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Cholinergic interneurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120510/in-vitro-characterization-of-gamma-oscillations-in-the-hippocampal-formation-of-the-domestic-chick
#1
Pradeep Dheerendra, Nicholas M Lynch, Joseph Crutwell, Mark O Cunningham, Tom V Smulders
Avian and mammalian brains have evolved independently from each other for about 300 million years. During that time, the hippocampal formation (HF) has diverged in morphology and cyto-architecture, but seems to have conserved much of its function. It is therefore an open question how seemingly different neural organizations can generate the same function. A prominent feature of the mammalian hippocampus is that it generates different neural oscillations, including the gamma rhythm, which plays an important role in memory processing...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119611/task-dependent-function-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-in-behavioural-flexibility
#2
Kana Okada, Kayo Nishizawa, Susumu Setogawa, Kouichi Hashimoto, Kazuto Kobayashi
Flexible switching of behaviours depends on integrative functioning through the neural circuit connecting the prefrontal cortex and the dorsomedial striatum (DMS). Although cholinergic interneurons modulate striatal outputs by diverse synaptic mechanisms, the roles of cholinergic interneurons in the DMS appear to vary among different models used to validate behavioural flexibility. Here, we conducted immunotoxin-mediated cell targeting of DMS cholinergic interneurons and examined the functions of these interneurons in behavioural flexibility, with the learning conditions differing in trial spacing and discrimination type in a modified T maze...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101523/functional-comparison-of-corticostriatal-and-thalamostriatal-postsynaptic-responses-in-striatal-neurons-of-the-mouse
#3
M A Arias-García, D Tapia, J A Laville, V M Calderón, Y Ramiro-Cortés, J Bargas, E Galarraga
Synaptic inputs from cortex and thalamus were compared in electrophysiologically defined striatal cell classes: direct and indirect pathways' striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs), fast-spiking interneurons (FS), cholinergic interneurons (ChINs), and low-threshold spiking-like (LTS-like) interneurons. Our purpose was to observe whether stimulus from cortex or thalamus had equivalent synaptic strength to evoke prolonged suprathreshold synaptic responses in these neuron classes. Subthreshold responses showed that inputs from either source functionally mix up in their dendrites at similar electrotonic distances from their somata...
November 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097596/ck2-oppositely-modulates-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-via-striatal-projection-neurons-expressing-d1-or-d2-receptors
#4
Marisol Cortés, Lauren Malave, Julia Castello, Marc Flajolet, M Angela Cenci, Eitan Friedman, Heike Rebholz
We have previously shown that casein kinase 2 (CK2) negatively regulates dopamine D1- and adenosine A2a receptor signaling in the striatum. Ablation of CK2 in D1-receptor-positive striatal neurons caused enhanced locomotion and exploration at baseline, whereas CK2 ablation in D2 receptor-positive neurons caused increased locomotion after treatment with A2a antagonist, caffeine. Since both, D1 and A2a receptors, play major roles in the cellular responses to L-DOPA in the striatum, these findings prompted us to examine the impact of CK2 ablation on the effects of L-DOPA treatment in the unilateral 6-OHDA lesioned mouse model of Parkinson's disease...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055101/substance-p-and-dopamine-interact-to-modulate-the-distribution-of-delta-opioid-receptors-on-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-striatum
#5
Emily Heath, Billy Chieng, Macdonald J Christie, Bernard W Balleine
It recently been demonstrated that predictive learning induces a persistent accumulation of delta-opioid receptors (DOPr's) at the somatic membrane of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in the nucleus accumbens shell (Nac-S). This accumulation is required for predictive learning to influence subsequent choice between goal-directed actions. The current experiments investigated the local neurochemical events responsible for this translocation. We found that (1) local administration of substance P into multiple striatal sub-territories induced DOPr translocation and (2) that this effect was mediated by the NK1 receptor, likely through its expression on CINs...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037828/chemogenetic-modulation-of-cholinergic-interneurons-reveals-their-regulating-role-on-the-direct-and-indirect-output-pathways-from-the-striatum
#6
Patrick Aldrin-Kirk, Andreas Heuer, Daniella Rylander Ottosson, Marcus Davidsson, Bengt Mattsson, Tomas Björklund
The intricate balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been thoroughly difficult to characterize. It was initially described as a seesaw with a competing function of dopamine versus acetylcholine. Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. In this study, we have utilized two transgenic Cre-driver rat lines, a choline acetyl transferase ChAT-Cre transgenic rat and a novel double-transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase TH-Cre/ChAT-Cre rat to further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs in normal motor function and in Parkinson's disease...
