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Influenza vaccines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223787/a-novel-peptide-based-vaccine-candidate-with-protective-efficacy-against-influenza-a-in-a-mouse-model
#1
José Herrera-Rodriguez, Tjarko Meijerhof, Hubert G Niesters, Grete Stjernholm, Arnt-Ove Hovden, Birger Sørensen, Mats Ökvist, Maja A Sommerfelt, Anke Huckriede
Current influenza vaccines mainly induce antibody responses to the variable hemagglutinin proteins of the virus strains included in the vaccine. Instead, a broadly protective influenza vaccine should aim at inducing antibody- and/or cell-mediated immunity against conserved viral proteins. Vacc-FLU is a peptide based vaccine combining conserved B and T cell epitopes. Peptide selection was done using a proprietary peptide design platform technology focusing on responses to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted epitopes...
December 7, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223487/implementing-a-province-wide-mandatory-vaccinate-or-mask-policy-at-healthcare-facilities-in-british-columbia-canada
#2
Alexandra Nunn, Audrey C Campbell, Monika Naus, Jeffrey C Kwong, David Puddicombe, Susan Quach, Bonnie Henry
OBJECTIVES: In 2012, British Columbia (BC) became the first Canadian province to implement an influenza prevention policy requiring healthcare workers (HCW) to either be vaccinated annually against influenza or wear a mask in patient care areas during the influenza season. This study describes an evaluation of influenza policy implementation processes and identifies supports and challenges related to successful policy implementation at the level of healthcare facilities, during the second policy year (2013/14)...
December 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223454/preparation-characterization-and-immunological-evaluation-of-alginate-nanoparticles-loaded-with-whole-inactivated-influenza-virus-dry-powder-formulation-for-nasal-immunization-in-rabbits
#3
Solmaz Dehghan, Masoumeh Tavassoti Kheiri, Khalil Abnous, Maryam Eskandari, Mohsen Tafaghodi
It has become important to explore more efficient and feasible influenza vaccines, since epidemics of influenza virus cause hundreds of thousands of deaths all around the world. Improving immunogenicity of parentral influenza vaccines has given rise to mucosal delivery routes. In this study, alginate nanoparticles (NPs) were efficiently synthetized by ionic gelation method and influenza virus and CpG ODN or Quillaja Saponin (QS) adjuvants were actively incorporated into alginate NPs. The prepared particles were evaluated for both humoral and cellular immune responses in rabbits' nostrils...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221895/report-on-eighth-who-meeting-on-development-of-influenza-vaccines-that-induce-broadly-protective-and-long-lasting-immune-responses-chicago-usa-23-24-august-2016
#4
Justin R Ortiz, Julian Hickling, Rebecca Jones, Armen Donabedian, Othmar G Engelhardt, Jacqueline M Katz, Shabir A Madhi, Kathleen M Neuzil, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, James Southern, David J Spiro, Joachim Hombach
In August 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened the "Eighth meeting on development of influenza vaccines that induce broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses" to discuss the regulatory requirements and pathways for licensure of next-generation influenza vaccines, and to identify areas where WHO can promote the development of such vaccines. Participants included approximately 120 representatives of academia, the vaccine industry, research and development funders, and regulatory and public health agencies...
December 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221893/cardioprotective-effect-of-influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Andrzej Ciszewski
Due to the wide interaction between the respiratory and the circulatory systems, influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The review summarizes the results of recent studies and meta-analyses demonstrating that in this group of high-risk patients both vaccinations have potentially beneficial properties. However, in the era of Evidence Base Medicine, there is still a lack of randomized prospective clinical trials, especially those evaluating the effect of pneumococcal vaccination...
December 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220721/novel-effect-of-methionine-enkephalin-against-influenza-a-virus-infection-through-inhibiting-tlr7-myd88-traf6-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-signaling-pathway
#6
Jing Tian, Xue Jiao, Xiaonan Wang, Jin Geng, Reizhe Wang, Ning Liu, Xinhua Gao, Noreen Griffin, Fengping Shan
The morbidity and mortality associated with influenza A virus infections, have stimulated the search for novel prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of synthetic methionine enkephalin (MENK) on mice infected by A/PR/8/34 influenza virus (H1N1) in vivo. The results showed that MENK could exert both prophylactic and therapeutic influences on infected mice, significantly improve the survival rate, relieve acute lung injury and decrease cytokine (IFN-α, IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) levels...
December 5, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220709/self-reported-influenza-vaccination-rates-and-attitudes-towards-vaccination-among-health-care-workers-results-of-a-survey-in-a-german-university-hospital
#7
M H Hagemeister, N K Stock, T Ludwig, P Heuschmann, U Vogel
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this survey was to analyse vaccination rates and attitudes towards vaccination among health care workers (HCWs). The period prevalence of self-reported acute respiratory infections in the influenza season 2014/2015 was examined. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs of a German university hospital using an anonymised questionnaire. Recruitment was performed by providing all medical and nursing staff a paper questionnaire with an invitation to participate...
