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Cholinergic interneurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629847/evidence-for-m2-muscarinic-receptor-modulation-of-axon-terminals-and-dendrites-in-the-rodent-basolateral-amygdala-an-ultrastructural-and-electrophysiological-analysis
#1
Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Lei Liu, David D Mott, Alexander J McDonald
The basolateral amygdala receives a very dense cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is important for memory consolidation. Although behavioral studies have shown that both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors are critical for these mnemonic functions, there have been very few neuroanatomical and electrophysiological investigations of the localization and function of different types of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) of the mouse, including the localization of M2Rs in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons, using double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#2
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604688/differential-processing-of-thalamic-information-via-distinct-striatal-interneuron-circuits
#3
Maxime Assous, Jaime Kaminer, Fulva Shah, Arpan Garg, Tibor Koós, James M Tepper
Recent discoveries of striatal GABAergic interneurons require a new conceptualization of the organization of intrastriatal circuitry and their cortical and thalamic inputs. We investigated thalamic inputs to the two populations of striatal neuropeptide Y (NPY) interneurons, plateau low threshold spike (PLTS) and NPY-neurogliaform (NGF) cells. Optogenetic activation of parafascicular inputs evokes suprathreshold monosynaptic glutamatergic excitation in NGF interneurons and a disynaptic, nicotinic excitation through cholinergic interneurons...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603497/sigma-1-receptor-plays-a-negative-modulation-on-n-type-calcium-channel
#4
Kang Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Liting Lan, Xiaoli Wei, Liyun Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Haitao Yan, Jianquan Zheng
The sigma-1 receptor is a 223 amino acids molecular chaperone with a single transmembrane domain. It is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. By chaperone-mediated interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules, the sigma-1 receptor performs broad physiological and pharmacological functions. Despite sigma-1 receptors have been confirmed to regulate various types of ion channels, the relationship between the sigma-1 receptor and N-type Ca(2+) channel is still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589928/dendro-dendritic-cholinergic-excitation-controls-dendritic-spike-initiation-in-retinal-ganglion-cells
#5
A Brombas, S Kalita-de Croft, E J Cooper-Williams, S R Williams
The retina processes visual images to compute features such as the direction of image motion. Starburst amacrine cells (SACs), axonless feed-forward interneurons, are essential components of the retinal direction-selective circuitry. Recent work has highlighted that SAC-mediated dendro-dendritic inhibition controls the action potential output of direction-selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) by vetoing dendritic spike initiation. However, SACs co-release GABA and the excitatory neurotransmitter acetylcholine at dendritic sites...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587876/strength-of-cholinergic-tone-dictates-the-polarity-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-modulation-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-excitability-in-dyt1-dystonia
#6
Mariangela Scarduzio, Chelsea N Zimmerman, Karen L Jaunarajs, Qin Wang, David G Standaert, Lori L McMahon
Balance between cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling is central to striatal control of movement and cognition. In dystonia, a common disorder of movement, anticholinergic therapy is often beneficial. This observation suggests there is a pathological increase in cholinergic tone, yet direct confirmation is lacking. In DYT1, an early-onset genetic form of dystonia caused by a mutation in the protein torsinA (TorA), the suspected heightened cholinergic tone is commonly attributed to faulty dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signaling where D2R agonists cause excitation of striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs), rather than the normal inhibition of firing observed in wild-type animals, an effect known as "paradoxical excitation"...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580046/characterization-of-microfluidic-clamps-for-immobilizing-and-imaging-of-drosophila-melanogaster-larva-s-central-nervous-system
#7
Reza Ghaemi, Pouya Rezai, Fatemeh Rafiei Nejad, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy
Drosophila melanogaster is a well-established model organism to understand biological processes and study human diseases at the molecular-genetic level. The central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila larvae is widely used as a model to study neuron development and network formation. This has been achieved by using various genetic manipulation tools such as microinjection to knock down certain genes or over-express proteins for visualizing the cellular activities. However, visualization of an intact-live neuronal response in larva's Central Nervous System (CNS) is challenging due to robust digging/burrowing behaviour that impedes neuroimaging...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553205/dopamine-and-serotonin-induced-modulation-of-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-striatum-and-basal-forebrain
#8
REVIEW
Toshihiko Momiyama, Takuma Nishijo
Catecholamine receptor-mediated modulation of glutamatergic or GABAergic transmission in the striatum as well as basal forebrain (BF) has been intensively studied during these two decades. In the striatum, activation of dopamine (DA) D2 receptors in GABAergic terminals inhibits GABA release onto cholinergic interneurons by selective blockade of N-type calcium channels. In the BF, glutamatergic transmission onto cholinergic projection neurons is inhibited via DA D1-like receptors by selective blockade of P/Q-type calcium channels...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497110/accumbal-cholinergic-interneurons-differentially-influence-motivation-related-to-satiety-signaling
#9
