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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222721/are-the-adverse-effects-of-stressors-on-amphibians-mediated-by-their-effects-on-stress-hormones
#1
Caitlin R Gabor, Sarah A Knutie, Elizabeth A Roznik, Jason R Rohr
Adverse effects of anthropogenic changes on biodiversity might be mediated by their impacts on the stress response of organisms. To test this hypothesis, we crossed exposure to metyrapone, a synthesis inhibitor of the stress hormone corticosterone, with exposure to the herbicide atrazine and the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) to assess whether the effects of these stressors on tadpoles and post-metamorphic frogs were mediated by corticosterone. Metyrapone countered atrazine- and Bd-induced corticosterone elevations...
December 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217466/influence-of-corticosterone-treatment-on-nestling-begging-in-florida-scrub-jays-aphelocoma-coerulescens
#2
Emily K Elderbrock, Thomas W Small, Stephan J Schoech
Altricial young are dependent on adults for protection and food, and they display nutritional need by begging to elicit feeding from parents. Begging at high levels can be energetically expensive and attract predators; thus, an individual must balance its nutritional needs with these potential costs. Further, because a parent is limited in the amount of food it can provide, begging can contribute to both parent-offspring conflict and sibling-sibling competition. Many extrinsic and intrinsic factors may contribute to begging behavior...
December 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215318/therapeutic-potential-of-silymarin-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-like-behavior-in-mice
#3
Vishnu N Thakare, Rajesh R Patil, Rajesh J Oswal, Valmik D Dhakane, Manoj K Aswar, Bhoomika M Patel
Silymarin, a plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid of Silybum marianum, elicited significant antidepressant-like activity in an acute restraint stress model of depression. It improved monoamines, mainly 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the cortex, dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum in mice. The present study was undertaken to explore the antidepressant potential of silymarin in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior in mice, and to find out its probable mechanism(s) of action, mainly neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, and/or oxidative stress...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212023/disc1-modulates-neuronal-stress-responses-by-gate-keeping-er-mitochondria-ca2-transfer-through-the-mam
#4
Sung Jin Park, Su Been Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Su-Jeong Kim, Namgyu Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Cana Park, Youngsik Woo, Koko Ishizuka, Joung-Hun Kim, Per-Olof Berggren, Akira Sawa, Sang Ki Park
A wide range of Ca2+-mediated functions are enabled by the dynamic properties of Ca2+, all of which are dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a scaffold protein that is involved in the function of intracellular organelles and is linked to cognitive and emotional deficits. Here, we demonstrate that DISC1 localizes to the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM). At the MAM, DISC1 interacts with IP3R1 and downregulates its ligand binding, modulating ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer through the MAM...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211774/food-restriction-reduces-neurogenesis-in-the-avian-hippocampal-formation
#5
Barbara-Anne Robertson, Lucy Rathbone, Giselda Cirillo, Richard B D'Eath, Melissa Bateson, Timothy Boswell, Peter W Wilson, Ian C Dunn, Tom V Smulders
The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208684/central-npy-y5-sub-receptor-partially-functions-as-a-mediator-of-npy-induced-hypothermia-and-affords-thermotolerance-in-heat-exposed-fasted-chicks
#6
Hatem M Eltahan, Mohammad A Bahry, Hui Yang, Guofeng Han, Linh T N Nguyen, Hiromi Ikeda, Mohamed N Ali, Khairy A Amber, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Vishwajit S Chowdhury
Exposure of chicks to a high ambient temperature (HT) has previously been shown to increase neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression in the brain. Furthermore, it was found that NPY has anti-stress functions in heat-exposed fasted chicks. The aim of the study was to reveal the role of central administration of NPY on thermotolerance ability and the induction of heat-shock protein (HSP) and NPY sub-receptors (NPYSRs) in fasted chicks with the contribution of plasma metabolite changes. Six- or seven-day-old chicks were centrally injected with 0 or 375 pmol of NPY and exposed to either HT (35 ± 1°C) or control thermoneutral temperature (CT: 30 ± 1°C) for 60 min while fasted...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208661/plasma-steroid-metabolome-for-diagnosis-and-subtyping-patients-with-cushing-syndrome
#7
Graeme Eisenhofer, Jimmy Masjkur, Mirko Peitzsch, Guido Di Dalmazi, Martin Bidlingmaier, Matthias Grüber, Julia Fazel, Andrea Osswald, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome requires a multistep process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction. This study assessed whether pituitary, ectopic, and adrenal subtypes of Cushing syndrome were characterized by distinct plasma steroid profiles that might assist diagnosis. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, mass spectrometric measurements of a panel of 15 plasma steroids were applied to 222 patients tested for Cushing syndrome...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203512/glucocorticoids-reprogram-beta-cell-signaling-to-preserve-insulin-secretion
#8
Nicholas H F Fine, Craig L Doig, Yasir S Elhassan, Nicholas C Vierra, Piero Marchetti, Marco Bugliani, Rita Nano, Lorenzo Piemonti, Guy A Rutter, David A Jacobson, Gareth G Lavery, David J Hodson
Excessive glucocorticoid exposure has been shown to be deleterious for pancreatic beta cell function and insulin release. However, glucocorticoids at physiological levels are essential for many homeostatic processes, including glycemic control. Here, we show that corticosterone and cortisol and their less active precursors, 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC) and cortisone, suppress voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel function and Ca2+ fluxes in rodent as well as human beta cells. However, insulin secretion, maximal ATP/ADP responses to glucose and beta cell identity were all unaffected...