October 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030431/distinctive-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-mediated-by-dopamine-and-acetylcholine-receptors
#7
Jung Hoon Shin, Martin F Adrover, Veronica A Alvarez
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA dependent behaviors, such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A di-synaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this di-synaptic mechanism of DA transmission is not well understood in the NAc shell...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970101/modulation-of-hyperpolarization-activated-cation-current-ih-by-volatile-anesthetic-sevoflurane-in-the-mouse-striatum-during-postnatal-development
#8
Yusuke Sugasawa, Masataka Fukuda, Nozomi Ando, Ritsuko Inoue, Sakura Nakauchi, Masami Miura, Kinya Nishimura
Volatile anesthetics have been reported to inhibit hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide gated channels underlying the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) that contributes to generation of synchronized oscillatory neural rhythms. Meanwhile, the developmental change of Ih has been speculated to play a pivotal role during maturation. In this study, we examined the effect of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane, which is widely used in pediatric surgery, on Ih and on functional Ih activation kinetics of cholinergic interneurons in developing striatum...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966579/medial-septum-modulates-cellular-response-induced-in-hippocampus-on-microinjection-of-cholinergic-agonists-into-hypothalamic-lateral-supramammillary-nucleus
#9
Mohammed Z Ariffin, Chian-Ming Low, Sanjay Khanna
Cholinergic mechanisms in supramammillary nucleus (SuM), especially the lateral SuM (lSuM) modulates septo-hippocampal neural activity. The lSuM, as compared to the contiguous medial SuM (mSuM) has relatively dense projections to hippocampus and cingulate cortex (Cg). In the present study, we have investigated whether the effects of cholinergic activation of SuM on hippocampal and cortical neural activities involve a cooperative interaction with the medial septum (MS). Microinjection of the broad-spectrum cholinergic agonist, carbachol, or the cholinergic-nicotinic receptor agonist, nicotine, into the lSuM and the mSuM in urethane anesthetized rat evoked a similar pattern of hippocampal theta rhythm...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965244/cholinergic-behavior-state-dependent-mechanisms-of-neocortical-gain-control-a-neurocomputational-study
#10
J-Y Puigbò, G Maffei, I Herreros, M Ceresa, M A González Ballester, P F M J Verschure
The embodied mammalian brain evolved to adapt to an only partially known and knowable world. The adaptive labeling of the world is critically dependent on the neocortex which in turn is modulated by a range of subcortical systems such as the thalamus, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. A particular case in point is the learning paradigm of classical conditioning where acquired representations of states of the world such as sounds and visual features are associated with predefined discrete behavioral responses such as eye blinks and freezing...
September 30, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949036/subthalamic-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-interna-influence-firing-of-tonically-active-neurons-in-the-primate-striatum-through-different-mechanisms
#11
Asuka Nakajima, Yasushi Shimo, Takanori Uka, Nobutaka Hattori
Both the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) are major targets for neuromodulation therapy for movement disorders. An example of such a therapy is deep brain stimulation (DBS). The striatum is the primary target for pharmacological treatment of these disorders. To further our understanding of both the functional relationships among motor nuclei and the mechanisms of therapies for movement disorders, it is important to clarify how changing the neuronal activity of one target, either by medication or by artificial electrical stimulation, affects the other connected nuclei...
September 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935940/layer-and-cell-type-selective-co-transmission-by-a-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-projection-to-the-olfactory-bulb
#12
Daniel T Case, Shawn D Burton, Jeremy Y Gedeon, Sean-Paul G Williams, Nathaniel N Urban, Rebecca P Seal
Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain project heavily to the main olfactory bulb, the first processing station in the olfactory pathway. The projections innervate multiple layers of the main olfactory bulb and strongly influence odor discrimination, detection, and learning. The precise underlying circuitry of this cholinergic input to the main olfactory bulb remains unclear, however. Here, we identify a specific basal forebrain cholinergic projection that innervates select neurons concentrated in the internal plexiform layer of the main olfactory bulb...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922504/selective-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-transmission-to-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-after-dopamine-depletion
#13
Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, Joshua A Goldberg
The widely held view that the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease arises from an under-activation of the direct pathway striatal spiny neurons (dSPNs) has gained support from a recently described weakening of the glutamatergic projection from the parafascicular nucleus (PfN) to dSPNs in experimental parkinsonism. However, the impact of the remodeling of the thalamostriatal projection cannot be fully appreciated without considering its impact on cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) that themselves preferentially activate indirect pathway spiny neurons (iSPNs)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919466/intrastriatally-injected-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-differently-effects-cholinergic-and-dopaminergic-fibers-in-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Alexander Hawlitschka, Carsten Holzmann, Sarah Witt, Juliane Spiewok, Anne-Marie Neumann, Oliver Schmitt, Andreas Wree, Veronica Antipova
Unilateral intrastriatal BoNT-A injection abolished apomorphine-induced rotational behavior in a rat model of hemiparkinsonism (hemi-PD) up to 6months. It was hypothesized that the beneficial effect of botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) grounded on the reduction of the Parkinson's diseases (PD) associated striatal hypercholinism. Intrastriatal injection of BoNT-A was not cytotoxic in rat brain, but neuronal fiber swellings in the BoNT-A infiltrated striata appeared and named BoNT-A-induced varicosities (BiVs)...
