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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679646/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-attenuates-neural-activation-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-associated-brain-regions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#1
Jason S Jacobskind, Zachary J Rosinger, Tiffany Gonzalez, Kristen L Zuloaga, Damian G Zuloaga
Sex differences in methamphetamine (MA) abuse and consequences of MA have been reported with females showing an increased addiction phenotype and withdrawal symptoms. One mechanism through which these effects might occur is via sex-specific alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its associated brain regions. In this study, mice were administered MA (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 consecutive days. During early withdrawal, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the open field, light/dark box, and elevated plus maze...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678745/neurobehavioral-and-biochemical-modulation-following-administration-of-mgo-and-zno-nanoparticles-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-acute-stress
#2
Mozhgan Torabi, Mahnaz Kesmati, Nahid Pourreza, Hossein Najafzadeh Varzi, Hamid Galehdari
In this work, the effects of MgO and ZnO nanoparticles were investigated on some behavioral, hormonal and biochemical changes following acute stress. Wistar male rats were divided into groups of control, different times of restraint stress (90, 180 and 360 min), nano-MgO or nano-ZnO alone and with acute restraint stress. Anxiety-like behaviors and pain perception were evaluated by elevated plus maze and hot plate apparatus respectively. Levels of corticosterone hormone, malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase activity, Mg, Zn, Fe and Ca were evaluated in the serum and hippocampus...
April 17, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678726/corticosterone-profiles-in-northern-cardinals-cardinalis-cardinalis-do-levels-vary-through-life-history-stages
#3
Benjamin M Duckworth, Jodie M Jawor
As animals move through life history stages, energy requirements for each stage will vary. Both daily and annual variation in the glucocoriticoid hormones (specifically corticosterone, or CORT, in birds) helps provide the variable energy needed through life history stages. In many bird species, CORT is higher in the breeding season when energy demands can be quite high and is often lower in the non-breeding season. Additionally, CORT has a role to play in the response to stressful stimuli and the level to which CORT is elevated following stressful events can vary through the annual cycle as well...
April 17, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676198/blockade-of-at1-type-receptors-for-angiotensin-ii-prevents-cardiac-microvascular-fibrosis-induced-by-chronic-stress-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Lília Taddeo Firoozmand, Andrea Sanches, Nilsa Regina Damaceno-Rodrigues, Juliana Dinéia Perez, Danielle Sanches Aragão, Rodolfo Mattar Rosa, Fernanda Klein Marcondes, Dulce Elena Casarini, Elia Garcia Caldini, Tatiana Sousa Cunha
To test the effects of chronic-stress on the cardiovascular system, the model of chronic mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has been widely used. The CMS protocol consists of the random, intermittent, and unpredictable exposure of laboratory animals to a variety of stressors, during 3 consecutive weeks. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to the CMS protocol leads to left ventricle microcirculatory remodeling that can be attenuated by angiotensin II receptor blockade. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Control, Stress, Control + losartan, and Stress + losartan (N = 6, each group, losartan: 20 mg/kg/day)...
April 20, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675572/baicalin-modulates-appl2-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-cascade-promotes-neurogenesis-and-attenuates-emotional-and-olfactory-dysfunctions-in-chronic-corticosterone-induced-depression
#5
Chong Gao, Qiaohui Du, Wenting Li, Ruixia Deng, Qi Wang, Aimin Xu, Jiangang Shen
Olfactory dysfunction is often accompanied with anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in depressive patients. Impaired neurogenesis in hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ)-olfactory bulb (OB) contribute to anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors and olfactory dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction remain unclear. Our previous study indicates that adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 2 (APPL2), could affect the activity and sensitivity of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mediate impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, which contribute the development of depression...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674995/serum-steroid-ratio-profiles-in-prostate-cancer-a-new-diagnostic-tool-toward-a-personalized-medicine-approach
#6
Adriana Albini, Antonino Bruno, Barbara Bassani, Gioacchino D'Ambrosio, Giuseppe Pelosi, Paolo Consonni, Laura Castellani, Matteo Conti, Simone Cristoni, Douglas M Noonan
Background: Serum steroids are crucial molecules altered in prostate cancer (PCa). Mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the elected technology for the analysis of steroids in diverse biological samples. Steroids have complex biological pathways and stoichiometry and it is important to evaluate their quantitative ratio. MS applications to patient hormone profiling could lead to a diagnostic approach. Methods: Here, we employed the Surface Activated Chemical Ionization-Electrospray-NIST (SANIST) developed in our laboratories, to obtain quantitative serum steroid ratio relationship profiles with a machine learning Bayesian model to discriminate patients with PCa...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674117/electroconvulsive-seizures-influence-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-bdnf-expression-in-a-neuroendocrine-model-of-depression
#7
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Sumita K Rajpurohit, Keri Martinowich
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a rapid and effective treatment for major depressive disorder. Chronic stress-induced depression causes dendrite atrophy and deficiencies in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are reversed by anti-depressant drugs. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, robustly increase BDNF expression and stimulate dendritic outgrowth. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to understand cellular and molecular plasticity mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of ECS following chronic stress-induced depression...
