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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081348/the-effect-of-basolateral-amygdala-nucleus-lesion-on-memory-under-acute-mid-and-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#1
Hoda Ranjbar, Maryam Radahmadi, Hojjatallah Alaei, Parham Reisi, Sara Karimi
BACKGROUND/AIM: The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory for emotional events and is involved in both stress and memory. This study investigated different durations of stress and the role of BLA on serum corticosterone level and spatial and cognitive memory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different durations of stress (acute, mid, and chronic stress), with and without BLA lesion were induced in rats by 6 h/day restraint stress for 1, 7, and 21 days. Memory functions were evaluated by novel object recognition (NOR) and object location test (OLT)...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077768/corticosterone-and-timing-of-migratory-departure-in-a-songbird
#2
Cas Eikenaar, Florian Müller, Clara Leutgeb, Sven Hessler, Konstantin Lebus, Philip D Taylor, Heiko Schmaljohann
Bird migration entails replenishing fuel stores at stopover sites. There, individuals make daily decisions whether to resume migration, and must also decide their time of departure. Variation in departure timing affects the total time required to complete a migratory journey, which in turn affects fitness through arrival time at the breeding and wintering grounds. It is well established that stopover departure decisions are based on cues from innate rhythms, intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the physiological mechanism(s) linking these cues to departure decisions...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075471/alterations-in-splenic-function-and-gene-expression-in-mice-with-depressive-like-behavior-induced-by-exposure-to-corticosterone
#3
Heqin Zhan, Feng Huang, Fulin Yan, Zhenghang Zhao, Jixia Zhang, Taizhen Cui, Fan Yang, Guangfan Hai, Xiaoman Jia, Yongji Shi
Depressed patients present with increased cortisol levels and attenuated immune responses. However, little is known about the association between depression and the spleen, as this is the largest peripheral immune organ. In this study, we examined alterations in splenic function and gene expression in mice with depressive-like behavior, well as the expression of certain proteins in related pathways. A mouse model of depression was established with the use of corticosterone. Splenic function and histopathology were assessed using Wright and H&E staining...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073837/chronic-co-species-housing-mice-and-rats-increased-the-competitiveness-of-male-mice
#4
Ying-Juan Liu, Lai-Fu Li, Yao-Hua Zhang, Hui-Fen Guo, Min Xia, Meng-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Yuan Jing, Jing-Hua Zhang, Jian-Xu Zhang
Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071711/transient-anhedonia-phenotype-and-altered-circadian-timing-of-behaviour-during-night-time-dim-light-exposure-in-per3-mice-but-not-wildtype-mice
#5
Bruno Jacson Martynhak, Alexandra L Hogben, Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Roberto Andreatini, Ian Kitchen, Simon N Archer, Malcolm von Schantz, Alexis Bailey, Daan R van der Veen
Industrialisation greatly increased human night-time exposure to artificial light, which in animal models is a known cause of depressive phenotypes. Whilst many of these phenotypes are 'direct' effects of light on affect, an 'indirect' pathway via altered sleep-wake timing has been suggested. We have previously shown that the Period3 gene, which forms part of the biological clock, is associated with altered sleep-wake patterns in response to light. Here, we show that both wild-type and Per3(-/-) mice showed elevated levels of circulating corticosterone and increased hippocampal Bdnf expression after 3 weeks of exposure to dim light at night, but only mice deficient for the PERIOD3 protein (Per3(-/-)) exhibited a transient anhedonia-like phenotype, observed as reduced sucrose preference, in weeks 2-3 of dim light at night, whereas WT mice did not...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070618/blunted-5-ht1a-receptor-mediated-responses-and-antidepressant-like-behavior-in-mice-lacking-the-gabab1a-but-not-gabab1b-subunit-isoforms
#6
Laura H Jacobson, Daniel Hoyer, Dominique Fehlmann, Bernhard Bettler, Klemens Kaupmann, John F Cryan
RATIONALE: There is accumulating evidence for a role of GABAB receptors in depression. GABAB receptors are heterodimers of GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptor subunits. The predominant GABAB1 subunit isoforms are GABAB1a and GABAB1b. GABAB1 isoforms in mice differentially influence cognition, conditioned fear, and susceptibility to stress, yet their influence in tests of antidepressant-like activity has not been fully investigated. OBJECTIVES: Given the interactions between GABAB receptors and the serotonergic system and the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1AR) in antidepressant action, we sought to evaluate 5-HT1AR function in GABAB1a(-/-) and GABAB1b(-/-) mice...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070333/corticosterone-inflammation-immune-status-and-telomere-length-in-frigatebird-nestlings-facing-a-severe-herpesvirus-infection
#7
Manrico Sebastiano, Marcel Eens, Frederic Angelier, Kévin Pineau, Olivier Chastel, David Costantini
Herpesvirus outbreaks are common in natural animal populations, but little is known about factors that favour the infection and its consequences for the organism. In this study, we examined the pathophysiological consequences of a disease probably attributable to herpesvirus infection for several markers of immune function, corticosterone, telomere length and inflammation. In addition, we assessed whether any markers used in this study might be associated with the occurrence of visible clinical signs of the disease and its impact on short-term survival perspectives...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069904/detection-and-activity-of-11-beta-hydroxylase-cyp11b1-in-the-bovine-ovary
#8