December 5, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220514/the-influence-of-social-norms-on-flu-vaccination-among-african-american-and-white-adults
#8
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Karen M Hilyard, Amelia M Jamison, Ji An, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa, Vicki S Freimuth
Adult influenza vaccination rates remain suboptimal, particularly among African Americans. Social norms may influence vaccination behavior, but little research has focused on influenza vaccine and almost no research has focused on racially-specific norms. This mixed methods investigation utilizes qualitative interviews and focus groups (n = 118) and national survey results (n = 1643) to assess both descriptive and subjective norms surrounding influenza vaccination. Qualitative results suggest a perceived descriptive norm that 'about half' of the population gets vaccinated...
December 6, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220496/the-duration-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-test-negative-design-case-control-studies
#9
Barnaby Young, Sapna Sadarangani, Lili Jiang, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Background: Whether influenza vaccination offers protection for the duration of an influenza season has recently been questioned following analysis of data from test-negative design (TND) case-control studies. Method: The published literature was systematically reviewed to identify TND studies which estimated change in vaccine effectiveness (VE) with time since vaccination. Results: Fourteen studies were identified through the literature search as meeting eligibility criteria...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220416/the-effectiveness-and-limitation-of-the-national-childhood-hepatitis-a-vaccination-program-in-the-republic-of-korea-findings-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-2015
#10
Juwon Lim, Kyuwoong Kim, Seulggie Choi, Sang Min Park
BACKGROUND: Vaccination for hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been implemented as one of the national vaccination programs despite the epidemiological transition of HAV in the Republic of Korea. While the national HAV vaccination program is largely associated with the shift of socioeconomic trend in the country, concerns have been raised on the effectiveness of the HAV immunization. The objective of this study was to examine the epidemiological trend of HAV and assess the effectiveness of the nationwide HAV vaccination policy based on a nationally representative sample of the Korean population collected in 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217325/protocatechuic-acid-pca-induced-a-better-antiviral-effect-by-immune-enhancement-in-spf-chickens
#11
Yongxia Guo, Qiang Zhang, Zonghui Zuo, Jun Chu, Hongzhi Xiao, M Tariq Javed, Cheng He
Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is an antiviral agent against Avian Influenza virus (AIV) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) virus but its antiviral mechanism is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the humoral and cellular responses to PCA in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. One hundred forty 35-day-old SPF chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The birds were inoculated with the commercial, attenuated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine and then received orally with 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg body weight of PCA for 21 days...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216845/a-comparison-of-the-test-negative-and-the-traditional-case-control-study-designs-for-estimation-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-under-nonrandom-vaccination
#12
Meng Shi, Qian An, Kylie E C Ainslie, Michael Haber, Walter A Orenstein
BACKGROUND: As annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all U.S. persons aged 6 months or older, it is unethical to conduct randomized clinical trials to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). Observational studies are being increasingly used to estimate VE. We developed a probability model for comparing the bias and the precision of VE estimates from two case-control designs: the traditional case-control (TCC) design and the test-negative (TN) design. In both study designs, acute respiratory illness (ARI) patients seeking medical care testing positive for influenza infection are considered cases...
December 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216588/nmr-study-of-mutations-of-glycine-52-of-the-catalytic-domain-of-diphtheria-toxin
#13
Simon Sauvé, Geneviève Gingras, Yves Aubin
Cross-reacting-material 197 (CRM197) is a naturally occurring non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (DT) that is one of the few carrier protein used in the manufacture of polysaccharide vaccines targeting bacterial pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumaniae and Haemophilus influenzae. A detailed explanation in structural terms for the lack of toxicity has started to emerge with the report of the X-ray structure of CRM197. Here, we present an NMR spectroscopy study of the wild-type catalytic domain of diphtheria toxin and the effects of mutations at residue 52 on its conformation...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216373/protective-effect-of-maternal-influenza-vaccination-on-influenza-in-their-infants-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Satoko Ohfuji, Masaaki Deguchi, Daisuke Tachibana, Masayasu Koyama, Tetsu Takagi, Takayuki Yoshioka, Akinori Urae, Kazuya Ito, Tetsuo Kase, Akiko Maeda, Kyoko Kondo, Wakaba Fukushima, Yoshio Hirota
Background: Infants under 6 months of age are too young to receive influenza vaccine, despite being at high risk for severe influenza-related complications. Methods: To examine the effectiveness of maternal influenza vaccination in preventing infants' influenza, we conducted a prospective cohort study among 3,441 infants born at the participating hospitals before the 2013/14 influenza season. At the time of recruitment, their mothers completed the questionnaire about influenza vaccination status for the 2013/14 season...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216345/effect-of-influenza-vaccination-against-postoperative-pneumonia-and-mortality-for-geriatric-patients-receiving-major-surgery-a-nationwide-matched-study
