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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716632/mitochondrial-estrogen-receptors-as-a-vulnerability-factor-of-chronic-stress-and-mediator-of-fluoxetine-treatment-in-female-and-male-rat-hippocampus
#1
Miroslav Adzic, Milos Mitic, Marija Radojcic
Depression is a disease of an abnormal brain energy metabolism also marked with increased apoptosis in specific brain regions. Mounting evidence indicates that the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and apoptosis are novel targets for the actions of estrogen receptors (ERs). In this study, we examined the effects of antidepressant (AD) fluoxetine (FLU) treatment on the mitochondrial ER alpha (ERα), ER beta (total and phospo-pERβ) and their association with cytochrome c (cyt c) oxidase activity and apoptotic Bcl2/Bax-molecules in the hippocampal mitochondria of chronically isolated (CPSI) female and male rats depicting depression...
July 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714052/conservation-of-phenotypes-in-the-roman-high-and-low-avoidance-rat-strains-after-embryo-transfer
#2
Cristóbal Río-Álamos, Cristina Gerbolés, Carles Tapias-Espinosa, Daniel Sampedro-Viana, Ignasi Oliveras, Ana Sánchez-González, Toni Cañete, Gloria Blázquez, María Del Mar López, Carlos Baldellou, Pedro J Otaegui, Adolf Tobeña, Alberto Fernández-Teruel
The Roman high- (RHA-I) and low-avoidance (RLA-I) rat strains are bi-directionally bred for their good versus non-acquisition of two-way active avoidance, respectively. They have recently been re-derived through embryo transfer (ET) to Sprague-Dawley females to generate specific pathogen free (SPF) RHA-I/RLA-I rats. Offspring were phenotyped at generations 1 (G1, born from Sprague-Dawley females), 3 and 5 (G3 and G5, born from RHA-I and RLA-I from G2-G4, respectively), and compared with generation 60 from our non-SPF colony...
July 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712262/evaluation-of-efforts-in-untrained-wistar-rats-following-exercise-on-forced-running-wheel-at-maximal-lactate-steady-state
#3
Sajjad Rezaei, Hamid Agha-Alinejad, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Mahvash Jafari, Fabricio Azevedo Voltarelli, Alireza Naderi, Conrad Earnest
PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the effect of running speed on metabolic responses associated with maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in rats during forced running wheel (FRW) exercise. METHODS: Forty male adult Wistar rats were divided into seven groups. The blood lactate threshold and peak running speed were determined for an incremental power test group. Five groups participated in constant power tests at intensities 10, 13, 14.5, 16, and 17.5 m/min to determine MLSS and a non-exercise group was chosen as the control...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711473/interaction-of-reelin-and-stress-on-immobility-in-the-forced-swim-test-but-not-dopamine-mediated-locomotor-hyperactivity-or-prepulse-inhibition-disruption-relevance-to-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#4
Michael J Notaras, Billie Vivian, Carey Wilson, Maarten van den Buuse
RATIONALE: Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, as well as some mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder, have been suggested to share common biological risk factors. One such factor is reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration during development as well as numerous activity-dependent processes in the adult brain. The current study sought to evaluate whether a history of stress exposure interacts with endogenous reelin levels to modify behavioural endophenotypes of relevance to psychotic and mood disorders...
July 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711395/silymarin-ameliorates-experimentally-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-rats-involvement-of-hippocampal-bdnf-signaling-inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-response
#5
Vishnu N Thakare, Manoj K Aswar, Yogesh P Kulkarni, Rajesh R Patil, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, exhibited neuroprotection and antidepressant like activity in acute restraint stressed mice. The main objective of the present study is to investigate possible antidepressant like activity of silymarin in experimentally induced depressive behavior in rats. The depressive behaviors were induced in rats by olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) technique. Wistar rats were administered with silymarin at a dose of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg, by per oral in OBX and sham operated rats...
July 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710520/psychostimulants-and-forced-swim-stress-interaction-how-activation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-stress-induced-hyperglycemia-are-affected
#6
Humberto Gagliano, Juan Antonio Ortega-Sanchez, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
RATIONALE: We recently reported that simultaneous exposure to amphetamine and various stressors resulted in reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and glycemic responses to the stressors. Since this is a new and relevant phenomenon, we wanted to further explore this interaction. OBJECTIVES: This study aims (i) to characterize the effect of various doses of amphetamine on the physiological response to a predominantly emotional stressor (forced swim) when the drug was given immediately before stress; (ii) to study if an interaction appears when the drug was given 30 min or 7 days before swim; and (iii) to know whether cocaine causes similar effects when given just before stress...
