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Amanda R de Oliveira, Adriano E Reimer, Fernando M C V Reis, Marcus L Brandão
Considering the complexity of aversive information processing and defensive response expression, a combined action of stress modulators may be required for an optimal performance during threatening situations. Dopamine is now recognized as one of the most active modulators underlying states of fear and anxiety. On the other hand, activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which leads to the release of corticosterone in rodents, has been considered a key part of the stress response. The current study is an extension of prior work investigating modulatory effects of dopamine and corticosterone on conditioned fear expression...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
The application of physiological measures to conservation monitoring has been gaining momentum and, while a suite of physiological traits are available to ascertain disturbance and condition in wildlife populations, glucocorticoids (i.e., GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) are the most heavily employed. The interpretation of GC levels as sensitive indicators of population change necessitates that GCs and metrics of population persistence are linked. However, the relationship between GCs and fitness may be highly context-dependent, changing direction, or significance, depending on the GC measure, fitness metric, life history stage, or other intrinsic and extrinsic contexts considered...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health- promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviors such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioral and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Naseem Jamnia, Janice H Urban, Grace Beth Stuzmann, Sarah Chiren, Emily Reisenbigler, Robert Marr, Daniel A Peterson, Dorothy A Kozlowski
Repeat concussions (RC) can result in significant long-term neurological consequences and increased risk for neurodegenerative disease compared to single concussion (SC). Mechanisms underlying this difference are poorly understood and best elucidated using an animal model. To the best of our knowledge, there is no closed-head model in the adult rat using a commercially available device. We developed a novel and clinically relevant closed-head injury (CHI) model of both single and multiple concussions in the adult rat using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Hsin-An Chang, Ying-Hsiu Wang, Che-Se Tung, Chin-Bin Yeh, Yia-Ping Liu
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its specific receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase (TrkB), play important roles in treating depression. In this experiment, we examined whether 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a novel potent TrkB agonist, could reverse the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities induced by the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm in rats. METHODS: SD rats were exposed to a battery of stressors for 56 days. 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (5 and 20 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally during the last 28 days of the CMS paradigm...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Xiaolie He, Yanjing Zhu, Mei Wang, Guoxin Jing, Rongrong Zhu, Shilong Wang
Major depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with few treatment approaches. The use of nontargeted antidepressants induced many side effects with their low efficacy. A more precise targeting strategy is to develop nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems; hence, we employed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to encapsulate HU-211 and curcumin (Cur). The antidepressant effects of the dual-drug nanoparticles (Cur/SLNs-HU-211) for major depression treatment were investigated in corticosterone-induced cellular and animal models of major depression...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Mark J Millan, Jean-Michel Rivet, Alain Gobert
The highly-interconnected and neurochemically-rich frontal cortex plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood and cognition, domains disrupted in depression and other central nervous system disorders, and it is an important site of action for their therapeutic control. For improving our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the frontal cortex, and for identifying improved treatments, quantification of extracellular pools of neuromodulators by microdialysis in freely-moving rodents has proven indispensable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
James Sm Cuffe, Eleanor L Turton, Lisa K Akison, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Karen M Moritz
Maternal stress can impair fetal development and program sex-specific disease outcomes in offspring through the actions of maternally produced glucocorticoids, predominantly corticosterone (Cort) in rodents. We have demonstrated in mice that male but not female offspring prenatally exposed to Cort (33µg/kg/h for 60h beginning at E12.5) develop cardiovascular/renal dysfunction at 12 months. At 6 months of age, renal function was normal but male offspring had increased plasma aldosterone concentrations, suggesting altered adrenal function may precede disease...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Yu-Cheng Li, Ya-Min Liu, Ji-Duo Shen, Jun-Jie Chen, Yang-Yi Pei, Xiao-Yan Fang
Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg), fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration...
