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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542805/downregulation-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-by-glucocorticoids-a-randomized-study-on-hdl
#1
Jorien Werumeus Buning, Lidya G Dimova, Frank G Perton, Uwe J F Tietge, André P van Beek, Robin P F Dullaart
BACKGROUND: High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is not decreased in hypercortisolism despite high triglycerides, which may be ascribed to effects on the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) pathway. We explored if CETP mRNA expression is modulated by glucocorticoid treatment in vitro. Effects of doubling the hydrocortisone (HCT) replacement dose on plasma CETP activity and HDL characteristics were tested in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human THP-1 macrophages were incubated with corticosterone in vitro in the presence or absence of a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, followed by determination of CETP mRNA levels by quantitative real-time PCR...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542224/is-spaceflight-induced-immune-dysfunction-linked-to-systemic-changes-in-metabolism
#2
Michael J Pecaut, Xiao Wen Mao, Denise L Bellinger, Karen R Jonscher, Louis S Stodieck, Virginia L Ferguson, Ted A Bateman, Robert P Mohney, Daila S Gridley
The Space Shuttle Atlantis launched on its final mission (STS-135) on July 8, 2011. After just under 13 days, the shuttle landed safely at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the last time. Female C57BL/6J mice flew as part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module-3 (CBTM-3) payload. Ground controls were maintained at the KSC facility. Subsets of these mice were made available to investigators as part of NASA's Bio-specimen Sharing Program (BSP). Our group characterized cell phenotype distributions and phagocytic function in the spleen, catecholamine and corticosterone levels in the adrenal glands, and transcriptomics/metabolomics in the liver...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542167/corticosterone-oscillations-during-mania-induction-in-the-lateral-hypothalamic-kindled-rat-experimental-observations-and-mathematical-modeling
#3
Osama A Abulseoud, Man Choi Ho, Doo-Sup Choi, Ana Stanojević, Željko Čupić, Ljiljana Kolar-Anić, Vladana Vukojević
Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity constitute a key component of bipolar mania, but the extent and nature of these alterations are not fully understood. We use here the lateral hypothalamic-kindled (LHK) rat model to deliberately induce an acute manic-like episode and measure serum corticosterone concentrations to assess changes in HPA axis activity. A mathematical model is developed to succinctly describe the entwined biochemical transformations that underlay the HPA axis and emulate by numerical simulations the considerable increase in serum corticosterone concentration induced by LHK...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542000/ketamine-and-etomidate-down-regulate-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-an-endotoxemic-mouse-model
#4
Emmanuel Besnier, Thomas Clavier, Marie-Christine Tonon, Jean Selim, Antoine Lefevre-Scelles, Fabrice Morin, Fabienne Tamion, Bertrand Dureuil, Hélène Castel, Vincent Compere
BACKGROUND: We compared the effects of etomidate and ketamine on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during sepsis. METHODS: Mice (n = 5/group) were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) and 6 h later randomized to receive ketamine (100 mg/kg), etomidate (30 mg/kg), or saline. At two time points (12 and 48 h), messenger RNA levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, pituitary proopiomelanocortin, and four adrenal enzymes (P450 side-chain cleavage, 3β-hydroxysteroid deshydrogenase, 21-hydroxylase, and 11β-hydroxylase) were measured by in situ hybridization (results are presented as optical density), and plasma levels of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin hormones were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mean ± SD)...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541489/respiratory-effects-and-systemic-stress-response-following-acute-acrolein-inhalation-in-rats
#5
Samantha J Snow, Marie A McGee, Andres Henriquez, Judy E Richards, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Urmila P Kodavanti
Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days...