#15
Wan-Chi Liu, Chao-Shun Lin, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Hsin-Yun Wu, Yuarn-Jang Lee, Chi-Li Chung, Yih-Giun Cherng, Ta-Liang Chen, Chien-Chang Liao
Background: Limited information is available on the association between a influenza vaccination and postoperative outcomes. Methods: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database reimbursement claims data from 2008 to 2013, we conducted a matched cohort study of 16,903 patients over age 66 who received influenza vaccinations and later underwent major surgery. Using propensity score matching procedure adjusted for socio-demographics, medical conditions, types of surgery and anesthesia, 16,903 controls who were not vaccinated were selected...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216030/update-influenza-activity-united-states-october-1-november-25-2017
#16
Vivien G Dugan, Lenee Blanton, Anwar Isa Abd Elal, Noreen Alabi, John Barnes, Lynnette Brammer, Erin Burns, Charisse N Cummings, Todd Davis, Brendan Flannery, Alicia M Fry, Shikha Garg, Rebecca Garten, Larisa Gubareva, Yunho Jang, Krista Kniss, Natalie Kramer, Stephen Lindstrom, Desiree Mustaquim, Alissa O'Halloran, Sonja J Olsen, Wendy Sessions, Calli Taylor, Susan Trock, Xiyan Xu, David E Wentworth, Jacqueline Katz, Daniel Jernigan
Influenza activity in the United States was low during October 2017, but has been increasing since the beginning of November. Influenza A viruses have been most commonly identified, with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. Several influenza activity indicators were higher than is typically seen for this time of year. The majority of influenza viruses characterized during this period were genetically or antigenically similar to the 2017-18 Northern Hemisphere cell-grown vaccine reference viruses. These data indicate that currently circulating viruses have not undergone significant antigenic drift; however, circulating A(H3N2) viruses are antigenically less similar to egg-grown A(H3N2) viruses used for producing the majority of influenza vaccines in the United States...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215062/protein-structure-assisted-optimization-of-4-5-dihydroxypyrimidine-6-carboxamide-inhibitors-of-influenza-virus-endonuclease
#17
Diane Beylkin, Gyanendra Kumar, Wei Zhou, Jaehyeon Park, Trushar Jeevan, Chandraiah Lagisetti, Rhodri Harfoot, Richard J Webby, Stephen W White, Thomas R Webb
Influenza is a serious hazard to human health that causes hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. Though vaccines and current therapeutics can blunt some of the perilous impact of this viral infection, new treatments are needed due to the constantly evolving nature of this virus. Recently, our growing understanding of an essential influenza viral protein, PA, has led to the development of focused libraries of new small molecules that specifically target the active site of the PA influenza endonuclease, which we report here...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214495/comparison-of-anti-influenza-virus-activity-and-pharmacokinetics-of-oseltamivir-free-base-and-oseltamivir-phosphate
#18
Jin Soo Shin, Keun Bon Ku, Yejin Jang, Yi-Seul Yoon, Daeho Shin, Oh Seung Kwon, Yun Young Go, Seong Soon Kim, Myoung Ae Bae, Meehyein Kim
Influenza viruses are major human respiratory pathogens that cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic antiviral agents are used to prevent and control influenza virus infection. Oseltamivir free base (OSV-FB), a modified generic antiviral drug of Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate, OSV-P), was launched in the Republic of Korea last year. Here, we examine the bioequivalence of these two compounds by assessing their antiviral efficacy in infected cells and in a mouse model...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212936/structural-insight-into-a-human-neutralizing-antibody-against-influenza-virus-h7n9
#19
Cong Chen, Liguo Liu, Yan Xiao, Sheng Cui, Jianmin Wang, Qi Jin
Since its first emergence in East China in early 2013, many cases of avian influenza A H7N9 have been reported. The disease has extended to 22 provinces in mainland China and some surrounding areas. Strategies to combat viral infection are urgently needed. We previously isolated a human monoclonal antibody, HNIgGA6, that neutralized H7N9 virus both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of viral hemagglutinin (HA) globular head bound to the Fab fragment of HNIgGA6. The crystal structure shows that the tip of the HNIgGA6 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) directly interposes into the receptor binding site (RBS) and mimics, in many respects, the interaction of the sialic acid receptor...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209667/narcolepsy-in-saudi-patients-before-and-after-the-2009-h1n1-vaccination-the-experience-of-2-referral-centers
#20
Shaden Q Qasrawi, Ali M Albarrak, Adel S Alharbi, Samar Nashwan, Aljohara S Almeneessier, Seithikurippu R Pandi-Perumal, Muslim M Alsaadi, Ahmed S BaHammam
To assess the number of Saudi patients diagnosed with narcolepsy in 2 tertiary centers before and after the introduction of the 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.  Methods: We started collecting data after the first international report of an association between the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and narcolepsy between January 2010 and December 2016. All patients diagnosed with narcolepsy after 2009 were included and data were collected for 7 years to account for any possible delays in the diagnosis of narcolepsy.  Results: One-hundred and seventy-three patients with narcolepsy were identified...
December 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
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