Ayelen N Amweg, Fernanda Mariel Rodriguez, Emilia Huber, Belkis E Marelli, Natalia Gareis, Eduardo M Belotti, Florencia Rey, Natalia Raquel Salvetti, Hugo H Ortega
Glucocorticoids (GCs) such as cortisol and corticosterone are important steroid hormones with different functions in intermediate metabolism, development, cell differentiation, immune response and reproduction. In response to physiological and immunological stress, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) acts on the adrenal gland by stimulating synthesis and secretion of GCs. However, there is increasing evidence that GCs may also be synthesized by extra-adrenal tissues. Here, we examined the gene and protein expression of the enzyme 11β-hydroxylase P450c11 (CYP11B1), involved in the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol, in the different components of the bovine ovary, and determined the functionality of CYP11B1 in vitro...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069523/a-chronic-increase-of-corticosterone-age-dependently-reduces-systemic-dna-damage-from-oxidation-in-rats
#9
Anders Jorgensen, Otto Kalliokoski, Kristin Forsberg, Katrine Breitenstein, Allan Weimann, Trine Henriksen, Jann Hau, Gitta Wörtwein, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Martin Balslev Jorgensen
Stress and depression are associated with an acceleration of brain and bodily aging; effects which have been attributed to chronic elevations of glucocorticoids. We tested the hypothesis that a three week administration of stress-associated levels of corticosterone (CORT, the principal rodent glucocorticoid) would increase systemic and CNS DNA and RNA damage from oxidation; a phenomenon known to be centrally involved in the aging process. We also hypothesized that older individuals would be more sensitive to this effect and that the chronic CORT administration would exacerbate age-related memory decline...
January 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065723/social-context-dependent-relationships-between-mouse-dominance-rank-and-plasma-hormone-levels
#10
Cait M Williamson, Won Lee, Russell D Romeo, James P Curley
The associations between social status and endogenous testosterone and corticosterone have been well-studied across taxa, including rodents. Dominant social status is typically associated with higher levels of circulating testosterone and lower levels of circulating corticosterone but findings are mixed and depend upon numerous contextual factors. Here, we determine that the social environment is a key modulator of these relationships in Mus musculus. In groups of outbred CD-1 mice living in stable dominance hierarchies, we found no evidence of simple linear associations between social rank and corticosterone or testosterone plasma levels...
January 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065712/experimentally-reducing-corticosterone-mitigates-rapid-captivity-effects-on-behavior-but-not-body-composition-in-a-wild-bird
#11
Christine R Lattin, Anita V Pechenenko, Richard E Carson
Wild animals and captives display physiological and behavioral differences, and it has been hypothesized, but rarely tested, that these differences are caused by sustained elevation of the hormone corticosterone. We used repeated computed tomography (CT) imaging to examine body composition changes in breeding male and female wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus; n=20) in response to two weeks of captivity, and assessed behavioral changes using video recordings. Half of the birds received the drug mitotane, which significantly decreased stress-induced corticosterone titers compared to controls...
January 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064086/forced-swimming-induced-oxytocin-release-into-blood-and-brain-effects-of-adrenalectomy-and-corticosterone-treatment
#12
Luz Torner, Paul M Plotsky, Inga D Neumann, Trynke R de Jong
The oxytocin (OXT) system is functionally linked to the HPA axis in a reciprocal and complex manner. Certain stressors are known to cause the simultaneous release of OXT and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) followed by corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, brain OXT attenuates ACTH and CORT responses. Although there are some indications of CORT influencing OXT neurotransmission, specific effects of CORT on neurohypophyseal or intra-hypothalamic release of OXT have not been studied in detail. In the present set of experiments, adult male rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated and fitted with a jugular vein catheter and/or microdialysis probe targeting the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
December 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063130/glucocorticoids-curtail-stimuli-induced-creb-phosphorylation-in-trh-neurons-through-interaction-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-with-the-catalytic-subunit-of-protein-kinase-a
#13
Israim Sotelo-Rivera, Antonieta Cote-Vélez, Rosa-María Uribe, Jean-Louis Charli, Patricia Joseph-Bravo
PURPOSE: Corticosterone prevents cold-induced stimulation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (Trh) expression in rats, and the stimulatory effect of dibutyryl cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (dB-cAMP) on Trh transcription in hypothalamic cultures. We searched for the mechanism of this interference. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analyses of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB) were performed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of Wistar rats, and in cell cultures of 17-day old rat hypothalami, or neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
January 6, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061324/oral-corticosterone-administration-reduces-insulitis-but-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-hyperglycemia-in-male-nonobese-diabetic-mice
#14
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, Adrianna E Eder, Michael D Karlstad, David H Burk, Robert C Noland, Z Elizabeth Floyd, J Jason Collier
