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Influenza vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684561/a-pilot-study-using-a-novel-pyrotechnically-driven-prototype-applicator-for-epidermal-powder-immunization-in-piglets
#1
Julia Engert, Cihad Anamur, Laura Engelke, Christian Fellner, Peter Lell, Stefan Henke, Julia Stadler, Susanne Zöls, Mathias Ritzmann, Gerhard Winter
Epidermal powder immunization (EPI) is an alternative technique to the classical immunization route using needle and syringe. In this work, we present the results of an in vivo pilot study in piglets using a dried influenza model vaccine which was applied by EPI using a novel pyrotechnically driven applicator. A liquid influenza vaccine (Pandemrix® ) was first concentrated by tangential flow filtration and hemagglutinin content was determined by RP-HPLC. The liquid formulation was then transformed into a dry powder by collapse freeze-drying and subsequent cryo-milling...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684427/relationship-between-the-frequency-of-influenza-vaccination-and-cell-mediated-immunity
#2
Naruhito Otani, Masayuki Shima, Takashi Ueda, Kaoru Ichiki, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Yoshio Takesue, Kenta Honjo, Natsuko Yoshida, Sayo Kawata, Toshiomi Okuno
Despite established guidelines for population-level assessments of immunity after vaccination, standard methods for individual-level analyses have not been established, limiting the ability to optimize vaccination strategies within a particular season. In this study, we evaluated changes in cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with respect to the number of influenza vaccine doses. In particular, the influenza vaccine was administered to 21 adults during the 2015-2016 season. IFN-γ production induced by the influenza vaccine antigens [A (H1N1), A (H3N2), B (Yamagata lineage), and B (Victoria lineage)] increased after the first dose of vaccination in 11, 10, 10, and 11 subjects, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683844/circulating-inflammatory-monocytes-contribute-to-impaired-influenza-vaccine-responses-in-hiv-infected-participants
#3
Varghese K George, Suresh Pallikkuth, Rajendra Pahwa, Lesley de Armas, Stefano Rinaldi, Li Pan, Savita Pahwa
OBJECTIVE: Antibody responses are often impaired in old age and in HIV+ infection despite virologic control with antiretroviral therapy but innate immunologic determinants are not well understood. DESIGN: Monocytes and natural killer cells were examined for relationships to age, HIV infection and influenza vaccine responses. METHODS: Virologically suppressed HIV+ (n = 139) and HIV- (n = 137) participants classified by age as young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were evaluated preinfluenza and postinfluenza vaccination...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683306/maternity-care-update-prenatal-care-and-specific-conditions
#4
Andrew Smith, Wendy B Barr, Erin Bassett-Novoa, Nicholas LeFevre
Early initiation of prenatal care is associated with improved health outcomes for women and newborns. An essential element of prenatal care is determining the estimated due date, ideally using a first-trimester ultrasound. Laboratory tests should be obtained to screen for conditions that can affect pregnancy. Routine immunizations for all pregnant women include influenza vaccine; tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. All women should be screened for gestational diabetes mellitus in midpregnancy...
April 2018: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681127/receipt-and-effectiveness-of-influenza-vaccination-reminders-for-adults-2011-2012-season-united-states
#5
Katharine M Benedict, Tammy A Santibanez, Katherine E Kahn, Laura J Pabst, Carolyn B Bridges, Erin D Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Reminders for influenza vaccination improve influenza vaccination coverage. The purpose of this study was to describe the receipt of reminders for influenza vaccination during the 2011-12 influenza season among U.S. adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the March 2012 National Flu Survey (NFS), a random digit dial telephone survey of adults in the United States. Relative to July 1, 2011, respondents were asked if they received a reminder for influenza vaccination and the source and type of reminder they received...
April 22, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680993/effectiveness-of-inactivated-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-in-the-2015-2016-season-as-assessed-in-both-a-test-negative-case-control-study-design-and-a-traditional-case-control-study-design
#6
Takahisa Kimiya, Masayoshi Shinjoh, Makoto Anzo, Hiroki Takahashi, Shinichiro Sekiguchi, Norio Sugaya, Takao Takahashi
Both traditional case-control studies (TCCSs) and test-negative case-control studies (TNCCSs) are commonly used to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). To compensate for the fact that observational studies are susceptible to bias, we combined both methods to assess VE in one geographical area during the 2015/2016 season, when influenza A (H1N1)pdm was dominant. Our TNCCS covered 331 children aged 6 months to 15 years who visited our hospital with fever, including 182 with influenza, and our TCCS covered 812 pediatric outpatients aged 6 months to 15 years, including 214 with influenza...