April 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673843/circulating-corticosterone-levels-vary-during-exposure-to-anthropogenic-stimuli-and-show-weak-correlation-with-behavior-across-an-urban-gradient-in-house-finches-haemorhous-mexicanus
#8
Melinda Weaver, Sisi Gao, Kevin J McGraw
Urban environments are rapidly expanding and presenting animal populations with novel challenges, many of which are thought to be stressors that contribute to low biodiversity. However, studies on stress responses in urban vs rural populations have produced mixed results, and many of these studies use a standard stressor that cannot be replicated in the wild (e.g. restraining an animal in a bag). Pairing physiological and behavioral measurements in response to urban-related stressors improves our understanding of the mechanism underlying animal success in human-dominated landscapes...
April 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672109/maternal-protein-free-diet-during-lactation-programs-male-wistar-rat-offspring-for-increased-novelty-seeking-locomotor-activity-and-visuospatial-performance
#9
Bruna M Lotufo, Frank Tenório, Penha C Barradas, Paulo L Guedes, Sebastião S Lima, Michael L M Rocha, Vitor Hugo Duarte-Pinheiro, Vanessa S T Rodrigues, Patrícia C Lisboa, Cláudio C Filgueiras, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães
It is well established that chronic undernutrition has detrimental impacts on brain development and maturation. However, protein malnutrition during the period specifically encompassing the brain growth spurt has not been widely studied, particularly regarding its effects on adolescent and adult offspring behavior. Here, we assessed the effects of a protein-free diet during the 1st 10 postnatal days on the macronutrient content of the milk produced by lactating Wistar rats, on their maternal behavior, and on the offspring's behavior...
April 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671814/sex-specific-alterations-in-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#10
Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
Background : The mechanisms leading from traumatic stress to social, emotional and cognitive impairment and the development of mental illnesses are still undetermined and consequently there remains a critical need to develop therapies for preventing the adverse consequences of traumatic stress. Research indicates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4*nAChRs) are both impacted by stress and capable of modulating the stress response. In this study, we investigated whether varenicline, a partial α4β2*nAChR agonist which reduces nicotine, alcohol and sucrose consumption, can reduce stress, a driving factor in substance use disorders...
April 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671014/attenuated-cocaine-seeking-after-oxytocin-administration-in-male-and-female-rats
#11
Amy S Kohtz, Belle Lin, Michael E Smith, Gary Aston-Jones
RATIONALE: Initial drug abstinence (modeled here as Extinction Day 1, ED1) is a critical time point in the progression of addiction that is strongly influenced by stress and sex. ED1 induces corticosterone release in both sexes, and cocaine-seeking during ED1 can be mitigated by corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonists more effectively in female rats. Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that has several biological functions, including regulation of stress pathways. METHODS: To investigate a relationship between OXT, sex, and cocaine-seeking, we examined Fos on ED1 in OXT neurons of paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) compared to homecage (cocaine experienced) or naïve male and female rats...
April 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667320/flotillin-1-interacts-with-the-serotonin-transporter-and-modulates-chronic-corticosterone-response
#12
Sonali N Reisinger, Eryan Kong, Barbara Molz, Thomas Humberg, Spyros Sideromenos, Ana Cicvaric, Thomas Steinkellner, Jae-Won Yang, Maureen Cabatic, Francisco J Monje, Harald H Sitte, Benjamin J Nichols, Daniela D Pollak
Aberrant serotonergic neurotransmission in the brain is considered at the core of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in neuropsychiatric disorders. Gene by environment interactions contribute to the development of depression and involve modulation of the availability and functional activity of the serotonin transporter (SERT). Using behavioral and in vivo electrophysiological approaches together with biochemical, molecular-biological and molecular imaging tools we establish Flotillin-1 (Flot1) as a novel protein interacting with SERT and demonstrate its involvement in the response to chronic corticosterone (CORT) treatment...
April 18, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#13
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661114/pasireotide-treatment-does-not-modify-hyperglycemic-and-corticosterone-acute-restraint-stress-responses-in-rats
#14
Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira, Junia R O L Schweizer, Pedro H S Amaral, Mariana F Bizzi, Warley Cezar da Silveira, Daniel T A Espirito-Santo, Giancarlo Zille, Beatriz S Soares, Herbert A Schmid, Kevin C J Yuen
Pasireotide is a new-generation somatostatin analog that acts through binding to multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes. Studies have shown that pasireotide induces hyperglycemia, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, alters neurotransmission, and potentially affects stress responses typically manifested as hyperglycemia and increased corticosterone secretion. This study specifically aimed to evaluate whether pasireotide treatment modifies glucose and costicosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress...