December 4, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203333/perinatal-fluoxetine-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-reverses-the-lasting-effects-of-pre-gestational-stress-on-serum-corticosterone-but-not-on-maternal-behavior-in-the-rat-dam
#9
Mary Gemmel, Danny Harmeyer, Eszter Bögi, Marianne Fillet, Lesley A Hill, Geoffrey L Hammond, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
There is increasing evidence that mental health concerns, stress-related mental illnesses, and parental stress prior to conception have long-term effects on offspring outcomes. However, more work is needed to understand how pre-gestational stress might affect neurobehavioral outcomes in the mother. We investigated how chronic stress prior to gestation affects the maternal behavior and related physiology, and aimed to determine the role that perinatal SSRIs may have in altering these stress effects. To do this, female Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) prior to breeding and during the perinatal period they were administered fluoxetine (10mg/kg/day)...
December 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203053/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-mediates-adrenal-development-dysfunction-in-offspring-rats-induced-by-prenatal-food-restriction
#10
Zheng He, Feng Lv, Yufeng Ding, Chunyan Zhu, Hegui Huang, Li Zhang, Yu Guo, Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Our previous study demonstrated that prenatal food restriction (PFR) could induce the dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid-related glucose and lipid metabolic alterations in adult offspring rats. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the intrauterine programming mechanism of adrenal dysfunction in the PFR offspring rats. METHODS: From gestational days (GDs) 11-20, pregnant Wistar rats were fed a restricted diet (50% of the daily food intake of control rats, 60 g/kg·d)...
December 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202116/developmental-corticosterone-treatment-does-not-program-immune-responses-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#11
Jennifer L Grindstaff, Loren Merrill
Developmental conditions may impact the expression of immune traits throughout an individual's life. Early-life challenges may lead to immunological constraints that are mediated by endocrine-immune interactions. In particular, individual differences in the ability to mount immune responses may be programmed by exposure to stressors or glucocorticoid hormones during development. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally elevated levels of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone during the nestling and fledgling periods in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199383/combined-corticosterone-treatment-and-chronic-restraint-stress-lead-to-depression-associated-with-early-cognitive-deficits-in-mice
#12
Gwladys Temkou Ngoupaye, Francis Bray Yassi, Doriane Amanda Nguepi Bahane, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Many models, such as chronic mild stress, chronic stress or chronic corticosterone injections are used to induce depression associated with cognitive deficits. However, the induction period in these different models is still long and face constraints when it is short such as in the chronic mild stress done in a minimum period of 21 days. This study aimed to characterize a model of depression with early onset cognitive deficit. 14 days combined chronic injection of corticosterone followed by 2 h restraint stress using a restrainer was used to induce depression with early cognitive deficit onset...
December 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199177/inhibition-of-glycogen-phosphorylase-stimulates-ventromedial-hypothalamic-nucleus-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activity-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-expression-in-male-rats
#13
Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Karen P Briski
The glucose polymer glycogen is a vital fuel reserve in the brain. The mediobasal hypothalamic energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) maintains glucostasis via neurotransmitter mechanisms that suppress [γ-aminobutyric acid; GABA] or stimulate [nitric oxide; steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1)] counter-regulatory outflow. This study investigated whether glycogen-derived fuel supply is a critical screened variable in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) monitoring of neuro-metabolic stability during glucostasis and/or insulin (I)-induced hypoglycemia...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197554/baseline-and-stress-induced-blood-properties-of-male-and-female-darwin-s-small-ground-finch-geospiza-fuliginosa-of-the-galapagos-islands
#14
Timothy D Clark, Sonia Kleindorfer, Rachael Y Dudaniec
Birds are renowned for exhibiting marked sex-specific differences in activity levels and reproductive investment during the breeding season, potentially impacting circulating blood parameters associated with stress and energetics. Males of many passerines often do not incubate, but they experience direct exposure to intruder threat and exhibit aggressive behaviour during the nesting phase in order to defend territories against competing males and predators. Nesting females often have long bouts of inactivity during incubation, but they must remain vigilant of the risks posed by predators and conspecific intruders approaching the nest...