April 21, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680576/development-of-next-generation-hemagglutinin-based-broadly-protective-influenza-virus-vaccines
#7
REVIEW
Raffael Nachbagauer, Peter Palese
Influenza viruses are a severe threat to human health and current vaccines do not provide sufficient protection. The highly variable nature of influenza viruses has made the production of efficacious vaccines a challenge. In recent years, a multitude of novel, broadly reactive influenza virus vaccination approaches have been described. What has long seemed impossible could now become reality in the near future-a new generation of influenza virus vaccines that provides long-lasting and broad protection against seasonal as well as potentially pandemic influenza virus strains...
April 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680201/inactivated-influenza-vaccine-stress-can-affect-in-vitro-potency-assay-relationship-to-immunogenicity
#8
Yingxia Wen, Giuseppe Palladino, Yuhong Xie, Annette Ferrari, Ethan C Settembre
Influenza vaccines are the most effective intervention to prevent the substantial public health burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. The capability of hemagglutinin (HA), the main antigen in inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs), to elicit functional neutralizing antibodies determines IIV effectiveness. When HA is subjected to environmental stress during manufacturing or while stored prior to administration, such as low pH and temperature excursions, the HA immunological activity can be affected. Single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID), the standard in vitro potency assay for IIVs, is believed to specifically detect immunologically active HA and has been applied to evaluate HA stability against stress...
April 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680198/responses-to-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-children-vaccinated-previously-with-pandemrix-aso3-b-adjuvanted-pandemic-a-h1n1pdm09
#9
Katja Höschler, Jo Southern, Catherine Thompson, Fiona Warburton, Nick J Andrews, Elizabeth Miller, Maria Zambon
BACKGROUND: We report a phase III/IV open-label study on the immunogenicity of a single dose of a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) (Fluenz™) in children naïve to, or in previous receipt of, AS03B adjuvanted A/H1N1pdm09 influenza vaccine (Pandemrix™), to investigate whether early exposure to an adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine impacts on subsequent response to quadrivalent LAIV (qLAIV). METHOD AND FINDINGS: Eligible children were enrolled to receive qLAIV and stratified according to previous Pandemrix™ vaccination...
April 18, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679740/dissecting-host-cell-death-programs-in-the-pathogenesis-of-influenza
#10
Jeffrey Downey, Erwan Pernet, François Coulombe, Maziar Divangahi
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a pulmonary pathogen, responsible for significant yearly morbidity and mortality. Due to the absence of highly effective antiviral therapies and vaccine, as well as the constant threat of an emerging pandemic strain, there is considerable need to better understand the host-pathogen interactions and the factors that dictate a protective versus detrimental immune response to IAV. Even though evidence of IAV-induced cell death in human pulmonary epithelial and immune cells has been observed for almost a century, very little is known about the consequences of cell death on viral pathogenesis...
April 18, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678747/predictive-markers-for-humoral-influenza-vaccine-response-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-cvid
#11
Ann Gardulf, Hassan Abolhassani, Rolf Gustafson, Lars E Eriksson, Lennart Hammarström
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of patients with common variable immunodeficiencies (CVID) responds to vaccination. The aim of the study was to try to identify predictive markers for those who developed a humoral immune response after influenza vaccination. METHODS: 48 patients with CVID (29 females, 19 males, mean age 59.4 years) were vaccinated with the A(H1N1) influenza vaccine Pandemrix® and boosted after one month. Blood samples were collected prior to each vaccination and two months later...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678459/impact-of-elementary-school-located-influenza-vaccinations-a-stepped-wedge-trial-across-a-community
#12
Peter G Szilagyi, Stanley Schaffer, Cynthia M Rand, Nicolas P N Goldstein, A Dirk Hightower, Mary Younge, Ashley Eagan, Aaron Blumkin, Christina S Albertin, Kristine DiBitetto, Cathleen Concannon, Phyllis Vincelli, Byung-Kwang Yoo, Sharon G Humiston
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination rates among children are low and novel strategies are needed to raise coverage. We measured the impact of school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) on coverage, examined whether SLIV substitutes for practice-based influenza vaccination ("substitution"), and estimated whether a second year of experience with SLIV increases its impact. METHODS: We implemented a stepped wedge study design with schools as clusters. In Year 1, we randomly allocated schools to SLIV or control...
