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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045796/the-modification-of-the-ketogenic-diet-mitigates-its-stunting-effects-in-rodents
#1
Arkadiusz Damian Liśkiewicz, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Anna Sługocka, Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Halina Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
The high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (HFKD) is extensively studied within the fields of numerous diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Since most studies incorporate animal models, ensuring the quality of ketogenic rodent diets is important, both in the context of laboratory animal welfare as well as for the accuracy of the obtained results. In this study we implemented a modification to a commonly-used ketogenic rodent chow by replacing non-resorbable cellulose with wheat bran...
October 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038005/prednisone-alleviates-demyelination-through-regulation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-a-c57bl-6-mouse-model-of-cuprizone-induced-demyelination
#2
Hao Yu, Mingfeng Wu, Geng Lu, Tingting Cao, Nan Chen, Yijia Zhang, Higuo Jiang, Hongbin Fan, Ruiqin Yao
Myelin abnormalities, oligodendrocyte damage, and concomitant glia activation are common in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the inflammatory response triggers demyelination and gliosis in demyelinating disorders. Numerous clinical interventions, including those used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS), have confirmed prednisone (PDN) as a powerful anti-inflammatory drug that reduces the inflammatory response and promotes tissue repair in multiple inflammation sites...
October 13, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037790/glucocorticoid-receptor-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-its-roles-in-propofol-addictions
#3
Binbin Wu, Wenxuan Lin, Hong Wang, Taha Abdullah, Benfu Wang, Ying Su, Ren-Shan Ge, Qingquan Lian
Propofol has been demonstrated as a drug of abuse in humans. Our previous study indicated that dexamethasone, a potent agonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), inhibited propofol-maintained rat self-administration behaviors by systematic injection. However, the direct effect of GR in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on propofol self-administration behavior has not been explored. The propofol-maintained self-administration was established in rats after a successive 3-h daily self-administration of propofol for 14days...
October 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036852/rehabilitation-modality-and-onset-differentially-influence-whisker-sensory-hypersensitivity-after-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat
#4
Theresa Currier Thomas, Ellen Magee Stockhausen, L Matthew Law, Aida Khodadad, Jonathan Lifshitz
BACKGROUND: As rehabilitation strategies advance as therapeutic interventions, the modality and onset of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are critical to optimize treatment. Our laboratory has detected and characterized a late-onset, long-lasting sensory hypersensitivity to whisker stimulation in diffuse brain-injured rats; a deficit that is comparable to visual or auditory sensory hypersensitivity in humans with an acquired brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the modality and onset of rehabilitation therapies will differentially influence sensory hypersensitivity in response to the Whisker Nuisance Task (WNT) as well as WNT-induced corticosterone (CORT) stress response in diffuse brain-injured rats and shams...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035710/blunted-basal-corticosterone-pulsatility-predicts-post-exposure-susceptibility-to-ptsd-phenotype-in-rats
#5
Dor Danan, Michael A Matar, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar, Hagit Cohen
The basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is highly dynamic and is characterized by both circadian and ultradian (pulsatile) patterns of hormone secretion. Pulsatility of glucocorticoids has been determined to be critical for optimal transcriptional, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses. We used an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to assess whether stress-induced impairment of behavioral responses is correlated with aberrant secretion of corticosterone. Serial blood samples were collected manually via the jugular vein cannula during the light-(inactive)-phase in conscious male rats at 20-min intervals for a period of 5h before and 6...
October 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031544/effects-of-augmented-corticosterone-in-painted-turtle-eggs-on-offspring-development-and-behavior
#6
Rebecca L Polich, Brooke L Bodensteiner, Clare I M Adams, Fredric J Janzen
Maternal stressors can play an integral role in offspring development and ultimate behaviors in many vertebrates. Increased circulating stress avoidance hormones can be reflected in elevated concentrations in ova, thus providing a potential mechanism for maternal stress to be transmitted to offspring even in taxa without parental care. In this study, we assessed the potential impacts of augmented stress avoidance hormones on offspring development and anti-predator behaviors in a freshwater turtle, Chrysemys picta...
