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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324714/association-between-nephrolithiasis-and-fatty-liver-detected-on-non-enhanced-ct-for-clinically-suspected-renal-colic
#1
Abdel-Rauf Zeina, Limor Goldenberg, Alicia Nachtigal, Rabea Hasadia, Walid Saliba
PURPOSE: To estimate a direct association between nephrolithiasis and hepatosteatosis in patients referred to CT due to clinical suspicion of renal colic. METHODS: A 508 non-contrast CT scans were examined for calculi in the kidneys or urinary tract, including measurements of liver attenuation, spleen attenuation, thickness of visceral and subcutaneous fat. Logistic regression examined the association of nephrolithiasis and hepatosteatosis findings. RESULTS: Nephrolithiasis was found in 421 (83...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324110/effects-of-metreleptin-in-pediatric-patients-with-lipodystrophy
#2
Rebecca J Brown, Cristina Adelia Meehan, Elaine Cochran, Kristina I Rother, David E Kleiner, Mary Walter, Phillip Gorden
Context: Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare disorders of deficient adipose tissue. Metreleptin, a human analog of leptin, improved metabolic abnormalities in mixed cohorts of leptin-deficient children and adults with lipodystrophy. Objective: Determine effects of metreleptin on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), growth, and puberty in leptin-deficient pediatric patients with lipodystrophy. Design: Prospective, single-arm, open-label studies with continuous enrollment since 2000...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324021/endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#3
Tian Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Lei Yang, Megumu Tanaka, Xian Xian, Akira Imai, Liuyu Zhai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Kyoko Igarashi, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a bioactive peptide produced by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of the calcitonin/CGRP gene. CGRP is largely distributed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, where it acts as a regulatory factor. CGRP is also expressed in organs and tissues involved in metabolic regulation, including white adipose tissue (WAT), where its function is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of endogenous CGRP on metabolic function. When we administered a high-fat diet to CGRP knockout (CGRP-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice for 10 weeks, we observed that food intake did not differ between the two groups, but body weight and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in CGRP-/- mice...
January 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324002/association-of-nafld-with-diabetes-and-the-impact-of-bmi-changes-a-5-years-cohort-study-based-on-18507-elderly
#4
Miao Liu, Jianhua Wang, Jing Zeng, Xiutang Cao, Yao He
Context: Previous studies about the relation between NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) with diabetes are limited by inconsistent conclusion, mainly being cross-sectional, small sample size, no elderly people, or lack of prediabetes. Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between NAFLD with diabetes and prediabetes in a large cohort based on Chinese male elderly. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study that followed up for about 5 years...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323986/chronic-intranasal-insulin-does-not-affect-hepatic-lipids-but-lowers-circulating-bcaas-in-healthy-male-subjects
#5
Thomas Scherer, Peter Wolf, Sabina Smajis, Melania Gaggini, Martina Hackl, Amalia Gastaldelli, Peter Klimek, Elisa Einwallner, Rodrig Marculescu, Anton Luger, Clemens Fürnsinn, Siegfried Trattnig, Christoph Buettner, Martin Krššák, Michael Krebs
Context: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and elevated circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are common characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In rodents, brain insulin signaling controls both hepatic triglyceride secretion and BCAA catabolism. Whether brain insulin signaling controls similar metabolic pathways in humans is unknown. Objective: Here we assessed if intranasal insulin, a method to preferentially deliver insulin to the central nervous system, is able to modulate hepatic lipid content and plasma BCAAs in humans...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323977/short-term-vs-long-term-effects-of-adipocyte-toll-like-receptor-4-activation-on-insulin-resistance-in-male-mice
#6
Caroline Tao, William L Holland, Qiong A Wang, Mengle Shao, Lin Jia, Kai Sun, Xiaoli Lin, Yi-Chun Kuo, Joshua A Johnson, Ruth Gordillo, Joel K Elmquist, Philipp E Scherer
Chronic exposure to diets high in saturated fat (HFD) increases the prevalence of obesity and contributes to the development of low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. A possible mediator accounting for obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance is Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We investigated the role of adipocyte TLR4 in lipid and glucose homeostasis through an inducible, adipocyte-specific deletion of TLR4, the "TADIPO mouse". Consistent with a critical role for inflammation as a positive force for healthy adipose tissue expansion, chronic HFD exposure resulted in exacerbated whole body and muscle insulin resistance in the absence of TLR4 in the adipocyte...