December 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918256/transgene-is-specifically-and-functionally-expressed-in-retinal-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-vgat-chr2-eyfp-mouse
#15
Guo-Zhong Xu, Ling-Jie Cui, Ai-Lin Liu, Wei Zhou, Xue Gong, Yong-Mei Zhong, Xiong-Li Yang, Shi-Jun Weng
Ectopic transgene expression in the retina has been reported in various transgenic mice, indicating the importance of characterizing retinal phenotypes. We examined transgene expression in the VGAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse retina by fluorescent immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology, with special emphasis on enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) localization in retinal neuronal subtypes identified by specific markers. Strong EYFP signals were detected in both the inner and outer plexiform layers. In addition, the ChR2-EYFP fusion protein was also expressed in somata of the great majority of inhibitory interneurons, including horizontal cells and GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890048/molecular-cellular-and-circuit-basis-of-cholinergic-modulation-of-pain
#16
Paul V Naser, Rohini Kuner
In addition to being a key component of the autonomic nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a prominent neurotransmitter and neuromodulator upon release from key groups of cholinergic projection neurons and interneurons distributed across the central nervous system. It has been more than forty years since it was discovered that cholinergic transmission profoundly modifies the perception of pain. Directly activating cholinergic receptors or extending the action of endogenous acetylcholine via pharmacological blockade of acetylcholine esterase reduces pain in rodents as well as humans; conversely, inhibition of muscarinic cholinergic receptors induces nociceptive hypersensitivity...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834708/parvalbumin-but-not-calretinin-neurons-express-high-levels-of-%C3%AE-1-containing-gabaa-receptors-%C3%AE-7-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-d2-dopamine-receptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-of-the-rat
#17
Maciej Równiak, Małgorzata Kolenkiewicz, Anna Kozłowska
The generation of emotional responses by the basolateral amygdala is largely determined by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to its principal neurons - the pyramidal cells. The activity of these neurons is tightly controlled by g-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons, especially by those expressing parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR). Although it is known that GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic fibres make synapses on PV and CR cells, knowledge of the various receptors which are used by these cells is still incomplete...
December 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791334/normal-striatal-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-expression-in-tourette-syndrome
#18
Roger L Albin, Christine Minderovic, Robert A Koeppe
Considerable prior work suggests basal ganglia dysfunction in Tourette syndrome (TS). Analysis of a small number of postmortem specimens suggests deficits of some striatal interneuron populations, including striatal cholinergic interneurons. To assess the integrity of striatal cholinergic interneurons in TS, we used [(18)F]FEOBV positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify striatal vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression, a measure of cholinergic terminal density, in human TS and control subjects...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#19
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775269/hipp-neurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-mediate-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-background-context-memory-salience
#20
Syed Ahsan Raza, Anne Albrecht, Gürsel Çalışkan, Bettina Müller, Yunus Emre Demiray, Susann Ludewig, Susanne Meis, Nicolai Faber, Roland Hartig, Burkhart Schraven, Volkmar Lessmann, Herbert Schwegler, Oliver Stork
Cholinergic neuromodulation in the hippocampus controls the salience of background context memory acquired in the presence of elemental stimuli predicting an aversive reinforcement. With pharmacogenetic inhibition we here demonstrate that hilar perforant path-associated (HIPP) cells of the dentate gyrus mediate the devaluation of background context memory during Pavlovian fear conditioning. The salience adjustment is sensitive to reduction of hilar neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via dominant negative CREB expression in HIPP cells and to acute blockage of NPY-Y1 receptors in the dentate gyrus during conditioning...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
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