivity-of-septal-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-medial-and-lateral-entorhinal-cortex
#16
Srinidhi Desikan, David E Koser, Angela Neitz, Hannah Monyer
The entorhinal cortex (EC) plays a pivotal role in processing and conveying spatial information to the hippocampus. It has long been known that EC neurons are modulated by cholinergic input from the medial septum. However, little is known as to how synaptic release of acetylcholine affects the different cell types in EC. Here we combined optogenetics and patch-clamp recordings to study the effect of cholinergic axon stimulation on distinct neurons in EC. We found dense cholinergic innervations that terminate in layer I and II (LI and LII)...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480942/excitatory-extrinsic-afferents-to-striatal-interneurons-and-interactions-with-striatal-microcircuitry
#17
REVIEW
Maxime Assous, James M Tepper
The striatum constitutes the main input structure of the basal ganglia and receives two major excitatory glutamatergic inputs, from the cortex and the thalamus. Excitatory cortico- and thalamostriatal connections innervate the principal neurons of the striatum, the spiny projection neurons (SPNs), which constitute the main cellular input as well as the only output of the striatum. In addition, corticostriatal and thalamostriatal inputs also innervate striatal interneurons. Some of these inputs have been very well studied, for example the thalamic innervation of cholinergic interneurons and the cortical innervation of striatal fast-spiking interneurons, but inputs to most other GABAergic interneurons remain largely unstudied, due in part to the relatively recent identification and characterization of many of these interneurons...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470055/unique-molecular-regulation-of-higher-order-prefrontal-cortical-circuits-insights-into-the-neurobiology-of-schizophrenia
#18
Dibyadeep Datta, Amy F T Arnsten
Schizophrenia is associated with core deficits in cognitive abilities and impaired functioning of the newly evolved prefrontal association cortex (PFC). In particular, neuropathological studies of schizophrenia have found selective atrophy of the pyramidal cell microcircuits in deep layer III of the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) and compensatory weakening of related GABAergic interneurons. Studies in monkeys have shown that recurrent excitation in these layer III microcircuits generates the precisely patterned, persistent firing needed for working memory and abstract thought...
March 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467627/basal-ganglia-neuromodulation-over-multiple-temporal-and-structural-scales-simulations-of-direct-pathway-msns-investigate-the-fast-onset-of-dopaminergic-effects-and-predict-the-role-of-kv4-2
#19
Robert Lindroos, Matthijs C Dorst, Kai Du, Marko Filipović, Daniel Keller, Maya Ketzef, Alexander K Kozlov, Arvind Kumar, Mikael Lindahl, Anu G Nair, Juan Pérez-Fernández, Sten Grillner, Gilad Silberberg, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are involved in the motivational and habitual control of motor and cognitive behaviors. Striatum, the largest basal ganglia input stage, integrates cortical and thalamic inputs in functionally segregated cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loops, and in addition the basal ganglia output nuclei control targets in the brainstem. Striatal function depends on the balance between the direct pathway medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) that express D1 dopamine receptors and the indirect pathway MSNs that express D2 dopamine receptors...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437952/septal-cholinergic-neurons-gate-hippocampal-output-to-entorhinal-cortex-via-oriens-lacunosum-moleculare-interneurons
#20
Juhee Haam, Jingheng Zhou, Guohong Cui, Jerrel L Yakel
Neuromodulation of neural networks, whereby a selected circuit is regulated by a particular modulator, plays a critical role in learning and memory. Among neuromodulators, acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in hippocampus-dependent memory and has been shown to modulate neuronal circuits in the hippocampus. However, it has remained unknown how ACh modulates hippocampal output. Here, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we show that ACh, by activating oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) interneurons and therefore augmenting the negative-feedback regulation to the CA1 pyramidal neurons, suppresses the circuit from the hippocampal area CA1 to the deep-layer entorhinal cortex (EC)...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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