November 29, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197553/evidence-for-condition-mediated-trade-offs-between-the-hpa-and-hpg-axes-in-the-wild-zebra-finch
#15
Ondi L Crino, Sophia M Jensen, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith
Opportunistic breeding is a strategy used to maximize reproductive success in unpredictable environments. Birds that breed opportunistically are thought to maintain partial activation of the reproductive axis in order to rapidly initiate breeding when environmental conditions become suitable. The physiological mechanisms that modulate reproduction in seasonally breeding birds have been well explored. In contrast, the physiological mechanisms that allow opportunistic breeding birds to maintain a continued state of reproductive readiness has not been well established...
November 29, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196218/stress-induced-hippocampus-npas4-mrna-expression-relates-to-specific-psychophysiological-patterns-in-stress-response
#16
Jean-Baptiste Drouet, André Peinnequin, Patrice Faure, Josiane Denis, Nadine Fidier, Renaud Maury, Alain Buguet, Raymond Cespuglio, Frédéric Canini
Neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein4 (Npas4) is a key protein that intervenes in GABA synapse scaling and neurotrophicity enhancing. Since GABA and neurotrophicity are implicated in stress response and Npas4-deficient rodents exhibit behavioral alterations, an investigation was designed in rats to verify whether stress-induced spontaneous hippocampus Npas4 mRNA expression would be associated with specific patterns of stress response. The rats were exposed to one of three stressor levels: no stress (CTL, n=15), exposure to a footshock apparatus (Sham, S, n=40) and footshock (F, n=80)...
November 28, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196049/chronic-glucocorticoid-treatment-induced-circadian-clock-disorder-leads-to-lipid-metabolism-and-gut-microbiota-alterations-in-rats
#17
Tao Wu, Luna Yang, Jianguo Jiang, Yinhua Ni, Jiawei Zhu, Xiaojun Zheng, Qi Wang, Xin Lu, Zhengwei Fu
AIM: Glucocorticoids (GCs), steroid hormones synthetized by the adrenal gland, are regulated by circadian cycles, and dysregulation of GC signaling can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome. The effects and potential mechanism of GCs in physiology were investigated in the present study. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were orally administered dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX, 0.01 and 0.05mg/kg body weight per day) for 7weeks. KEY FINDING: DEX treatment attenuated body weight gain and reduced food intake, whereas it induced the accumulation of fat...
November 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194818/rapid-non-genomic-modulation-by-neurosteroids-of-dendritic-spines-in-the-hippocampus-androgen-estrogen-and-corticosteroid
#18
REVIEW
Gen Murakami, Yasushi Hojo, Asami Kato, Yoshimasa Komatsuzaki, Shigeo Horie, Mika Soma, Jonghyuk Kim, Suguru Kawato
Memories are stored in synapses which consist of axon terminals and dendritic spines. Dendritic spines are postsynaptic structures of synapses and essential for synaptic plasticity and cognition. Therefore, extensive investigations about functions and structures of spines have been performed. Sex steroids and stress steroids have been shown to modulate hippocampal synapses. Although rapid modulatory action of sex steroids on synapses has been studied in hippocampal neurons over several decades, its essential molecular mechanisms have not been fully understood...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191401/comparative-profiling-of-adrenal-steroids-in-maternal-and-umbilical-cord-blood
#19
Simon Travers, Laetitia Martinerie, Pascal Boileau, Qiong-Yao Xue, Marc Lombès, Eric Pussard
Fetal steroidome in late pregnancy receives multiple contributions from both maternal and fetal adrenals as well as from placenta. Depressed glucocorticoid levels have been reported in fetal blood at birth, yet studies on mineralocorticoid pathways are sparse. To investigate biosynthesis pathways at birth, adrenal steroids profiles were established in paired mothers and neonates. Forty-six paired healthy term newborns and their mothers from the Aldo cohort were assessed. Steroidomic profiles of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens were established from umbilical cord and maternal blood at birth using a highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS methodology...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190757/long-lived-weight-reduced-%C3%AE-mupa-mice-show-higher-and-longer-maternal-dependent-postnatal-leptin-surge
#20
Mariel Pinsky, Maayan Rauch, Atallah Abbas, Adi Sharabi-Nov, Snait Tamir, Roee Gutman
We investigated whether long-lived weight-reduced αMUPA mice differ from their wild types in postnatal body composition and leptin level, and whether these differences are affected by maternal-borne factors. Newborn αMUPA and wild type mice had similar body weight and composition up to the third postnatal week, after which αMUPA mice maintained lower body weight due to lower fat-free mass. Both strains showed a surge in leptin levels at the second postnatal week, initiating earlier in αMUPA mice, rising higher and lasting longer than in the wild types, mainly in females...
2017: PloS One
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