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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222917/diagnostic-modalities-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-and-associated-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Quentin M Anstee, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Zachary D Goodman, Naga P Chalasani, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Keith Lindor
NAFLD is a spectrum comprised of isolated steatosis, NASH, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The majority of NAFLD subjects do not have NASH and don't carry a significant risk for adverse outcomes (cirrhosis and mortality). Globally, the prevalence of NAFLD is approximately 25%. In Asia, a gradient of high prevalence rates to low rates are noted from urban to rural areas. Given the prevalence of NAFLD, the clinical and economic burden of NAFLD and NASH can be substantial. With increasing recognition as an important liver disease, the diagnosis of NASH still requires a liver biopsy which is suboptimal...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222911/current-and-future-therapeutic-regimens-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#2
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Naga P Chalasani, Quentin M Anstee, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Zachary D Goodman, Keith Lindor
NASH/NAFLD is rapidly becoming one of top causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and indication for liver transplantation. Except for life style modification through diet and exercise, there are currently no other approved treatments for NASH/NAFLD. Although weight loss can be effective, it is hard to achieve and sustain. In contrast, bariatric surgery can improve metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD and has been shown to improve liver histology. In order to have approved regimens for treatment of NASH/NAFLD, a number of issues that must be addressed...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222767/platelet-counts-and-liver-enzymes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#3
Hans-Erik Johansson, Anna Wåhlén, Erica Aldenbäck, Arvo Haenni
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, liver steatosis and increased liver enzymes such as gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fat content. Increased platelet counts (PCs) are a biomarker reflecting inflammation and the degree of fibrosis in NAFLD. We investigated alterations in PCs, GGT, ALT, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP)...
December 8, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222421/the-transcriptomic-signature-of-disease-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
Sophie Cazanave, Alexei Podtelezhnikov, Kristian Jensen, Mulugeta Seneshaw, Divya P Kumar, Hae-Ki Min, Prasanna K Santhekadur, Bubu Banini, Adolfo Gabriele Mauro, Abdul M Oseini, Robert Vincent, Keith Q Tanis, Andrea L Webber, Liangsu Wang, Pierre Bedossa, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Arun J Sanyal
A longitudinal molecular model of the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) over time is lacking. We have recently validated a high fat/sugar water-induced animal (an isogenic strain of C57BL/6 J:129S1/SvImJ mice) model of NAFLD that closely mimics most aspects of human disease. The hepatic transcriptome of such mice with fatty liver (8 weeks), steatohepatitis with early fibrosis (16-24 weeks) and advanced fibrosis (52 weeks) after initiation of the diet was evaluated and compared to mice on chow diet...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222328/fructose-and-glucose-regulate-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-can-activate-lipogenic-gene-expression-via-distinct-pathways
#5
Yue Hu, Ivana Semova, Xiaowei Sun, Hong Kang, Satyapal Chahar, Anthony N Hollenberg, David Masson, Matthew D Hirschey, Ji Miao, Sudha B Biddinger
Though calorically equivalent to glucose, fructose appears to be more lipogenic, leading to dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. To better understand how fructose induces lipogenesis, we compared the effects of fructose and glucose on the mTORC1 signaling node, a central regulator of lipogenesis. We found that fructose acutely and transiently suppressed mTORC1 signaling in vitro and in vivo. The constitutive activation of mTORC1 reduced hepatic lipogenic gene expression and produced hypotriglyceridemia after one week of fructose feeding...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222051/long-term-fermented-soybean-paste-improves-metabolic-parameters-associated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#6
Min-Seok Kim, Bobae Kim, Haryung Park, Yosep Ji, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Do-Young Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
Recently, Korean traditional fermented soybean paste, called Doenjang, has attracted attention for its protective effect against diet-related chronic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Long-term fermented soybean pastes (LFSPs) are made by fermentation with naturally-occurring microorganisms for several months, whereas short-term fermented soybean pastes (SFSPs) are produced by shorter-time fermentation inoculated with a starter culture. Here, we demonstrate that administration of LFSP, but not SFSP, protects high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice against non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance...
