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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938797/revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame
#1
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Etheresia Pretorius
Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938796/complex-interactions-of-circadian-rhythms-eating-behaviors-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-and-their-potential-impact-on-health
#2
Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Sharon V Thompson, Hannah D Holscher
Human health is intricately intertwined with the composition and function of the trillions of microorganisms that make up the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome. The GI microbiome is essentially a microbial organ that provides metabolic, immunologic, and protective functions for the host. Habitual diet, changes in macronutrient composition, and consumption of nondigestible dietary fibers have all been shown to impact the human GI microbiome. Intriguingly, the impact of diet on the microbiome may be related not only to what humans eat but also to the timing of food consumption...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938795/lipid-lowering-nutraceuticals-in-clinical-practice-position-paper-from-an-international-lipid-expert-panel
#3
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti, Gani Bajraktari, Olivier Descamps, Dragan M Djuric, Marat Ezhov, Zlatko Fras, Niki Katsiki, Michel Langlois, Gustavs Latkovskis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Gyorgy Paragh, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Olena Mitchenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Daniel Pella, Christos Pitsavos, Željko Reiner, Kausik K Ray, Manfredi Rizzo, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Maria-Corina Serban, Laurence S Sperling, Peter P Toth, Dragos Vinereanu, Michal Vrablík, Nathan D Wong, Maciej Banach
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the possible use of nutraceuticals to improve and optimize dyslipidemia control and therapy. Based on the data from available studies, nutraceuticals might help patients obtain theraputic lipid goals and reduce cardiovascular residual risk. Some nutraceuticals have essential lipid-lowering properties confirmed in studies; some might also have possible positive effects on nonlipid cardiovascular risk factors and have been shown to improve early markers of vascular health such as endothelial function and pulse wave velocity...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938785/growth-performance-and-gastrointestinal-responses-of-broiler-chickens-fed-corn-soybean-meal-diet-without-or-with-exogenous-epidermal-growth-factor-upon-challenge-with-eimeria
#4
E Kim, H Leung, N Akhtar, J Li, J R Barta, Y Wang, C Yang, E Kiarie
Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938780/effects-of-dietary-threonine-supplementation-on-intestinal-barrier-function-and-gut-microbiota-of-laying-hens
#5
X Y Dong, M M M Azzam, X T Zou
The effects of supplemental dietary threonine (Thr) on laying performance, expression of intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2) and secretory IgA (sIgA), and intestinal microbiota of laying hens fed a low CP diet were investigated. A total of 240 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, was allocated to 3 dietary treatments, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens. Hens were fed a control diet (16% CP), a low CP diet (14% CP), or a low CP diet supplemented with 0.3% L-Thr for 12 weeks. Chemical analyses of the diets for Thr are 0...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938771/comparative-estimation-of-inevitable-endogenous-ileal-flow-of-amino-acids-in-pekin-ducks-under-varying-dietary-or-physiological-conditions-and-their-significance-to-nutritional-requirements-for-amino-acids
#6
D O Akinde
In 2 experiments in Pekin ducks the inevitable endogenous ileal flow (IEIF) of AA was estimated at changing intake and source of crude fiber (CF) or soybean oil (SO) level. Also the roles of dry matter intake (DMI) and BW or age as well as the proportion of IEIF in the dietary requirement for AA were studied. In experiment 1 three basal CP (20, 60, or 100 g/kg) diets were formulated containing a low CF (LCF, 30 g/kg) or high (HCF, 80 g/kg) level; achieved with cellulose supplementation. All diets were similar in every other respect including having SO content of 40 g/kg...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938769/recent-advances-in-avian-egg-science-a-review
#7
Philippe B Wilson
Eggs and egg products form an integral part of the food chain. As such, research into egg structure, function, and production has made an important contribution to the field of poultry science. The past decade has seen significant advances in avian egg science research, with work supplementing our understanding of the nature of the avian egg, and its biological, chemical, and physical properties. Eggshell color, strength, and chemical composition, poultry nutrition, and genetics have all been intensively studied recently, with significant progress being made in a number of these areas...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938768/dual-functioning-ovaries-and-atresia-in-chickens-is-it-a-coincidence
#8
D A T Sutherland, C F Honaker, P B Siegel