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Benjamin U Phillips, Elpiniki Pappa, Y Audrey Hay, Fiona Harnischfeger, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Tim J Bussey, John Apergis-Schoute
Satiety, rather than all or none, can instead be viewed as a cumulative decrease in the drive to eat that develops over the course of a meal. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to play a critical role in this type of value reappraisal, but the underlying circuits that influence such processes are unclear. Although NAc cholinergic interneurons (CINs) comprise only a small proportion of NAc neurons, their local impact on reward-based processes provides a candidate cell population for investigating the neural underpinnings of satiety...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476642/properties-of-the-corticostriatal-long-term-depression-induced-by-medial-prefrontal-cortex-high-frequency-stimulation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Barbara Y Braz, Juan E Belforte, M Gustavo Murer, Gregorio L Galiñanes
Repetitive stimulation of cognitive forebrain circuits at frequencies capable of inducing corticostriatal long term plasticity is increasingly being used with therapeutic purposes in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. However, corticostriatal plasticity is rarely studied in the intact brain. Our aim was to study the mechanisms of corticostriatal long term depression (LTD) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the medial prefrontal cortex in vivo. Our main finding is that the LTD induced in the dorsomedial striatum by medial prefrontal cortex HFS in vivo (prefrontostriatal LTD) is not affected by manipulations that block or reduce the LTD induced in the dorsolateral striatum by motor cortex HFS in brain slices, including pharmacological dopamine receptor and CB1 receptor blockade, chronic nigrostriatal dopamine depletion, CB1 receptor genetic deletion and selective striatal cholinergic interneuron (SCIN) ablation...
May 2, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467898/distinct-corticostriatal-gabaergic-neurons-modulate-striatal-output-neurons-and-motor-activity
#11
Sarah Melzer, Mariana Gil, David E Koser, Magdalena Michael, Kee Wui Huang, Hannah Monyer
The motor cortico-basal ganglion loop is critical for motor planning, execution, and learning. Balanced excitation and inhibition in this loop is crucial for proper motor output. Excitatory neurons have been thought to be the only source of motor cortical input to the striatum. Here, we identify long-range projecting GABAergic neurons in the primary (M1) and secondary (M2) motor cortex that target the dorsal striatum. This population of projecting GABAergic neurons comprises both somatostatin-positive (SOM(+)) and parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons that target direct and indirect pathway striatal output neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons differentially...
May 2, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436626/-the-role-of-central-cholinergic-system-in-epilepsy
#12
Ying Wang, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which is not only related to the imbalance between excitatory glutamic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic neurons, but also related to abnormal central cholinergic regulation. This article summarizes the scientific background and experimental data about cholinergic dysfunction in epilepsy from both cellular and network levels, further discusses the exact role of cholinergic system in epilepsy. In the cellular level, several types of epilepsy are believed to be associated with aberrant metabotropic muscarinic receptors in several different brain areas, while the mutations of ionotropic nicotinic receptors have been reported to result in a specific type of epilepsy-autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421605/cholinergic-glutamatergic-co-transmission-in-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-new-mechanisms-regulating-striatal-computation
#13
REVIEW
Ornela Kljakic, Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado
It is well established that neurons secrete neuropeptides and ATP with classical neurotransmitters; however, certain neuronal populations are also capable of releasing two classical neurotransmitters by a process named co-transmission. Although there has been progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying co-transmission, the individual regulation of neurotransmitter secretion and the functional significance of this neuronal 'bilingualism' is still unknown. Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) have been shown to secrete glutamate (Glu) in addition to acetylcholine (ACh) and are recognized for their role in the regulation of striatal circuits and behavior...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377698/striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-modulate-spike-timing-in-striosomes-and-matrix-by-an-amphetamine-sensitive-mechanism
#14
Jill R Crittenden, Carolyn J Lacey, Feng-Ju Weng, Catherine E Garrison, Daniel J Gibson, Yingxi Lin, Ann M Graybiel
The striatum is key for action-selection and the motivation to move. Dopamine and acetylcholine release sites are enriched in the striatum and are cross-regulated, possibly to achieve optimal behavior. Drugs of abuse, which promote abnormally high dopamine release, disrupt normal action-selection and drive restricted, repetitive behaviors (stereotypies). Stereotypies occur in a variety of disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, schizophrenia and Huntington's disease, as well as in addictive states...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347488/targeted-interneuron-depletion-in-the-dorsal-striatum-produces-autism-like-behavioral-abnormalities-in-male-but-not-female-mice
#15
Maximiliano Rapanelli, Luciana Romina Frick, Meiyu Xu, Stephanie Mary Groman, Kantiya Jindachomthong, Nobuaki Tamamaki, Chiyoko Tanahira, Jane Rebecca Taylor, Christopher Pittenger
BACKGROUND: Interneuronal pathology is implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Interneurons of the striatum, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) and the large cholinergic interneurons (CINs), are affected in patients with TS and in preclinical models of both ASD and TS. METHODS: To test the causal importance of these neuronal abnormalities, we recapitulated them in vivo in developmentally normal mice using a combination transgenic-viral strategy for targeted toxin-mediated ablation...