October 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030867/do-host-associated-gut-microbiota-mediate-the-effect-of-an-herbicide-on-disease-risk-in-frogs
#7
Sarah A Knutie, Caitlin Gabor, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
1.Environmental stressors, such as pollutants, can increase disease risk in wildlife. For example, the herbicide atrazine affects host defenses (e.g. resistance and tolerance) of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but the mechanisms for these associations are not always clear. Given that pollutants can alter the gut microbiota of hosts, which in turn can affect their health and immune systems, one potential mechanism by which pollutants could increase infection risk is by influencing host-associated microbiota...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030109/social-information-changes-stress-hormone-receptor-expression-in-the-songbird-brain
#8
Jamie M Cornelius, Gillian Perreau, Valerie R Bishop, Jesse S Krause, Rachael Smith, Thomas P Hahn, Simone L Meddle
Social information is used by many vertebrate taxa to inform decision-making, including resource-mediated movements, yet the mechanisms whereby social information is integrated physiologically to affect such decisions remain unknown. Social information is known to influence the physiological response to food reduction in captive songbirds. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) that were food reduced for several days showed significant elevations in circulating corticosterone (a "stress" hormone often responsive to food limitation) only if their neighbors were similarly food restricted...
October 10, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028440/intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-an-angiotensin-at2-receptor-agonist-novokinin-aggravates-some-diabetes-mellitus-induced-alterations-in-wistar-rats
#9
Daniela Pechlivanova, Kiril Petrov, Petar Grozdanov, Zlatina Nenchovska, Jana Tchekalarova, Alexander Stoynev
Cumulative data suggest the significant role of the Renin - Angiotensin System in the development of the pathological consequences of diabetes mellitus (DM). Newly synthesized AT2 receptor agonists gained importance as a target for creating new antihypertensives. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a peptide AT2 agonist Novokinin, infused intracerebroventricularly, on the consequences of the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM (T1 DM) in Wistar rats. Food and water consumption, body weight, urine excretion (metabolic cages), motor activity (open field test), anxiety (elevated plus maze), nociception (paw pressure analgesimeter test), spatial memory (T-maze alternation test) and plasma levels of glucose and corticosterone (ELISA) were assessed two weeks after the T1 DM induction...
October 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025979/the-melatonin-receptor-agonist-piromelatine-ameliorates-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-chronically-stressed-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#10
Jun Zhou, Deng Wang, Xiaohong Luo, Xu Jia, Maoxing Li, Laudon Moshe, Ruxue Zhang, Zhengping Jia
Modern lifestyle factors (high-caloric food rich in fat) and daily chronic stress are important risk factors for metabolic disturbances. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and the subsequent excess production of glucocorticoids (GCs) in response to chronic stress (CS) leads to increases in metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance (IR). Melatonin (MLT), which protects several regulatory components of the HPA axis from GC-induced deterioration, might improve glucose homeostasis...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024752/overtraining-modifies-spatial-memory-susceptibility-to-corticosterone-administration
#11
Alejandro Múnera, Mayerli A Prado-Rivera, D Carolina Cárdenas-Poveda, Marisol R Lamprea
Even though the effects of overtraining and glucocorticoids on different phases of spatial memory are known, the interaction between these factors on the retrieval and extinction of spatial memory has not yet been described. Adult male Wistar rats received eight training trials per day in the Barnes maze for either one or two days. Twenty-four hours after the last training trial they were randomly assigned for receiving an intraperitoneal vehicle or corticosterone injection (0.125 or 0.5 mg/kg) and ten minutes later they were given a memory test, followed by seven extinction trials...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023414/3-5-6-7-8-3-4-heptamethoxyflavone-ameliorates-depressive-like-behavior-and-hippocampal-neurochemical-changes-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stressed-mice-by-regulating-the-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-requirement-for-erk-activation
#12
Atsushi Sawamoto, Satoshi Okuyama, Yoshiaki Amakura, Morio Yoshimura, Takashi Yamada, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, Mitsunari Nakajima, Yoshiko Furukawa
We previously reported that the subcutaneous administration of 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), a citrus polymethoxyflavone, attenuated depressive-like behavior and increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of a corticosterone-induced depression-like mouse model. We herein demonstrated that (1) HMF was detectable in the brain 10 and 30 min after its oral administration, (2) orally administered HMF improved chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced pathological conditions, including body weight loss and depressive-like behavior, and CUMS-induced neurochemical changes, such as reduction in BDNF expression, decrease in neurogenesis, and decreased level of phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the hippocampus, and (3) these effects of HMF were inhibited by the pre-administration of U0126, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021759/effects-of-gladiolus-dalenii-on-the-stress-induced-behavioral-neurochemical-and-reproductive-changes-in-rats
#13
David Fotsing, Gwladys T Ngoupaye, Agnes C Ouafo, Stephanie K J Njapdounke, Yongabi A Kenneth, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD) exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020988/haloperidol-affects-bones-while-clozapine-alters-metabolic-parameters-sex-specific-effects-in-rats-perinatally-treated-with-phencyclidine
#14
Tatjana Nikolić, Milan Petronijević, Jelena Sopta, Milica Velimirović, Tihomir Stojković, Gordana Jevtić Dožudić, Milan Aksić, Nevena V Radonjić, Nataša Petronijević
BACKGROUND: The presentation of schizophrenia (SCH) symptoms differs between the sexes. Long-term treatment with antipsychotics is frequently associated with decreased bone mineral density, increased fracture risk and metabolic side effects. Perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) administration to rodents represents an animal model of SCH. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic haloperidol and clozapine treatment on bone mass, body composition, corticosterone, IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations and metabolic parameters in male and female rats perinatally treated with PCP...