Steroid-induced diabetes is the most common form of drug-induced hyperglycemia. Therefore, metabolic and immunological alterations associated with chronic oral corticosterone were investigated using male nonobese diabetic mice. Three weeks after corticosterone delivery, there was reduced sensitivity to insulin action measured by insulin tolerance test. Body composition measurements revealed increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. Overt hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL) manifested 6 weeks after the start of glucocorticoid administration, whereas 100% of the mice receiving the vehicle control remained normoglycemic...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059170/in-ovo-injection-of-betaine-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-fatty-liver-in-chickens-through-epigenetic-modifications
#15
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Jie Liu, Yimin Jia, Demin Cai, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine alleviates high-fat diet-induced fatty liver and prenatal betaine programs offspring hepatic lipid metabolism. Excessive corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes fatty liver in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether and how prenatal betaine modulates the susceptibility of CORT-induced fatty liver later in life. In this study, fertilized eggs were injected with saline or betaine before incubation, and the hatchlings were raised at 8 weeks of age followed by 7 days of subcutaneous CORT injection. CORT-induced fatty liver was less severe in betaine-treated chickens, with significantly reduced oil-red staining and hepatic triglyceride content (P < 0...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058504/linking-pre-laying-energy-allocation-and-timing-of-breeding-in-a-migratory-arctic-raptor
#16
Vincent Lamarre, Alastair Franke, Oliver P Love, Pierre Legagneux, Joël Bêty
For migratory species, acquisition and allocation of energy after arrival on the breeding grounds largely determine reproductive decisions. Few studies have investigated underlying physiological mechanisms driving variation in breeding phenology so far. We linked physiological state to individual timing of breeding in pre-laying arctic-nesting female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius). We captured females from two populations 2-20 days before egg-laying to assess plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BUTY) and triglyceride (TRIG), two metabolites known to reflect short-term changes in fasting and fattening rate, respectively...
January 5, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057867/molecular-diversity-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-mrna-containing-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus
#17
Roman A Romanov, Alan Alpar, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
Hormonal responses to acute stress rely on the rapid induction of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) production in the mammalian hypothalamus, with subsequent instructive steps culminating in corticosterone release at the periphery. Hypothalamic CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are therefore considered "stress neurons". However, significant morphological and funtional diversity amongst neurons that can transiently produce CRH in other hypothalamic nuclei has been proposed, particularly since histochemical evidence associates CRH to both GABA and glutamate neurotransmission...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057718/calcium-mediated-oxidative-stress-a-common-mechanism-in-tight-junction-disruption-by-different-types-of-cellular-stress
#18
Ruchika Gangwar, Avtar Meena, Pradeep Shukla, Archana Nagaraja, Piotr Dorniak, Sandeep Pallikuth, Christopher Waters, Anil Sood, Radhakrishna Rao
The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in osmotic stress, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and cyclic stretch-induced tight junction disruption was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro , and restraint stress-induced barrier dysfunction in mouse colon in vivo Live cell imaging showed that osmotic stress, cyclic stretch and DSS triggered rapid production of ROS in Caco-2 cell monolayers, which was blocked by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by BAPTA. Knockdown of CaV1.3 or TRPV6 channels blocked osmotic stress and DSS-induced ROS production and attenuated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction...
January 5, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057551/metabolite-inactive-etomidate-analogues-alleviating-suppression-on-adrenal-function-in-beagle-dogs
#19
Jun Yang, Yi Kang, Bin Wang, Linghui Yang, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
Owing to rapid generation in body, the metabolites of etomidate softdrug are able to accumulate in either the brain or periphery and subsequently affect the recovery from anaesthesia or cause corticosteroid suppression. This study was designed to investigate the ability of two etomidate analogues (ET-26, ET-42) with inactive metabolites to provide anaesthesia with lesser corticosteroid suppression. The 50% effective dose (ED50) of ET-26, ET-42, Etomidate, MOC-ET (an etomidate softdrug) and CPMM (an improved etomidate softdrug) required to induce anaesthesia intravenously in Beagle dogs were 1...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052868/negative-rebound-in-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-exercise-cessation
#20
Takeshi Nishijima, Yoshika Kamidozono, Atsushi Ishiizumi, Seiichiro Amemiya, Ichiro Kita
Physical exercise can improve brain function; however, the effects of exercise cessation are largely unknown. This study examined the time-course profile of hippocampal neurogenesis following exercise cessation. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either a control (Con) or an exercise cessation (ExC) group. ExC mice were reared in a cage with a running wheel for 8 weeks and subsequently placed in a standard cage to cease the exercise. Exercise significantly increased the density of doublecortin (DCX)-positive immature neurons in the dentate gyrus (at week 0)...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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