February 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324169/roles-of-centromedian-parafascicular-nuclei-of-thalamus-and-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-striatum-in-associative-learning-of-environmental-events
#16
REVIEW
Ko Yamanaka, Yukiko Hori, Takafumi Minamimoto, Hiroshi Yamada, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Kazuki Enomoto, Toshihiko Aosaki, Ann M Graybiel, Minoru Kimura
The thalamus provides a massive input to the striatum, but despite accumulating evidence, the functions of this system remain unclear. It is known, however, that the centromedian (CM) and parafascicular (Pf) nuclei of the thalamus can strongly influence particular striatal neuron subtypes, notably including the cholinergic interneurons of the striatum (CINs), key regulators of striatal function. Here, we highlight the thalamostriatal system through the CM-Pf to striatal CINs. We consider how, by virtue of the direct synaptic connections of the CM and PF, their neural activity contributes to the activity of CINs and striatal projection neurons (SPNs)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289379/dichotomous-distribution-of-putative-cholinergic-interneurons-in-mouse-accessory-olfactory-bulb
#17
Sarah Marking, Kurt Krosnowski, Tatsuya Ogura, Weihong Lin
Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254942/layer-specific-modulation-of-neocortical-dendritic-inhibition-during-active-wakefulness
#18
William Muñoz, Robin Tremblay, Daniel Levenstein, Bernardo Rudy
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inputs are strategically positioned to gate synaptic integration along the dendritic arbor of pyramidal cells. However, their spatiotemporal dynamics during behavior are poorly understood. Using an optical-tagging electrophysiological approach to record and label somatostatin-expressing (Sst) interneurons (GABAergic neurons specialized for dendritic inhibition), we discovered a layer-specific modulation of their activity in behaving mice. Sst interneuron subtypes, residing in different cortical layers and innervating complementary laminar domains, exhibited opposite activity changes during transitions to active wakefulness...
March 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239444/locomotory-control-in-amphioxus-larvae-new-insights-from-neurotransmitter-data
#19
EDITORIAL
Thurston Lacalli, Simona Candiani
Amphioxus larvae have a midbrain-level locomotory control center whose overall organization is known from serial TEM reconstructions. How it functions has been a puzzle, owing to uncertainty as to the transmitters used by each class of neurons, but this has recently become clearer. We summarize what is now known, and correct past misconceptions: The large paired neurons at the core of the control center are glutamatergic, and hence excitatory, the commissural neurons are GABAergic, hence probably inhibitory, and both motoneurons and ipsilateral projection neurons are cholinergic, suggesting that the latter, a class of interneurons, may be derived evolutionarily from the former...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228580/probing-phase-and-frequency-dependent-characteristics-of-cortical-interneurons-using-combined-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#20
Sara J Hussain, Nivethida Thirugnanasambandam
Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral stimulation combined with TMS can be used to study cortical interneuronal circuitry. By combining these procedures with concurrent transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), Guerra and colleagues recently showed that different cortical interneuronal populations are differentially modulated by the phase and frequency of tACS-imposed oscillations (Guerra A, Pogosyan A, Nowak M, Tan H, Ferreri F, Di Lazzaro V, Brown P. Cerebral Cortex 26: 3977-2990, 2016)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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