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Cancer control

Patrizia Ferroni, Francesca Santilli, Francesco Cavaliere, Paola Simeone, Leopoldo Costarelli, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Silvia Riondino, Mario Roselli, Giovanni Davi, Fiorella Guadagni
The hypothesis that increased oxidative stress in breast cancer (BC) patients could induce enhanced lipid peroxidation, which, in turn, would contribute to platelet activation and poor clinical outcome is attractive. To address this issue, we investigated pre-surgical urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α (marker of in vivo oxidative stress) and 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B2 (marker of in vivo platelet activation) levels in patients with primary BC (n=115) compared with control women paired for co-morbidities and their association with patients' metabolic profile and clinical prognostic factors...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Anjali Singh, Pramod K Mishra, Sundeep Singh Saluja, Majid A Talikoti, Pawan Kirtani, Abul Kalam Najmi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Proto-oncogenes (HER-2) and tumor suppressor genes (p53) are commonly deregulated in gallbladder cancer (GBC). Available literature discloses skewed data from endemic Asian countries, especially north India. This study evaluates the prognostic significance of HER-2 and p53 in GBC patients from two major hospitals. METHODS: Sixty resectable tumor and control specimens were prospectively collected from December 2012 to January 2016. Immunohistochemical staining was done using monoclonal antibodies to semiquantitatively evaluate HER-2 and p53 protein expression...
October 27, 2016: Oncology
Wankun Chen, Yajun Xu, Jing Zhong, Huihui Wang, Meilin Weng, Qian Cheng, Qichao Wu, Zhirong Sun, Hui Jiang, Minmin Zhu, Yu Ren, Pingbo Xu, Jiawei Chen, Changhong Miao
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 (MFHAS1) is a predicted oncoprotein that demonstrates tumorigenic activity in vivo; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Macrophages are divided into the pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory/protumoral M2 subtypes. Tumor cells can induce M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to promote metastasis; but the underlying pathways require to be elucidated. In this study, we detected a positive association between MFHAS1 expression in TAMs and human colorectal cancer (CRC) TNM stage...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Wenhui Zhou, Thomas K Ni, Ania Wronski, Benjamin Glass, Adam Skibinski, Andrew Beck, Charlotte Kuperwasser
Overabundance of Slug protein is common in human cancer and represents an important determinant underlying the aggressiveness of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Despite its importance, this transcription factor is rarely mutated in BLBC, and the mechanism of its deregulation in cancer remains unknown. Here, we report that Slug undergoes acetylation-dependent protein degradation and identify the deacetylase SIRT2 as a key mediator of this post-translational mechanism. SIRT2 inhibition rapidly destabilizes Slug, whereas SIRT2 overexpression extends Slug stability...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Sérgio Ferreira de Lima, Mayara Mansur Fernandes Tavares, Jamilly Lopes de Macedo, Renata Santos de Oliveira, Sandra de Andrade Heráclio, Maria de Mascena Diniz Maia, Paulo Roberto Eleutério de Souza, Ronald Moura, Sergio Crovella
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are strongly associated with the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and invasive cervical cancer. Polymorphisms in cytokine-encoding genes and behavioural cofactors could play an important role in protecting an individual against viral infections and cancer. Here, we investigated whether IL-6 -174 G>C, IL-8 +396 G>T, and TGF-β1 +869 G>C and +915 G>C polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to HPV infection in women from north-east (Pernambuco) Brazil...
October 24, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jin Qi, Peng Zhang, Yanan Wang, Hao Chen, Yumin Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Total gastrectomy (TG) has shown to be superior regarding low risk of recurrence and readmission to distal subtotal gastrectomy (DG) for treatment of distal stomach cancer, but the incidence of postoperative morbidity and mortality in TG cannot be ignored. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness between TG and DG for distal stomach cancer. METHODOLOGY: A search in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Database through January 2016 was performed...