December 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221978/influence-of-6-hydroxyethyl-starch-130-0-4-versus-crystalloid-solution-on-structural-renal-damage-markers-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-post-hoc-subgroup-analysis-of-a-prospective-trial
#7
Thomas Datzmann, Markus Hoenicka, Helmut Reinelt, Andreas Liebold, Hagen Gorki
OBJECTIVE: The restriction of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) has mandated changes in volume management based on data of critically ill patients. Reliable data of structural renal damage after HES treatment in cardiac surgical patients are lacking. The influence of 6% HES 130/0.4 was investigated in this study. DESIGN: An exploratory post hoc subgroup analysis of a prospective trial was performed. SETTING: The study was carried out at a university hospital...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221950/dha-supplementation-prevent-the-progression-of-nash-via-gpr120-signaling
#8
Kazuo Nakamoto, Koki Shimada, Shinichi Harada, Yasuko Morimoto, Akira Hirasawa, Shogo Tokuyama
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases involving chronic accumulation of fat and inflammation, often leading to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. However, the pathological mechanism for this is unknown. GPR120/FFAR4 has been recognized as a functional fatty acid receptor and an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR120/FFAR4 in the pathogenesis of NASH. Mice fed with a 0.1% methionine and choline deficient high-fat (CDAHF) diet showed a significant increase in plasma aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, fatty deposition, inflammatory cell infiltration, and mild fibrosis...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221790/fam3-gene-family-a-promising-therapeutical-target-for-nafld-and-type-2-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Zhang Xiaoyan, Weili Yang, Junpei Wang, Yuhong Meng, Youfei Guan, Jichun Yang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes are severe public health issues worldwide. The Family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family consists of four members designated as FAM3A, FAM3B, FAM3C and FAM3D, respectively. Recently, there had been increasing evidence that FAM3A, FAM3B and FAM3C are important regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. FAM3A expression is reduced in the livers of diabetic rodents and NAFLD patients. Hepatic FAM3A restoration activates ATP-P2 receptor-Akt and AMPK pathways to attenuate steatosis and hyperglycemia in obese diabetic mice...
December 5, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221711/sitosterol-prevents-obesity-related-chronic-inflammation
#10
Makoto Kurano, Koji Hasegawa, Motoei Kunimi, Masumi Hara, Yutaka Yatomi, Tamio Teramoto, Kazuhisa Tsukamoto
The physiological roles of phytosterols in chronic inflammation, which are believed to be involved in the underlying mechanisms for metabolic diseases, have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to elucidate the physiological roles of phytosterols in both clinical studies and animal experiments. We observed the existence of rather specific negative correlations between the serum sitosterol level and the serum IL-6 and the TNF-α levels in both diabetic subjects (n=46) and non-diabetic subjects (n=178)...
December 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221151/collagen-i-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-proliferation-by-regulating-integrin-%C3%AE-1-fak-signaling-pathway-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver
#11
Xinglong Zheng, Wenyan Liu, Junxi Xiang, Peng Liu, Mengyun Ke, Bo Wang, Rongqian Wu, Yi Lv
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism remains insufficiently elucidated. The expression of Collagen I, an important component of extracellular matrix (ECM), was increased during the progression from simple steatosis to NASH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Collagen I in NAFLD-related HCC. To study this, the decellularized liver matrix, which preserves the pathological changes of ECM, was prepared from the human fatty liver (FLM) and human normal liver (NLM)...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220869/non-obese-fatty-liver-disease-is-associated-with-lacunar-infarct
#12
Min-Sun Kwak, Kyung Won Kim, Hyobin Seo, Goh-Eun Chung, Jeong Yoon Yim, Donghee Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lacunar infarct, a small subcortical ischemic lesion, is a known risk factor for future cognitive impairment, dementia, and stroke. We evaluated the relationship between fatty liver disease(FLD) and lacunar infarct in a healthy general population. METHODS: Subjects who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and abdominal ultrasonography(US) during health check-ups from 2007-2009 were included. FLD was diagnosed by US. Subjects with a history of cerebrovascular disease, radiological findings consistent with cerebrovascular stenosis, or cerebral small vessel disease were excluded...
December 8, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220698/synergistic-interaction-of-fatty-acids-and-oxysterols-impairs-mitochondrial-function-and-limits-liver-adaptation-during-nafld-progression
#13
Francesco Bellanti, Rosanna Villani, Rosanna Tamborra, Maria Blonda, Giuseppina Iannelli, Giorgia di Bello, Antonio Facciorusso, Giuseppe Poli, Luigi Iuliano, Carlo Avolio, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Gaetano Serviddio
The complete mechanism accounting for the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been elucidated. Lipotoxicity refers to cellular injury caused by hepatic free fatty acids (FFAs) and cholesterol accumulation. Excess cholesterol autoxidizes to oxysterols during oxidative stress conditions. We hypothesize that interaction of FAs and cholesterol derivatives may primarily impair mitochondrial function and affect biogenesis adaptation during NAFLD progression...