May 24, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541129/diurnal-rhythms-of-blood-glucose-serum-ghrelin-faecal-iga-and-faecal-corticosterone-in-rats-subjected-to-restricted-feeding-using-the-diet-board
#6
Iiris Kasanen, Katja Inhilä, Eriika Savontaus, Hanna-Marja Voipio, Kai Õkva, Satu Mering, Vesa Kiviniemi, Jann Hau, Sakari Laaksonen, Timo Nevalainen
Laboratory rats are generally fed ad libitum, although this method is associated with obesity and an increased frequency of spontaneous tumours. It has been challenging looking for ways to limit feed consumption in group-housed rats without any setbacks to animal welfare and scientific results. The diet board, as a method of dietary restriction, was used in the present study. Diet board feeding allows group housing and should result in enhanced welfare compared with traditional methods of dietary restriction...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539996/transient-inactivation-of-shell-part-of-nucleus-accumbens-inhibits-and-exacerbates-stress-induced-metabolic-alterations-in-wistar-rats
#7
Mina Ranjbaran, Hassan Aghaei, Vahdat Hajihoseinlou, Hedayat Sahraei, Katayoon Ranjbaran
INTRODUCTION: The role of different parts of the extended amygdala in metabolic signs of stress is not well understood. In the present study, we decided to evaluate the impact of the shell part of nucleus accumbens (NAc) on metabolic disturbance induced by electro foot shock stress using transient inactivation method in the rat. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (W: 230-250 g) were canuulated unilaterally in the shell part of nucleus accumbens and left one week for recovery...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536916/advanced-parental-age-impaired-fear-conditioning-and-hippocampal-ltd-in-adult-female-rat-offspring
#8
Lilu Luo, Tingting Sun, Xin Guan, Yiling Ni, Liqiang Yang, Quan Zhao, Xiangyang Kong, Yanmei Chen, Jichuan Zhang
Advanced maternal or paternal age is associated with increased risks of cognitive and emotional disorders. Chronic stress is also a common experience in human life that causes psychiatric diseases. However, the synergistic effects of these two factors on offspring are rarely studied. In the present study, the offspring of both young (3-4 months) and old (12-14 months) rat parents were given CUMS for 21 days at the age of 4 weeks. The effects of advanced parental age and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) on emotional and cognitive behaviors and the related cellular mechanisms were investigated by using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques...
May 23, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533888/neuroprotective-effects-of-melatonin-administration-against-chronic-immobilization-stress-in-rats
#9
Asmaa Ms Gomaa, Heba M Galal, Amal T Abou-Elgait
Chronic stress can impair brain functions and play a well-known role in the development of stress-related disorders such as anxiety. Melatonin (Mel) is a neurohormone which regulate several physiological processes including mood and behavior. This experimental study was designed to evaluate the effect of Mel on chronic immobilization stress (CIS) for 6 weeks in rats and to elucidate its possible underlying mechanisms. Twenty-eight adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups: the control group, the Mel-treated group which was injected daily with Mel (10 mg/kg/day; IP) for 6 weeks, the stressed group which was subjected to CIS protocol daily for 6 weeks, and the Mel-treated stressed group which was injected with Mel and concurrently exposed to CIS protocol for 6 weeks...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533747/selective-inhibition-of-orexin-2-receptors-prevents-stress-induced-acth-release-in-mice
#10
Sujin Yun, Michelle Wennerholm, Jonathan E Shelton, Pascal Bonaventure, Michael A Letavic, Brock T Shireman, Timothy W Lovenberg, Christine Dugovic