2016: PloS One
Iris M Kanera, Roy A Willems, Catherine Aw Bolman, Ilse Mesters, Victor Zambon, Brigitte Cm Gijsen, Lilian Lechner
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September 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Margaret Peggy Adamo, Jessica A Boten, Linda M Coyle, Kathleen A Cronin, Clara J K Lam, Serban Negoita, Lynne Penberthy, Jennifer L Stevens, Kevin C Ward
BACKGROUND: Researchers have used prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values collected by central cancer registries to evaluate tumors for potential aggressive clinical disease. An independent study collecting PSA values suggested a high error rate (18%) related to implied decimal points. To evaluate the error rate in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, a comprehensive review of PSA values recorded across all SEER registries was performed. METHODS: Consolidated PSA values for eligible prostate cancer cases in SEER registries were reviewed and compared with text documentation from abstracted records...
October 26, 2016: Cancer
Christina M Mariaselvam, Ryad Tamouza, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Dominique Charron, Durga Prasanna Misra, Vikramraj K Jain, Vir Singh Negi
INTRODUCTION: NKG2D (KLRK1) is a C-type lectin receptor present on NK cells, γδ, CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Upon ligand binding, NKG2D mediates activatory and co-stimulatory signals to NK cells and activated CD4+ T cells, respectively. Polymorphisms in NKG2D predispose to infectious diseases, cancer, transplantation and autoimmune disorders. We studied the influence of this NK receptor polymorphism on predisposition to and modification of the disease phenotype in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Estelle Jamard, Bertrand Volard, Audrey Emmanuelle Dugué, Angelina Legros, Alexandra Leconte, Bénédicte Clarisse, Grégoire Davy, Florence Polycarpe, Catherine Dugast, Caroline Abadie, Thierry Frebourg, Julie Tinat, Isabelle Tennevet, Valérie Layet, Florence Joly, Laurent Castéra, Pascaline Berthet, Dominique Vaur, Sophie Krieger
Germline allele specific expression (ASE), resulting in a lowered expression of one of the BRCA1 alleles, has been described as a possible predisposition marker in Hereditary Breast or Ovarian Cancer (HBOC), usable for molecular diagnosis in HBOC. The main objective of this prospective case-control study was to compare the proportion of ASE between controls without familial history of breast or ovarian cancer, and HBOC cases without BRCA1 or BRCA2 deleterious mutation. BRCA1 ASE evaluated on three SNPs among controls and HBOC patients without deleterious mutation were assessed by pyrosequencing...
October 25, 2016: Familial Cancer
Ricardo Fernandes, Sasha Mazzarello, Carol Stober, Lisa Vandermeer, Shaan Dudani, Mohamed F K Ibrahim, Habeeb Majeed, Kirstin Perdrizet, Risa Shorr, Brian Hutton, Dean Fergusson, Mark Clemons
BACKGROUND: Due to the high rate of febrile neutropenia (FN) with docetaxel-cyclophosphamide (DC) chemotherapy, primary FN prophylaxis is recommended. However, the optimal choice of prophylaxis [i.e., granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) or antibiotics] is unknown. A systematic review was performed to address this knowledge gap. METHODS: Embase, Ovid Medline, Pubmed, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, and Cochrane register of controlled trials were searched from 1946 to April 2016 for studies evaluating primary prophylactic FN treatments in breast cancer patients receiving DC chemotherapy...