April 17, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678227/humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-responses-to-influenza-vaccination-in-equine-metabolic-syndrome-ems-horses
#13
Sarah Elzinga, Stephanie Reedy, Virginia D Barker, Thomas M Chambers, Amanda A Adams
Obesity is an increasing problem in the equine population with recent reports indicating that the percentage of overweight horses may range anywhere from 20.6-51%. Obesity in horses has been linked to more serious health concerns such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is a serious problem in the equine industry given its defining characteristics of insulin dysregualtion and obesity, as well as the involvement of laminitis. Little research however has been conducted to determine the effects of EMS on routine healthcare of these horses, in particular how they respond to vaccination...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677943/uptake-of-a-dashboard-designed-to-give-realtime-feedback-to-a-sentinel-network-about-key-data-required-for-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-studies
#14
Sameera Pathirannehelage, Pushpa Kumarapeli, Rachel Byford, Ivelina Yonova, Filipa Ferreira, Simon de Lusignan
Dashboards are technologies that bringing together a range of data sources for observational or analytical purposes. We have created a customised dashboard that includes all the key data elements required for monitoring flu vaccine effectiveness (FVE). This delivers a unique dashboard for each primary care provider (general practice) providing data to the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC), one of the oldest European surveillance systems. These FVE studies use a test negative case control (TNCC) design...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677684/universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-and-therapeutics-where-do-we-stand-with-influenza-b-virus
#15
REVIEW
Jessica Tan, Guha Asthagiri Arunkumar, Florian Krammer
The development of a broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccine is currently a public health priority worldwide. The vast majority of these efforts is exclusively focused on influenza A viruses. While influenza A viruses cause the majority of all influenza cases worldwide, influenza B viruses should not be ignored. Approximately 25% of all influenza cases are caused by influenza B viruses which circulate as two distinct B/Victoria/2/87-like and B/Yamagata/16/88-like lineages. In contrast to popular belief, influenza B cases frequently cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in children...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677646/adjuvant-strategies-to-improve-vaccination-of-the-elderly-population
#16
REVIEW
Birgit Weinberger
Immunosenescence contributes to increased incidence and severity of many infections in old age and is responsible for impaired immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Adjuvants are one strategy to enhance immunogenicity of vaccines. The oil-in-water emulsions MF59TM and AS03, as well as a virosomal vaccine have been licensed in seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines and are/were used successfully in the elderly. AS01, a liposome-based adjuvant comprising two immunostimulants has recently been approved in a recombinant protein vaccine for older adults, which showed very high efficacy against herpes zoster in clinical trials...
April 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675804/lactobacillus-plantarum-displaying-conserved-m2e-and-ha2-fusion-antigens-induces-protection-against-influenza-virus-challenge
#17
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Liang Zhao, Yu-Bei Jin, Yan-Long Jiang, Hai-Bin Huang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Guan Wang, Yuan-Huan Kang, Chun-Feng Wang
Avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect poultry, mammals, and other hosts and causes enormous economic losses to the global poultry industry. In this study, to develop a novel and potent oral vaccine based on Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) for controlling the spread of AIV in the poultry industry, we constructed a recombinant L. plantarum strain displaying the 3M2e-HA2 protein of the influenza virus and determined the effect of N/pgsA'-3M2e-HA2 against AIV in chicks. We first confirmed that the 3M2e-HA2 fusion protein was expressed on the surface of L...
April 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675174/a-modular-synthetic-route-to-size-defined-immunogenic-haemophilus-influenzae-b-antigens-is-key-to-the-identification-of-an-octasaccharide-lead-vaccine-candidate
#18
J Y Baek, A Geissner, D C K Rathwell, D Meierhofer, C L Pereira, P H Seeberger
The first glycoconjugate vaccine using isolated glycans was licensed to protect children from Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) infections. Subsequently, the first semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine using a mixture of antigens derived by polymerization targeted the same pathogen. Still, a detailed understanding concerning the correlation between oligosaccharide chain length and the immune response towards the polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) capsular polysaccharide that surrounds Hib remains elusive...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674167/neuraminidase-as-an-influenza-vaccine-antigen-a-low-hanging-fruit-ready-for-picking-to-improve-vaccine-effectiveness
#19
REVIEW
Maryna C Eichelberger, David M Morens, Jeffery K Taubenberger
Neuraminidase (NA) plays an essential role in influenza virus replication, facilitating multicycle infection predominantly by releasing virions from infected cells. NA-inhibiting antibodies provide resistance to disease and NA-specific antibodies contribute to vaccine efficacy. The primary reason NA vaccine content and immunogenicity was not routinely measured in the past, was the lack of suitable assays to quantify NA and NA-specific antibodies. These are now available and with recent appreciation of its contribution to immunity, NA content of seasonal and pandemic vaccines is being considered...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673645/intranasal-delivery-of-adjuvant-free-peptide-nanofibers-elicits-resident-cd8-t-cell-responses
#20
Youhui Si, Yi Wen, Sean H Kelly, Anita S Chong, Joel H Collier
Influenza vaccines that can be administered intranasally or by other needle-free delivery routes have potential advantages over injected formulations in terms of patient compliance, cost, and ease of global distribution. Supramolecular peptide nanofibers have been investigated previously as platforms for vaccines and immunotherapies and have been shown to raise immune responses in the absence of exogenous adjuvants and without measurable inflammation. However, at present it has not been tested whether the immunogenicity of these materials extends to the intranasal route...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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