During the course of a QTL study involving an intercross between White Plymouth Rock chickens and Red Jungle Fowl, certain reproductive anomalies such as atresia and double ovary-oviduct became evident. Observed in reciprocal pedigreed F1 crosses were 2 full-sib pullets with dual functioning ovaries. One also had complete functioning left and right oviducts. The other had asymmetrical reproductive tracts with a typical left oviduct and a rudimentary right oviduct. In addition, there were 3 females with atresia...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938766/dietary-effects-of-bacillus-subtilis-fmbj-on-the-antioxidant-capacity-of-broilers-at-an-early-age
#9
Lili Zhang, Kaiwen Bai, Jingfei Zhang, Wen Xu, Qiang Huang, Tian Wang
This study was designed to evaluate the usage of Bacillus subtilis fmbj (BS fmbj) in broiler diets, and its effects on the antioxidant capacity of broilers at an early age. A total of 240 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups, namely the control (CON) group (fed basal diets with 0 cfu/kg BS fmbj), the BS-1 group (fed basal diet with 0.2 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj), BS-2 group (fed basal diet with 0.3 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj), and BS-3 group (fed basal diet with 0.4 × 1011 cfu/kg BS fmbj)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938751/new-permeable-cryoprotectant-free-vitrification-method-for-native-human-sperm
#10
J Aizpurua, L Medrano, M Enciso, J Sarasa, A Romero, M A Fernández, M J Gómez-Torres
STUDY QUESTION: Is permeable cryoprotectant-free vitrification of native sperm samples a good alternative to conventional slow freezing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The permeable cryoprotectant-free sperm vitrification protocol tested in this study renders considerably better recovery rates of good quality sperm compared to slow freezing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Slow freezing is currently the most commonly used technique for sperm cryopreservation, though this method has been repeatedly shown to have negative effects on both structural and functional sperm features...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938747/prevalence-of-endocrine-and-genetic-abnormalities-in-boys-evaluated-systematically-for-a-disorder-of-sex-development
#11
R Nixon, V Cerqueira, A Kyriakou, A Lucas-Herald, J McNeilly, M McMillan, A I Purvis, E S Tobias, R McGowan, S F Ahmed
STUDY QUESTION: What is the likelihood of identifying genetic or endocrine abnormalities in a group of boys with 46, XY who present to a specialist clinic with a suspected disorder of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER: An endocrine abnormality of the gonadal axis may be present in a quarter of cases and copy number variants (CNVs) or single gene variants may be present in about half of the cases. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Evaluation of 46, XY DSD requires a combination of endocrine and genetic tests but the prevalence of these abnormalities in a sufficiently large group of boys presenting to one specialist multidisciplinary service is unclear...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938739/sequence-variants-of-khdrbs1-as-high-penetrance-susceptibility-risks-for-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-by-mis-regulating-mrna-alternative-splicing
#12
Binbin Wang, Lin Li, Ying Zhu, Wei Zhang, Xi Wang, Beili Chen, Tengyan Li, Hong Pan, Jing Wang, Kehkooi Kee, Yunxia Cao
STUDY QUESTION: Does a novel heterozygous KHDRBS1 variant, identified using whole-exome sequencing (WES) in two patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in a pedigree, cause defects in mRNA alternative splicing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The heterozygous variant of KHDRBS1 was confirmed to cause defects in alternative splicing of many genes involved in DNA replication and repair. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies in mice revealed that Khdrbs1 deficient females are subfertile, which manifests as delayed sexual maturity and significantly reduced numbers of secondary and pre-antral follicles...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938737/complex-catsper-dependent-and-independent-ca2-i-signalling-in-human-spermatozoa-induced-by-follicular-fluid
#13
Sean G Brown, Sarah Costello, Mark C Kelly, Mythili Ramalingam, Ellen Drew, Stephen J Publicover, Christopher L R Barratt, Sarah Martins Da Silva
STUDY QUESTION: Does progesterone in human follicular fluid (hFF) activate CatSper and do other components of hFF modulate this effect and/or contribute separately to hFF-induced Ca2+ signaling? SUMMARY ANSWER: hFF potently stimulates CatSper and increases [Ca2+]i, primarily due to high concentrations of progesterone, however, other components of hFF also contribute to [Ca2+]i signaling, including modulation of CatSper channel activity and inhibition of [Ca2+]i oscillations...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938736/deep-sequencing-shows-that-oocytes-are-not-prone-to-accumulate-mtdna-heteroplasmic-mutations-during-ovarian-ageing
#14
L Boucret, C Bris, V Seegers, D Goudenège, V Desquiret-Dumas, M Domin-Bernhard, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, P E Bouet, P Descamps, P Reynier, V Procaccio, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian ageing increase the number of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in oocytes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results suggest that oocytes are not subject to the accumulation of mtDNA point mutations during ovarian ageing. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ageing is associated with the alteration of mtDNA integrity in various tissues. Primary oocytes, present in the ovary since embryonic life, may accumulate mtDNA mutations during the process of ovarian ageing...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938721/the-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-desert-tree-populus-pruinosa