July 14, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709905/royal-jelly-decreases-corticosterone-levels-and-improves-the-brain-antioxidant-system-in-restraint-and-cold-stressed-rats
#7
Renata Roland Teixeira, Adriele Vieira de Souza, Leonardo Gomes Peixoto, Helen Lara Machado, Douglas Carvalho Caixeta, Danielle Diniz Vilela, Nathalia Belele Baptista, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Foued Salmen Espindola
Restraint and cold stress induces the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to release corticosterone from the adrenal gland, which can worsen the antioxidant defense system in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated the corticosterone levels and the antioxidant defense system in the cerebellum and brain, as well as in its isolated regions, such as cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus of stressed rats supplemented with royal jelly (RJ). Wistar rats were supplemented with RJ for 14days and the stress induction started on the 7th day...
July 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709706/taxifolin-inhibits-rat-and-human-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2
#8
Chengyun Wu, Shuyan Cao, Tingting Hong, Yaoyao Dong, Chao Li, Qiufan Wang, Jianliang Sun, Ren-Shan Ge
Taxifolin is a flavonoid in food plants. Kidney 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) is an NAD(+)-dependent oxidase that inactivates glucocorticoid cortisol (human) or corticosterone (rodents) into biologically inert 11 keto glucocorticoids. The present study investigated the effects of taxifolin on rat and human kidney microsomal 11β-HSD2. Taxifolin noncompetitively inhibited rat and human 11β-HSD2 against steroid substrates, with IC50 values of 33.08 and 13.14μM, respectively. Administration of 5 and 10mg/kg taxifolin for 30min ex vivo inhibited 11β-HSD2 significantly and also in vivo decreased cortisol metabolism, as shown in the significant increase of area under curve (AUC)...
July 12, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705835/transendothelial-movement-of-adiponectin-is-restricted-by-glucocorticoids
#9
Thanh Q Dang, Nanyoung Yoon, Helen Chasiotis, Emily C Dunford, Qilong Feng, Pingnian He, Michael C Riddell, Scott P Kelly, Gary Sweeney
Altered permeability of the endothelial barrier in a variety of tissues has implications both in disease pathogenesis and treatment. Glucocorticoids are potent mediators of endothelial permeability, and this forms the basis for their heavily prescribed use as medications to treat ocular disease. However, the effect of glucocorticoids on endothelial barriers elsewhere in the body is less well studied. Here, we investigated glucocorticoid-mediated changes in endothelial flux of Adiponectin (Ad), a hormone with a critical role in diabetes...
August 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704473/enriched-environment-and-stress-exposure-influence-splenic-b-lymphocyte-composition
#10
Blake T Gurfein, Burcu Hasdemir, Jeffrey M Milush, Chadi Touma, Rupert Palme, Douglas F Nixon, Nicholas Darcel, Frederick M Hecht, Aditi Bhargava
Prolonged chronic stress has deleterious effects on immune function and is associated with numerous negative health outcomes. The spleen harbors one-fourth of the body's lymphocytes and mediates both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the subset of splenic lymphocytes that respond, either adaptively or maladaptively, to various stressors remains largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS) exposure on spleen composition in male mice housed in two different caging conditions: standard caging (Cntl) and enriched environment (EE)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702731/chronic-cold-stress-modulates-the-function-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-vivo
#11
S V Gein, I L Sharav'eva
On day 7 of chronic cold stress, concentration of corticosterone in plasma was established to increase, zymosan-induced production of reactive oxygen species was activated, and IL-10 synthesis by macrophages was enhanced regardless of the opiate receptor blockade. Increase in the concentration of corticosterone was independent of the blockade of opioid receptors, whereas the zymosan-induced increase in the production of oxygen radicals and activation of the spontaneous production of IL-10 was blocked in mice by naloxone...
May 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697920/higher-plasma-corticosterone-is-associated-with-reduced-costs-of-infection-in-red-winged-blackbirds
#12
Laura A Schoenle, Ivana Schoepf, Nicole M Weinstein, Ignacio T Moore, Frances Bonier
Glucocorticoid hormones allow individuals to rapidly adjust their physiology and behavior to meet the challenges of a variable environment. An individual's baseline concentration of glucocorticoids can reflect shifts in life history stage and resource demands while mediating a suite of physiological and behavioral changes that include immune modulation and resource allocation. Thus, glucocorticoids could facilitate a response to parasites that is optimized for an individual's specific challenges and life history stage...