December 5, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220367/periodontitis-is-associated-with-significant-hepatic-fibrosis-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
William Alazawi, Eduardo Bernabe, David Tai, Tomasz Janicki, Polychronis Kemos, Salma Samsuddin, Wing-Kin Syn, David Gillam, Wendy Turner
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a bidirectional association with metabolic syndrome. It affects up to 30% of the general population, 70% of individuals with diabetes and 90% with obesity. The main histological hallmark of progressive NAFLD is fibrosis. There is a bidirectional epidemiological link between periodontitis and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD, periodontitis and diabetes share common risk factors, are characterised by inflammation and associated with changes in commensal bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220061/comparison-of-carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-coronary-artery-calcium-score-for-estimating-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Hyun-Jin Kim, Hyung-Bok Park, Yongsung Suh, Yoon-Hyeong Cho, Eui-Seok Hwang, Deok-Kyu Cho, Tae-Young Choi
INTRODUCTION: Fatty liver disease (FLD) is correlated with cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) can noninvasively identify subclinical atherosclerosis and predict risk for cardiovascular events. This study evaluated CIMT and CACS measurements to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with and without FLD. METHODS: Patients who underwent carotid and abdominal ultrasounds as well as cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated retrospectively...
December 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220052/hypoglycemic-and-hypolipidemic-effects-of-anthocyanins-extract-from-black-soybean-seed-coat-in-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#16
Zhongqin Chen, Cong Wang, Yuxiang Pan, Xudong Gao, Haixia Chen
Black soybean seed coat extract (BSSCE) is a rich source of anthocyanins with multiple health effects. This study was aimed at investigating the composition and hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of BSSCE in vitro and in a high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The anthocyanins of BSSCE were identified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and peonidin-3-O-glucoside by HPLC-MS. Results demonstrated that BSSCE exhibited strong inhibitory activities for α-amylase, potent inhibition activity against lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells and protection effect on H2O2-induced oxidative stress-damaged HepG2 cells...
December 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219920/the-fatty-liver-index-a-simple-and-accurate-predictor-of-colorectal-adenoma-in-an-average-risk-population
#17
Eun Young Ze, Beom Jin Kim, Dong Hwan Jun, Jae Gyu Kim, Hyun Kang, Dong Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Because nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and colorectal adenoma share many common risk factors of metabolic syndrome, the association between these 2 pathological findings has been investigated in multiple studies, but the results have been conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess the relationship between the fatty liver index, a predictor of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the prevalence of colorectal adenomas...
January 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218660/how-bariatric-surgery-affects-liver-volume-and-fat-density-in-nafld-patients
#18
Ran B Luo, Toshiaki Suzuki, Jonathan C Hooker, Yesenia Covarrubias, Alexandra Schlein, Shanglei Liu, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Scott B Reeder, Luke M Funk, Jacob A Greenberg, Guilherme M Campos, Bryan J Sandler, Santiago Horgan, Claude B Sirlin, Garth R Jacobsen
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an epidemic in the obese population. Bariatric surgery is known to reverse multiple metabolic complications of obesity such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and NAFLD, but the timing of liver changes has not been well described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an IRB-approved, two-institutional prospective study. Bariatric patients received MRIs at baseline and after a pre-operative liquid diet. Liver biopsies were performed during surgery and if NAFLD positive, the patients received MRIs at 1, 3, and 6 months...
December 7, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218604/author-correction-to-extreme-learning-machine-framework-for-risk-stratification-of-fatty-liver-disease-using-ultrasound-tissue-characterization
#19
Venkatanareshbabu Kuppili, Mainak Biswas, Aswini Sreekumar, Harman S Suri, Luca Saba, Damodar Reddy Edla, Rui Tato Marinho, J Miguel Sanches, Jasjit S Suri
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The family name of Rui Tato Marinho was incorrectly spelled as Marinhoe.
December 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217656/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-in-the-brain-physiological-mechanisms-and-relevance-to-pharmacology
#20
REVIEW
Sophie Layé, Agnès Nadjar, Corinne Joffre, Richard P Bazinet
Classically, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were largely thought to be relatively inert structural components of brain, largely important for the formation of cellular membranes. Over the past 10 years, a host of bioactive lipid mediators that are enzymatically derived from arachidonic acid, the main n-6 PUFA, and docosahexaenoic acid, the main n-3 PUFA in the brain, known to regulate peripheral immune function, have been detected in the brain and shown to regulate microglia activation. Recent advances have focused on how PUFA regulate the molecular signaling of microglia, especially in the context of neuroinflammation and behavior...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
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