February 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323964/dysregulated-autophagy-in-hepatocytes-promotes-bisphenol-a-bpa-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-male-mice
#7
Shumin Yang, Ting Li, Aipin Zhang, Rufei Gao, Chuan Peng, Lulu Liu, Qingfeng Cheng, Mei Mei, Ying Song, Xiaojiao Xiang, Chaodong Wu, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Qifu Li
Context: Accumulating evidence suggests that bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Disruption of autophagy causes lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Whether and how BPA regulates autophagy remains to be explored. Objective: We investigated the effect of BPA on autophagy in hepatocytes and examined the influence of BPA-regulated autophagy on hepatic lipid accumulation. Design: Male CD1 mice were treated with BPA for eight weeks, followed by histological and biochemical evaluation of liver lipids and autophagy...
February 21, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319895/impact-of-high-cholesterol-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-diseases-an-updated-mini-review
#8
REVIEW
Erdi Sozen, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH), and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress...
March 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319602/low-hepatic-tissue-copper-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
Michael Mendoza, Shelley Caltharp, Ming Song, Lindsay Collin, Juna V Konomi, Craig J McClain, Miriam B Vos
OBJECTIVE: Animal models and studies in adults have demonstrated that copper restriction increases severity of liver injury in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has not been studied in children. We aimed to determine if lower tissue copper is associated with increased NAFLD severity in children. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients who had a liver biopsy including a hepatic copper quantitation. The primary outcome compared hepatic copper concentration in NAFLD versus non-NAFLD...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319158/a-morphological-method-for-ammonia-detection-in-liver
#10
Virginia Gutiérrez-de-Juan, Sergio López de Davalillo, David Fernández-Ramos, Lucía Barbier-Torres, Imanol Zubiete-Franco, Pablo Fernández-Tussy, Jorge Simon, Fernando Lopitz-Otsoa, Javier de Las Heras, Paula Iruzubieta, María Teresa Arias-Loste, Erica Villa, Javier Crespo, Raúl Andrade, M Isabel Lucena, Marta Varela-Rey, Shelly C Lu, José M Mato, Teresa Cardoso Delgado, María-Luz Martínez-Chantar
Hyperammonemia is a metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of ammonia and a common event in acute liver injury/failure and chronic liver disease. Even though hepatic ammonia levels are potential predictive factors of patient outcome, easy and inexpensive methods aiming at the detection of liver ammonia accumulation in the clinical setting remain unavailable. Thus, herein we have developed a morphological method, based on the utilization of Nessler´s reagent, to accurately and precisely detect the accumulation of ammonia in biological tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319060/the-anti-diabetic-drug-exenatide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-counteracts-hepatocarcinogenesis-through-camp-pka-egfr-stat3-axis
#11
M Zhou, M T S Mok, H Sun, A W Chan, Y Huang, A S L Cheng, G Xu
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close association of type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exenatide (Ex-4), a potent diabetes drug targeting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), is protective against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the Ex-4 function and GLP-1R status have yet been explored in HCC. Herein we investigated the effect of Ex-4 in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated mice consuming control or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet. Administration of Ex-4 significantly improved obesity-induced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and reduced HCC multiplicity in obese DEN-treated mice, in which suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis were confined to tumor cells...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318950/cholesteryl-ester-storage-disease-an-underdiagnosed-cause-of-cirrhosis-in-adults
#12
REVIEW
Mamta Pant, Kiyoko Oshima
Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD), is a rare multisystem autosomal recessive disorder and belongs to the broad family of lysosomal storage disorders. It can present anytime from infancy and childhood to even adulthood. The clinical manifestations are generally severe in infants and with milder forms in adults. One of the prominent sites of involvement is liver. Due to low awareness of this condition among physicians including surgical pathologists, majority of the liver biopsies, especially from the adults are often misdiagnosed as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or cryptogenic cirrhosis...
February 9, 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318912/less-liver-fibrosis-in-metabolically-healthy-compared-with-metabolically-unhealthy-obese-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Y Gutiérrez-Grobe, E Juárez-Hernández, B A Sánchez-Jiménez, M H Uribe-Ramos, M H Ramos-Ostos, M Uribe, N C Chávez-Tapia
AIM: This cross-sectional study evaluated liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and compared the characteristics of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) with metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) patients. METHODS: The study was nested within a randomized clinical trial (RCT) and included obese patients with NAFLD, as determined by liver ultrasonography. Fibrosis was assessed by transient elastography, and AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and NAFLD score...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318525/psoriasis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
J M Carrascosa, C Bonanad, E Dauden, R Botella, A Olveira-Martín
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver condition in the West. The prevalence and severity of NAFLD is higher and the prognosis worse in patients with psoriasis. The pathogenic link between psoriasis and NAFLD is chronic inflammation and peripheral insulin resistance, a common finding in diseases associated with psoriasis. NAFLD should therefore be ruled out during the initial evaluation of patients with psoriasis, in particular if they show signs of metabolic syndrome and require systemic treatment...