October 11, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020649/neuroendocrine-stress-reactivity-of-male-c57bl-6n-mice-following-chronic-oral-corticosterone-exposure-during-adulthood-or-adolescence
#15
Ziasmin Shahanoor, Razia Sultana, Madelyn R Baker, Russell D Romeo
Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors...
October 4, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018604/effects-of-invasion-history-on-physiological-responses-to-immune-system-activation-in-invasive-australian-cane-toads
#16
Daniel Selechnik, Andrea J West, Gregory P Brown, Kerry V Fanson, BriAnne Addison, Lee A Rollins, Richard Shine
The cane toad (Rhinella marina) has undergone rapid evolution during its invasion of tropical Australia. Toads from invasion front populations (in Western Australia) have been reported to exhibit a stronger baseline phagocytic immune response than do conspecifics from range core populations (in Queensland). To explore this difference, we injected wild-caught toads from both areas with the experimental antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS, to mimic bacterial infection) and measured whole-blood phagocytosis. Because the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is stimulated by infection (and may influence immune responses), we measured glucocorticoid response through urinary corticosterone levels...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016816/molecular-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-for-the-complex-effects-of-stress-on-synaptic-physiology-and-cognitive-functions
#17
Eunice Y Yuen, Jing Wei, Zhen Yan
Evidence over the past decades has found that stress, particularly through the corticosterone stress hormones, produces complex changes in glutamatergic signaling in prefrontal cortex, which leads to the alteration of cognitive processes medicated by this brain region. Interestingly, the effects of stress on glutamatergic transmission appear to be "U-shaped," depending upon the duration and severity of the stressor. These biphasic effects of acute vs chronic stress represent the adaptive vs maladaptive responses to stressful stimuli...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993273/acute-mental-stress-induces-mitochondrial-bioenergetic-crisis-and-hyper-fission-along-with-aberrant-mitophagy-in-the-gut-mucosa-in-rodent-model-of-stress-related-mucosal-disease
#18
Rudranil De, Somnath Mazumder, Souvik Sarkar, Subhashis Debsharma, Asim Azhar Siddiqui, Shubhra Jyoti Saha, Chinmoy Banerjee, Shiladitya Nag, Debanjan Saha, Uday Bandyopadhyay
Psychological stress, depression and anxiety lead to multiple organ dysfunctions wherein stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) is common to people experiencing stress and also occur as a side effect in patients admitted to intensive care units; however the underlying molecular aetiology is still obscure. We report that in rat-SRMD model, cold restraint-stress severely damaged gut mitochondrial functions to generate superoxide anion (O2(•-)), depletion of ATP and shifted mitochondrial fission-fusion dynamics towards enhanced fission to induce mucosal injury...
October 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990804/effects-of-a-blend-of-essential-oils-and-overcrowding-stress-on-the-growth-performance-meat-quality-and-heat-shock-protein-gene-expression-of-broilers
#19
S M Hosseini, H Farhangfar, R Nourmohammadi
1. Overcrowding stress is common in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations are characterised by welfare impairment and immunosuppression. The present study evaluated the effects of a blend of essential oils (EOB; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) and stocking density on the performance, gut microflora, meat quality, and physiological stress markers of broilers. One-day-old Ross 308 male broiler chickens (n = 360) were allocated to 4 experimental groups from d 22 to 42. Each treatment had 6 replicates of 15 chicks...
October 9, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989794/a-marker-of-biological-age-explains-individual-variation-in-the-strength-of-the-adult-stress-response
#20
Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Maria Larriva, Robert Gillespie, Sophie Reichert, Ben O Brilot, Thomas Bedford, Pat Monaghan, Karen A Spencer, Melissa Bateson
The acute stress response functions to prioritize behavioural and physiological processes that maximize survival in the face of immediate threat. There is variation between individuals in the strength of the adult stress response that is of interest in both evolutionary biology and medicine. Age is an established source of this variation-stress responsiveness diminishes with increasing age in a range of species-but unexplained variation remains. Since individuals of the same chronological age may differ markedly in their pace of biological ageing, we asked whether biological age-measured here via erythrocyte telomere length-predicts variation in stress responsiveness in adult animals of the same chronological age...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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