April 17, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660438/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-intergenerationally-programs-imperfect-articular-cartilage-via-histone-deacetylation-through-maternal-lineage
#15
Zhe Xie, Zhe Zhao, Xu Yang, Linguo Pei, Hanwen Luo, Qubo Ni, Bin Li, Yongjian Qi, Kai Tie, Jacques Magdalou, Liaobin Chen, Hui Wang
Accumulating evidence has shown that the impact of prenatal environmental factors on the organs of the offspring could last until the adulthood. Here, we aimed to investigate these effects and the potential mechanism of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) on the female adult cartilage of the first generation (PNE-F1) and the second generation (PNE-F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were injected with 2.0 mg/kg.d nicotine from gestational day (GD) 9 to 20. Then their F1 generation at GD20 and postnatal week (PW) 12, and F2 generation at PW12 were harvested...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656274/meat-quality-in-relation-to-swine-well-being-after-transport-and-during-lairage-at-the-slaughterhouse
#16
L Rey-Salgueiro, E Martinez-Carballo, P Fajardo, M J Chapela, M Espiñeira, J Simal-Gandara
Cortisol and corticosterone in saliva were evaluated as pig stress biomarkers, using pig genotype (Duroc, L62 or Pietrain) and lairage time in the slaughterhouse (0, 2.0, 4.0 or 6.0 h) as controlled variables. Although some pigs were found to be carriers of stress susceptibility, all were healthy heterozygous individuals. Pre-slaughter transport increased cortisol levels in saliva above 3.0 μg/L (medium stress), and 4.0 h of lairage in the slaughterhouse raised them above 6.0 μg/L, whereas corticosterone concentrations exceeded 4 μg/L, which are suggestive of high stress...
April 9, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656013/escitalopram-alleviates-stress-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-like-tau-pathologies-and-cognitive-deficits-by-reducing-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-reactivity-and-insulin-gsk-3%C3%AE-signal-pathway-activity
#17
Chao Wu, Wei-Gang Gong, Yan-Juan Wang, Jun-Jun Sun, Hong Zhou, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Qing-Guo Ren
Chronic stress, a causal factor for depression, can also cause cognitive impairments and tau pathology. However, whether and how the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant escitalopram ameliorates these effects are still unclear. In the present study, rats were subjected to chronic mild unpredictable stress for 8 weeks. Following the initial 4 weeks, the stressed animals were separated into susceptible (depressive) and unsusceptible (resistant) groups based on behavioral tests. Then, escitalopram (10 mg/kg i...
March 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655685/polygonum-aviculare-l-extract-reduces-fatigue-by-inhibiting-neuroinflammation-in-restraint-stressed-mice
#18
Sun Haeng Park, Seol Jang, Eunjung Son, Si Woo Lee, Sun Dong Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue patients experience various neuropsychological symptoms, including fatigue behaviors, chronic pain, and depression. They also display immune system dysregulation. Polygonum aviculare L. extract (PAE) is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory diseases by reportedly decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of PAE would attenuate fatigue symptoms in a mouse model of restraint stress...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653194/chronic-agomelatine-treatment-prevents-comorbid-depression-in-the-post-status-epilepticus-model-of-acquired-epilepsy-through-suppression-of-inflammatory-signaling
#19
Jana Tchekalarova, Dimitrinka Atanasova, Lidia Kortenska, Milena Atanasova, Nikolai Lazarov
Inflammatory signal molecules are suggested to be involved in the mechanism underlying comorbid depression in epilepsy. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the novel antidepressant agomelatine, a potent melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and serotonin 5HT2C receptor antagonist, can prevent depressive symptoms developed during the chronic epileptic phase by suppressing an inflammatory response. Chronic treatment with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was initiated an hour after the kainate acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and maintained for a period of 10 weeks in Wistar rats...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651661/high-arctic-lemmings-remain-reproductively-active-under-predator-induced-elevated-stress
#20
Dominique Fauteux, Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Rupert Palme, Rudy Boonstra
Non-consumptive effects of predation have rarely been assessed in wildlife populations even though their impact could be as important as lethal effects. Reproduction of individuals is one of the most important demographic parameters that could be affected by predator-induced stress, which in turn can have important consequences on population dynamics. We studied non-consumptive effects of predation on the reproductive activity (i.e., mating and fertilization) of a cyclic population of brown lemmings exposed to intense summer predation in the Canadian High Arctic...
April 12, 2018: Oecologia
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