July 8, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694701/high-levels-of-nesfatin-1-in-relation-to-the-dysfunction-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axes-in-depressed-patients-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism
#13
Ya-Yun Xu, Jun Liang, Yin Cao, Feng Shan, Yang Liu, Qing-Rong Xia
Despite the increasing amount of evidence suggesting a relationship between depression and subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), the exact mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of plasma Nesfatin-1 levels and dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes in the comorbidity of depression and SCH. Dysfunctions of the HPA and HPT axes were detected by measuring plasma corticosterone and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations, respectively...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694433/antidepressant-effect-of-taurine-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#14
Gao-Feng Wu, Shuang Ren, Ri-Yi Tang, Chang Xu, Jia-Qi Zhou, Shu-Mei Lin, Ying Feng, Qun-Hui Yang, Jian-Min Hu, Jian-Cheng Yang
Depression, a psychiatric and dysthymic disorder, severely affects the learning, work and life quality. The main pathogenesis of depression is associated with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Taurine has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the brain development and can improve learning ability and memory. Our study investigated the antidepressant-like effects of taurine pre-treatment by examining the changes in depression-like behavior, hormones, neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors and neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus of a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rat model...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694176/anxiogenic-effects-of-a-lactobacillus-inulin-and-the-synbiotic-on-healthy-juvenile-rats
#15
Camila Barrera-Bugueño, Ornella Realini, Jorge Escobar-Luna, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate, Martin Gotteland, Marcela Julio-Pieper, Javier A Bravo
Gut microbiota interventions, including probiotic and prebiotic use can alter behavior in adult animals and healthy volunteers. However, little is known about their effects in younger individuals. To investigate this, male Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 21, PND21) received Lactobacillus casei 54-2-33 (10(4)cfu/ml), inulin as prebiotic (16mg/ml), or both together (synbiotic) via drinking water for 14days. Control rats received water alone. Open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) behaviors were evaluated at PND34 and 35, respectively...
July 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692696/corticosterone-response-to-gestational-stress-and-postpartum-memory-function-in-mice
#16
Zahra Jafari, Jogender Mehla, Navvab Afrashteh, Bryan E Kolb, Majid H Mohajerani
Maternal stress is a common adversity during pregnancy. Gestational corticosterone alternations are thought to contribute to the etiology of postpartum behavioral disturbances. However, the impact of stress during pregnancy, in particular noise exposure, on gestational corticosterone fluctuations and spatial cognition in postpartum mice has not been fully understood yet. We hypothesized that noise exposure during pregnancy negatively affects gestational corticosterone levels and postpartum memory function in the dams similar to the physical stressors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691995/the-role-of-psychological-stress-on-heart-autophagy-in-mice-with-heart-failure
#17
Xiao-Ting Lu, Xiao-Qiong Liu, Bo Wang, Yuan-Yuan Sun, Rui-Xue Yang, Yi-Fan Xing, Ping Sun, Ying-Bin Wang, Yu-Xia Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Psychological stress in chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with systemic neurohormonal and immune system responses and increased mortality. Autophagy refers to the biological process of degradation and recycling of dysfunctional cellular components. We investigated the role of psychological stress on autophagy function in CHF mice. RESULTS: A one-week stress exposure significantly increased serum levels of corticosterone and Ang II (P= .000), increased levels of oxidative stress, induced overt heart failure, and increased mortality (P =...
July 7, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689350/repeated-exposure-to-cat-urine-induces-complex-behavioral-hormonal-and-c-fos-mrna-responses-in-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#18
Baofa Yin, Chen Gu, Yi Lu, Ibrahim M Hegab, Shengmei Yang, Aiqin Wang, Wanhong Wei
Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance, and defense against predators. This study was undertaken to investigate the processing of a chronic, life-threatening stimulus to Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). One hundred forty-four Norway rats were tested by repeated presentation of cat urine for 1 h at different days in a defensive withdrawal apparatus. Rats exposed to urine for short periods showed significantly larger defensive behavioral and medial hypothalamic c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) responses than other groups...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686079/experimental-manipulation-of-corticosterone-does-not-influence-the-clearance-rate-of-plasma-testosterone-in-birds
#19
Pierre Deviche, Stève Desaivre, Mathieu Giraudeau
In vertebrates, exposure to acute stressors stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids such as corticosterone, and in some situations this hormone plays an important role in orchestrating the trade-off that exists between reproduction and self-maintenance. Stressful conditions often lead to a decrease in plasma levels of sex steroids such as testosterone in males, and it has been hypothesized that corticosterone contributes to this decrease. Generally supporting this proposition, glucocorticoids can inhibit the reproductive axis activity at multiple levels, including direct effects on testicular endocrine function...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683754/physiological-mechanisms-of-adaptive-developmental-plasticity-in-rana-temporaria-island-populations
#20
Pablo Burraco, Ana Elisa Valdés, Frank Johansson, Ivan Gomez-Mestre
BACKGROUND: Adaptive plasticity is essential for many species to cope with environmental heterogeneity. In particular, developmental plasticity allows organisms with complex life cycles to adaptively adjust the timing of ontogenetic switch points. Size at and time to metamorphosis are reliable fitness indicators in organisms with complex cycles. The physiological machinery of developmental plasticity commonly involves the activation of alternative neuroendocrine pathways, causing metabolic alterations...
July 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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