Orexins peptides exert a prominent role in arousal-related processes including stress responding, by activating orexin-1 (OX1R) and orexin-2 (OX2R) receptors located widely throughout the brain. Stress or orexin administration stimulates hyperarousal, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone release, and selective OX1R blockade can attenuate several stress-induced behavioral and cardiovascular responses but not the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation. As opposed to OX1R, OX2R are preferentially expressed in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus which is involved in the HPA axis regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533261/the-superoxide-dismutase-mimetic-tempol-does-not-alleviate-glucocorticoid-mediated-rarefaction-of-rat-skeletal-muscle-capillaries
#11
Erin R Mandel, Emily C Dunford, Ghoncheh Abdifarkosh, Patrick C Turnbull, Christopher G R Perry, Michael C Riddell, Tara L Haas
Sustained elevations in circulating glucocorticoids elicit reductions in skeletal muscle microvascular content, but little is known of the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress contributes to this phenomenon. In rats that were implanted with corticosterone (CORT) or control pellets, CORT caused a significant decrease in muscle glutathione levels and a corresponding increase in protein carbonylation, an irreversible oxidative modification of proteins. Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increased endothelin-1 mRNA levels were detected after 9 days of CORT, and blood flow to glycolytic muscles was diminished...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532466/baseline-and-stress-induced-levels-of-corticosterone-in-male-and-female-afrotropical-and-european-temperate-stonechats-during-breeding
#12
Beate Apfelbeck, Barbara Helm, Juan Carlos Illera, Kim G Mortega, Patrick Smiddy, Neil P Evans
BACKGROUND: Latitudinal variation in avian life histories falls along a slow-fast pace of life continuum: tropical species produce small clutches, but have a high survival probability, while in temperate species the opposite pattern is found. This study investigated whether differential investment into reproduction and survival of tropical and temperate species is paralleled by differences in the secretion of the vertebrate hormone corticosterone (CORT). Depending on circulating concentrations, CORT can both act as a metabolic (low to medium levels) and a stress hormone (high levels) and, thereby, influence reproductive decisions...
May 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529141/z-505-hydrochloride-an-orally-active-ghrelin-agonist-attenuates-the-progression-of-cancer-cachexia-via-anabolic-hormones-in-colon-26-tumor-bearing-mice
#13
Makoto Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Shiomi, Yuta Ohira, Mineo Takei, Takao Tanaka
Cancer cachexia is a progressive wasting syndrome characterized by anorexia and weight loss, specifically muscle wasting and fat depletion. There is no therapeutic agent for treatment of this syndrome. We investigated the anti-cachexia effects of Z-505 hydrochloride (Z-505), a new oral growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a) agonist, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia. We performed a calcium flux assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing human GHSR1a to quantify the agonistic activity of Z-505...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528143/intergenerational-accumulation-of-impairments-in-maternal-behavior-following-postnatal-social-stress
#14
B C Nephew, L M Carini, S Sallah, C Cotino, R A S Alyamani, F Pittet, S Bradburn, C Murgatroyd
Early adversity such as depressed maternal care can have long-term physiological and behavioral effects on offspring and future generations. Exposure to chronic social stress (CSS), an ethologically model of postpartum depression and anxiety, during lactation impairs maternal care and exerts similar effects on the F1 dam offspring of the stressed F0 dams. These changes associate with increased corticosterone and neuroendocrine alterations. CSS F2 offspring further display decreased social behavior as juveniles and adults and decreased basal levels of corticosterone...