October 13, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Clare Parker Fischer, L Michael Romero
When wild animals are brought into captivity for the first time, they frequently develop chronic stress symptoms. Animals can develop glucocorticoid dysregulation or changes in the sympathetic nervous system over the course of the first week in captivity. By blocking the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine using α- or β-blockers, we hoped to reduce the degree of chronic stress symptoms exhibited by newly captured house sparrows. We measured corticosterone, heart rate and heart rate variability in 24 house sparrows (Passer domesticus) over the first week of captivity...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Koshiro Nishimoto, Minae Koga, Tsugio Seki, Kenji Oki, Elise P Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Mitsuhide Naruse, Tomokazu Sakaguchi, Shinya Morita, Takeo Kosaka, Mototsugu Oya, Tadashi Ogishima, Masanori Yasuda, Makoto Suematsu, Yasuaki Kabe, Masao Omura, Tetsuo Nishikawa, Kuniaki Mukai
Our group previously purified human and rat aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2 and Cyp11b2, respectively) from their adrenals and verified that it is distinct from steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1 or Cyp11b1), the cortisol- or corticosterone-synthesizing enzyme. We now describe their distributions immunohistochemically with specific antibodies. In rats, there is layered functional zonation with the Cyp11b2-positive zona glomerulosa (ZG), Cyp11b1-positive zona fasciculata (ZF), and Cyp11b2/Cyp11b1-negative undifferentiated zone between the ZG and ZF...
October 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Kuo Zhang, Jingyu Yang, Fang Wang, Xing Pan, Jian Liu, Lijuan Wang, Guanyue Su, Jie Ma, Yinxu Dong, Zhili Xiong, Chufu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often observed in the pathophysiology of depression. Antidepressant therapy can restore hippocampal neurogenesis to rescue the HPA axis regulation defects. Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), a famous Chinese herbal formula, has been used clinically in depressive disorders in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated XCHT improved depressive-like behaviors in chronic unpredictable mild stress rat, but the underlying mechanisms of XCHT on hippocampal neurogenesis and the HPA axis were still unclear...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Dr T J Lasisi, S T Shittu, C C Meludu, A A Salami
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. DESIGN: Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
János Varga, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, Ágnes Csáno, Barbora Prokopova, Daniela Jezova, Dóra Zelena
AIMS: In vasopressin-deficient rat pups stressor-induced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone elevations markedly dissociate. We have shown recently that during the postnatal period mineralocorticoid secretion is more sensitive to stressor exposure than that of glucocorticoids. We have therefore hypothesized that in vasopressin-deficient pups during hypoglycemia, a stressor triggering aldosterone release mainly via ACTH, aldosterone release will change in parallel with ACTH. An additional aim was to reveal at which stage of the development occurs the shift from aldosterone to corticosterone as primarily stressor-induced adrenocortical hormone...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
Yasuharu Shinoda, Hideaki Tagashira, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Hideyuki Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kanai, Chen Zhang, Feng Han, Kohji Fukunaga
Cardiovascular diseases are risk factors for depression in humans. We recently proposed that σ1 receptor (σ1R) stimulation rescued cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. Importantly, σ1R stimulation reportedly ameliorates depression-like behaviors in rodents. Thus, we hypothesized that impaired σ1R activity in brain triggers depression-like behaviors in animals with cardiovascular disease. Indeed, here we found that cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure induced by TAC were associated with depression-like behaviors concomitant with downregulation of σ1R expression in brain 6 weeks after surgery...
2016: PloS One
Andrew Mccarthy, Sally Loomis, Brian Eastwood, Keith A Wafford, Raphaëlle Winsky-Sommerer, Gary Gilmour
While several methods have been used to restrict the sleep of experimental animals, it is often unclear whether these different forms of sleep restriction have comparable effects on sleep-wake architecture or functional capacity. The present study compared four models of sleep restriction, using enforced wakefulness by rotation of cylindrical home cages over 11 h in male Wistar rats. These included an electroencephalographic-driven 'Biofeedback' method and three non-invasive methods where rotation was triggered according to a 'Constant', 'Decreasing' or random protocol based upon the 'Weibull' distribution fit to an archival Biofeedback dataset...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Simonnet A, Zamberletti E, Cador M, Rubino T, Caillé S
The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. Acute inhibition of anandamide (AEA) degradation efficiently reduces nicotine withdrawal-induced affective symptoms in rats and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the degradation enzyme of AEA, has been proposed as a possible treatment against nicotine addiction. However, it is unclear whether chronic inhibition of AEA during nicotine abstinence will have beneficial or deleterious affective side-effects. Using a rat model of nicotine addiction, we found that, during abstinence, rats injected daily with a FAAH inhibitor (URB597) developed a depressive-like phenotype...
October 10, 2016: Neuropharmacology
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