October 25, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Qianghua Quan, Shuwen Zhang, Xudong Wang, Qi Ouyang, Yugang Wang, Gen Yang, Chunxiong Luo
Cell migration assays for different chemical environments are important for both scientists and clinicians searching for new therapeutics. In this study, we developed a multi-well-based microfluidic chip that has multiple units for different conditions. In each unit, cells can be patterned and then released to observe their migration. Automatic image analysis and model-based data processing were developed to describe the integrated cell migration assay precisely and quickly. As a demonstration, the migration behaviors of two types of cells in eight chemical conditions were studied...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
Diane Von Ah, Susan Storey, Adele Crouch, Shelley A Johns, Jill Dodson, Sarah Dutkevitch
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors (BCSs) have identified attentional fatigue, a decrease in the ability to focus, as a persistent daily challenge; however, little is known regarding its impact on work ability. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attentional fatigue and perceived work ability in BCSs controlling for the known covariates of age, education, household income, and time posttreatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Nursing
Soodabeh Iranpour, Vahid Nejati, Nowruz Delirezh, Pouria Biparva, Sadegh Shirian
BACKGROUND: Developing safe and effective cancer vaccine formulations is a primary focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Dendritic cells (DC) are currently employed as cellular vaccine in clinical trials of tumor immunotherapy. Recognizing the critical role of DCs in initiating anti-tumor immunity has resulted in the development of several strategies that target vaccine antigens to DCs to trigger anti-tumor T cell responses. To increase the efficiency of antigen delivery systems for anti-tumor vaccines, encapsulation of tumor-associated antigens in polymer nanoparticles (NPs) has been established...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
R Pytlík, C Rentsch, T Soukup, L Novotný, B Rentsch, V Kanderová, H Rychtrmocová, M Kalmárová, D Stehlík, M Trněný, O Slanař
To evaluate the preclinical efficacy and safety of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) rapidly expanded in growth medium for clinical use with human serum and recombinant growth factors, we conducted a controlled, randomized trial of plasma clots with hMSC vs. plasma clots only in critical segmental femoral defects in rnu/rnu immunodeficient rats. X-ray, microCT and histomorphometrical evaluation were performed at 8 and 16 weeks. MSC were obtained from healthy volunteers and patients with lymphoid malignancy...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Carlo Bianca, Annie Lemarchand
In order to mimic the interactions between cancer and the immune system at cell scale, we propose a minimal model of cell interactions that is similar to a chemical mechanism including autocatalytic steps. The cells are supposed to bear a quantity called activity that may increase during the interactions. The fluctuations of cell activity are controlled by a so-called thermostat. We develop a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the cell interactions and thermalization of cell activity. The model is able to reproduce the well-known behavior of tumors treated by immunotherapy: the first apparent elimination of the tumor by the immune system is followed by a long equilibrium period and the final escape of cancer from immunosurveillance...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Qiwen Ben, Jie Zhong, Jian Fei, Haitao Chen, Lifen Yv, Jihong Tan, Yaozong Yuan
The current study examined risk factors for sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), including smoking, alcohol use, first-degree family history of any cancer (FHC), and diabetes in the Han Chinese ethnic group. In this clinic-based case-control analysis on 385 patients with sporadic PNETs and 614 age- and sex-matched controls, we interviewed subjects using a specific questionnaire on demographics and potential risk factors. An unconditional multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs)...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kirsi Määttä, Tommi Rantapero, Anna Lindström, Matti Nykter, Minna Kankuri-Tammilehto, Satu-Leena Laasanen, Johanna Schleutker
A remarkable proportion of factors causing genetic predisposition to breast cancer (BC) are unknown in non-BRCA1/2 families. Exome sequencing was performed for 13 high-risk Finnish hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) families to detect variants contributing to BC susceptibility. After filtering, 18 candidate variants in DNA damage response (DDR) pathway genes were screened in 129 female HBOC patients, up to 989 female controls, and 31 breast tumours by Sanger sequencing/TaqMan assays. In addition, two variants were further studied in 49 male BC patients and 909 male controls...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Nicole Maeding, Thomas Verwanger, Barbara Krammer
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment with a long-standing history. It employs the application of nontoxic components, namely a light-sensitive photosensitizer and visible light, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS lead to tumor cell destruction, which is accompanied by the induction of an acute inflammatory response. This inflammatory process sends a danger signal to the innate immune system, which results in activation of specific cell types and release of additional inflammatory mediators...
October 6, 2016: Cancers
Ehsan Malek, Byung-Gyu Kim, James J Driscoll
While the clinical benefit of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) for multiple myeloma (MM) treatment remains unchallenged, dose-limiting toxicities and the inevitable emergence of drug resistance limit their long-term utility. Disease eradication is compromised by drug resistance that is either present de novo or therapy-induced, which accounts for the majority of tumor relapses and MM-related deaths. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a broad class of RNA molecules, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), that do not encode proteins but play a major role in regulating the fundamental cellular processes that control cancer initiation, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance...
October 6, 2016: Genes
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