May 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522965/adolescent-ethanol-exposure-leads-to-stimulus-specific-changes-in-cytokine-reactivity-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-sensitivity-in-adulthood
#15
Andrew S Vore, Tamara Doremus-Fitzwater, Anny Gano, Terrence Deak
Adolescent alcohol use comprises a significant public health concern and is often characterized by binge-like consumption patterns. While ethanol exposure in adulthood has been shown to alter the stress response, including the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, few studies have examined whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence results in enduring changes in HPA axis sensitivity in adulthood. In the present studies, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were given intragastric (i.g.) intubations of ethanol (4 g/kg) or vehicle once per day for three consecutive days, beginning on postnatal day (P) 30 (±1)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522814/daily-corticosterone-rhythm-modulates-pineal-function-through-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-gene-transcriptional-program
#16
Sanseray da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Eduardo K Tamura, Claudia E Carvalho-Sousa, Vanderlei Amadeu Rocha, Luciana Pinato, Pedro A C Fernandes, Regina P Markus
Melatonin and glucocorticoids are key hormones in determining daily rhythmicity and modulating defense responses. In nocturnal animals, corticosterone peaks at light/dark transition,while melatonin peaks at the middle of the night in both nocturnal and diurnal animals. The crosstalk between adrenal and pineal glands under inflammatory conditions indicates that corticosterone potentiates nocturnal melatonin synthesis by reducing the activity of NFκB. This transcription factor, which modulates the expression of a key enzyme in melatonin synthesis, is sharply reduced at the entrance of darkness in the rat pineal gland...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522730/11%C3%AE-hsd1-suppresses-cardiac-fibroblast-cxcl2-cxcl5-and-neutrophil-recruitment-to-the-heart-post-mi
#17
Katie J Mylonas, Neil A Turner, Sumia A Bageghni, Christopher J Kenyon, Christopher I White, Kieran McGregor, Robert A Kimmitt, Richard Sulston, Valerie Kelly, Brian R Walker, Karen E Porter, Karen E Chapman, Gillian A Gray
We have previously demonstrated that neutrophil recruitment to the heart following myocardial infarction (MI) is enhanced in mice lacking 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) that regenerates active glucocorticoid within cells from intrinsically inert metabolites. The present study aimed to identify the mechanism of regulation. In a mouse model of MI, neutrophil mobilization to blood and recruitment to the heart were higher in 11β-HSD1-deficient (Hsd11b1(-)(/)(-) ) relative to wild-type (WT) mice, despite similar initial injury and circulating glucocorticoid...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521187/brain-antioxidant-effect-of-mirtazapine-and-reversal-of-sedation-by-its-combination-with-alpha-lipoic-acid-in-a-model-of-depression-induced-by-corticosterone
#18
Tatiana de Queiroz Oliveira, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Germana Silva Vasconcelos, Luciene Costa de Sousa, Anneheydi Araújo de Oliveira, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos Patrocínio, Ingridy da Silva Medeiros, José Eduardo Ribeiro Honório Júnior, Michael Maes, Danielle Macedo, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
BACKGROUND: Depression is accompanied by activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative pathways, while targeting these pathways has clinical efficacy in depression. This study aimed to investigate the effects of mirtazapine (MIRT) alone and combined with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) against corticosterone (CORT) induced behavioral and oxidative alterations. METHODS: Male mice received vehicle or CORT 20mg/kg during 14 days. From the 15th to 21st days they were divided in groups administered: vehicle, MIRT 3mg/kg or the combinations MIRT+ALA100 or MIRT+ALA200...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515684/selegiline-ameliorates-depression-like-behavior-in-mice-lacking-the-cd157-bst1-gene-a-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Satoka Kasai, Toru Yoshihara, Olga Lopatina, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Haruhiro Higashida
Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is accompanied by various non-motor symptoms including depression and anxiety, which may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Selegiline is an irreversible monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor, and is widely used in the treatment of PD and major depression. However, there are few reports about the effects of selegiline on non-motor symptoms in PD. The aim of this study was to explore the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of selegiline, using CD157/BST1 knockout (CD157 KO) mouse, a PD-related genetic model displaying depression and anxiety, compared with other antiparkinsonian drugs and an antidepressant, and was to investigate the effects of selegiline on biochemical parameters in emotion-related brain regions...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515473/placental-o-glcnac-transferase-expression-and-interactions-with-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-are-sex-specific-and-regulated-by-maternal-corticosterone-exposure-in-mice
#20
Marie Pantaleon, Sarah E Steane, Kathryn McMahon, James S M Cuffe, Karen M Moritz
Maternal stress programs offspring disease in a sexually dimorphic manner with males often more adversely affected. Previous studies of maternal glucocorticoid exposure suggest male vulnerability may derive from placental alterations. The hexosamine signalling pathway and O-linked glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) are part of an essential adaptive survival response in healthy cells. The key enzyme involved is O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), a gene recently identified as a sex-specific placental biomarker of maternal stress...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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