#15
Wenlu Yang, Kun Wang, Jian Zhang, Jianchao Ma, Jianquan Liu, Tao Ma
Populus pruinosa is a large tree that grows in deserts and shows distinct differences in both morphology and adaptation compared to its sister species, P. euphratica. Here we present a draft genome sequence for P. pruinosa and examine genomic variations between the 2 species. A total of 60 Gb of clean reads from whole-genome sequencing of a P. pruinosa individual were generated using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The assembled genome is 479.3 Mb in length, with an N50 contig size of 14.0 kb and a scaffold size of 698...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938651/positive-transcription-elongation-factor-b-p-tefb-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-human-multiple-myeloma
#16
Yu Zhang, Liang Zhou, Yun Leng, Yun Dai, Robert Z Orlowski, Steven Grant
The role of the positive RNA Pol II regulator, P-TEFb (positive transcription elongation factor b), in maintenance of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and bortezomib (btz) resistance was investigated in human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Mcl-1 was up-regulated in all MM lines tested, including bortezomib-resistant lines, human MM xenograft mouse models, and primary CD138(+) MM cells. Mcl-1 over-expression significantly reduced bortezomib lethality, indicating a functional role for Mcl-1 in bortezomib resistance...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938648/a-novel-lncrna-ll22nc03-n64e9-1-represses-klf2-transcription-through-binding-with-ezh2-in-colorectal-cancer
#17
Yifan Lian, Changsheng Yan, Jie Ding, Rui Xia, Zhonghua Ma, Bingqing Hui, Hao Ji, Jing Zhou, Keming Wang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been implicated in variety human cancer but their mechanisms of function are mainly undocumented. In the present study, we investigated lncRNAs alteration that contributed to colorectal cancer (CRC) by utilizing TCGA RNA sequencing data and other publicly available lncRNAs expression profiling data. Here, We screened out the CRC-associated lncRNA LL22NC03-N64E9.1, a key regulator of CRC development and progression. We also revealed that knockdown of LL22NC03-N64E9.1 inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, tumorigenicity and apoptosis promotion, both in vitro and in vivo...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938647/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-for-promoting-metastasis-and-proliferation-by-acting-as-a-cerna-of-mir-144-3p-in-osteosarcoma-cells
#18
Yong Wang, Yueyang Zhang, Tao Yang, Wei Zhao, Ningning Wang, Pengcheng Li, Xiandong Zeng, Weiguo Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various biological processes and diseases including osteosarcoma. Long non-coding RNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is overly expressed in osteosarcoma. But the function and mechanism it works on in osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis mediated by Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) remain unclear. In the present study, an elevated MALAT1 was found in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines, and the elevated MALAT1 was correlated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938641/potential-independent-action-of-sigma-receptor-ligands-through-inhibition-of-the-kv2-1-channel
#19
Xinying Liu, Yingmei Fu, Huan Yang, Timur Mavlyutov, Jun Li, Christopher R McCurdy, Lian-Wang Guo, Bikash R Pattnaik
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1-R) and sigma-2 receptor (σ2-R) are potential drug targets for treatment of cancer, pain, depression, retinal degeneration and other neuronal diseases. Previous reports show that sigma-1 receptor modulates the activities of multiple channels. We are interested in possible sigma receptor modulation of Kv2.1, a K(+) channel abundant in retinal photoreceptors. We tested the effect of established sigma receptor ligands on Kv2.1 channels which were stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Surprisingly, σ1-R antagonists inhibited Kv2...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938637/the-loss-of-function-of-dna-methyltransferase-1-by-sirna-impairs-the-growth-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-alleviated-side-effects-via-reactivation-of-rassf1a-and-apc-in-vitro-and-vivo
#20
Qi Lai, Yin-Hui Xu, Qiang Chen, Liang Tang, An-Gui Li, Li-Fei Zhang, Chun-Fang Zhang, Jian-Fei Song, Zhen-Zong Du
Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) promoters by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) can be observed in almost all cancers which represent a hallmark of carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. DNMT inhibitors (e.g.5-Aza-CR/CdR) reactivate TSGs to exert anti-cancer activity and have been applied into the clinical. However, it is cytotoxic even at low concentrations, which might be not directly related to DNA methylation. We here investigated an alternative strategy in the lung cancer therapy and aimed to estimate and compare its efficiency and side effects of knockdown of DNMT1 in vitro and in vivo...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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