March 16, 2017: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318371/p-selectin-endocan-and-some-adhesion-molecules-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Ala Ustyol, Esra Aycan Ustyol, Figen Gurdol, Funda Kokali, Seldag Bekpınar
There is increasing evidence for a direct relationship between the vascular system and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to investigate endocan and adhesion molecules such as P-selectin derived from the endothelium and platelets in obese children and adolescents with NAFLD. One hundred obese patients and 40 lean controls were enrolled. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of fatty liver. Blood samples were assayed for endocan, P-selectin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317891/hepatic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-a-feature-of-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ia-gsdia
#16
Benjamin L Farah, Rohit A Sinha, Yajun Wu, Brijesh K Singh, Andrea Lim, Masahiro Hirayama, Dustin J Landau, Boon Huat Bay, Dwight D Koeberl, Paul M Yen
Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa, von Gierke disease) is the most common glycogen storage disorder. It is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase, an enzyme which catalyses the final step of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Clinically, GSDIa is characterized by fasting hypoglycaemia and hepatic glycogen and triglyceride overaccumulation. The latter leads to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and the formation of hepatic adenomas and carcinomas. Currently, little is known about the function of various organelles and their impact on metabolism in GSDIa...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317281/comparison-of-dietary-polyphenols-for-protection-against-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-cell-model-of-steatosis
#17
Hossein Rafiei, Kosar Omidian, Brian Bandy
SCOPE: Dietary polyphenols have shown promise in protecting the liver against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The relative effectiveness and mechanisms of different polyphenols however is mostly unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a model of steatosis using HepG2 hepatocytes, we evaluated the protective effects of different classes of polyphenols and the contributing mechanisms. Treatment of the cells with oleic acid increased ROS generation and expression of TNFα, decreased expression of UCP2 and decreased mitochondrial content and markers of biogenesis...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315997/trans-fatty-acids-suppress-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-gene-expression-in-endothelial-huvec-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hepg2-cells
#18
Marine S Da Silva, Pierre Julien, Jean-François Bilodeau, Olivier Barbier, Iwona Rudkowska
Trans fatty acids (TFA) intake has been linked to cardiovascular diseases and liver diseases; yet the effect of TFA on inflammation remains controversial. Accordingly, the objective of this paper was to determine the in vitro effects of TFA on inflammatory gene expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated for 24 h with either trans-vaccenic acid (tVA), trans-palmitoleic acid (tPA) or elaidic acid (EA) at concentrations of 5-150 µM, or with a mixture of tVA and tPA (150/50 µM)...
March 18, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315901/the-effect-of-sitagliptin-on-lipid-metabolism-of-fatty-liver-mice-and-related-mechanisms
#19
Bilin Xu, Tian Shen, Lin Chen, Juan Xia, Cuiping Zhang, Hongping Wang, Ming Yu, Tao Lei
BACKGROUND In clinics, patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been shown to receive significant improvements in blood glucose levels, lipid levels, and liver function after sitagliptin treatment, although the mechanism of drug action remains poorly understood. This study investigated the possible mechanism of sitagliptin on lipid metabolism of NAFLD mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male C57/BL6 mice were induced for NAFLD via 16 weeks of a high-fat diet, and were treated with 15 mg/kg/day sitagliptin for 16 consecutive weeks...
March 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315617/dietary-fructose-augments-ethanol-induced-liver-pathology
#20
Paul G Thomes, Jennifer H Benbow, Elizabeth Brandon-Warner, Kyle J Thompson, Carl Jacobs, Terrence M Donohue, Laura W Schrum
Certain dietary components when combined with alcohol exacerbate alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI). Here, we tested whether fructose, a major ingredient of the western diet, enhances the severity of ALI. We fed mice ethanol for 8 weeks in the following Lieber-DeCarli diets: (a) Regular (contains olive oil); (b) corn oil (contains corn oil); (c) fructose (contains fructose and olive oil) and (d) corn+fructose (contains fructose and corn oil). We compared indices of metabolic function and liver pathology among the different groups...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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