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Geography Medicine

Dowin Boatright, Java Tunson, Emily Caruso, Christy Angerhofer, Brooke Baker, Renee King, Katherine Bakes, Stephanie Oberfoell, Steven Lowenstein, Jeffrey Druck
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) developed a set of recruitment strategies designed to increase the number of under-represented minorities (URMs) in Emergency Medicine (EM) residency. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a survey of United States (US) EM residency program directors to: describe the racial and ethnic composition of residents; ascertain whether each program had instituted CORD recruitment strategies; and identify program characteristics associated with recruitment of a high proportion of URM residents...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mónica García, Stefan Pohl-Valero
Argument Using the notion of styles of knowledge we refer to the ways diverse scientific communities claim to produce true knowledge, their understandings regarding the attitudes and values that scientists should have in order to grasp natural and social reality, and the practices and technologies developed within such styles. This paper analyzes scientific and medical enterprises that explored the relationship between environment, population, and society in Colombia between 1850 and 1920. We argue that similar styles of knowledge production were shared in human geography, medical geography, and climatic physiology at the mid-nineteenth century; and that some physicians working in bacteriology and physiology since the 1880s established epistemic boundaries between their work and earlier scientific activities, while others found these distinctions irrelevant...
September 2016: Science in Context
Jennifer G Stadler, Kipp Donlon, Jordan D Siewert, Tessa Franken, Nathaniel E Lewis
The digitization of a patient's health record has profoundly impacted medicine and healthcare. The compilation and accessibility of medical history has provided clinicians an unprecedented, holistic account of a patient's conditions, procedures, medications, family history, and social situation. In addition to the bedside benefits, this level of information has opened the door for population-level monitoring and research, the results of which can be used to guide initiatives that are aimed at improving quality of care...
June 2016: Big Data
Poul Jennum, Line Pickering, Jakob Christensen, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden to patients and society. We calculated the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy. METHODS: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2002), we identified 3123 and 5018 patients with epilepsy aged 0-5years and 6-20years at the time of diagnosis, respectively. The two age groups of patients with epilepsy were matched to 6246 and 10,036 control persons without epilepsy, respectively, by gender, age, and geography...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Oyinlola Oyebode, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Peter J Chilton, Richard J Lilford
It is frequently stated in the scientific literature, official reports and the press that 80% of Asian and African populations use traditional medicine (TM) to meet their healthcare needs; however, this statistic was first reported in 1983. This study aimed to update knowledge of the prevalence of TM use and the characteristics of those who access it, to inform health policy-makers as countries seek to fulfil the WHO TM strategy 2014-23 and harness TM for population health. Prevalence of reported use of TM was studied in 35 334 participants of the WHO-SAGE, surveyed 2007-10...
October 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Julie Shaffner, Timothy F Jones, Abelardo C Moncayo
Surveillance of arboviruses depends on health-care providers' ability to diagnose and report human cases of disease. The purposes of this study were to assess Tennessee providers' 1) self-efficacy toward diagnosis and management, 2) clinical practices, and 3) variation in these measures by provider characteristics. A survey was e-mailed to 13,851 providers, of which 916 (7%) responded. Respondents diagnosed more arboviruses in the previous year than were recorded in surveillance records, an indication of underreporting...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mona AuYoung, Sarah E Linke, Sherry Pagoto, Matthew P Buman, Lynette L Craft, Caroline R Richardson, Adrian Hutber, Bess H Marcus, Paul Estabrooks, Sherri Sheinfeld Gorin
Based on a collaborative symposium in 2014 hosted by the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), this paper presents a model for physical activity counseling for primary care physicians (PCPs). Most US adults do not meet national recommendations for physical activity levels. Socioecological factors drive differences in physical activity levels by geography, sex, age, and racial/ethnic group. The recent Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act incentivizes PCPs to offer patients physical activity counseling...
October 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Mirjana Stojanovic-Tasic, Anita Grgurevic, Goran Trajkovic, Tatjana Pekmezovic
BACKGROUND: There are many factors that affect smoking behavior. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the most important risk factors related to smoking in the sample population of students at the University of Belgrade with a special emphasize on the family role. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 2,000 students of the Belgrade University. Four faculties (Medicine, Geography, Economics, and Electrical Engineering) from which the students participating in this research were chosen by the method of random choice, conducted in the period April-June 2010...
2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Kurt T Barnhart, Steven T Nakajima, Elizabeth Puscheck, Thomas M Price, Valerie L Baker, James Segars
OBJECTIVE: To identify the current and future state of the practice of reproductive medicine. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): None. INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The survey included 57 questions designed to assess practice patterns/metrics and professional satisfaction and morale. RESULT(S): A total of 336/1,100 (31%) responded, and they were 38% women, 61% men, and 76% Caucasian, with a mean age of 54...
May 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Moyez Jiwa, Ori Gudes, Richard Varhol, Narelle Mullan
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical data for people with diabetes mellitus with reference to their location and clinical care in a general practice in Australia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient data were extracted from a general practice in Western Australia. Iterative data-cleansing steps were taken. Data were grouped into Statistical Area level 1 (SA1), designated as the smallest geographical area associated with the Census of Population and Housing. The data were analysed to identify if SA1s with people aged 70 years and older, and with relatively high glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were significantly clustered, and whether this was associated with their medical consultation rate and treatment...
2015: BMJ Open
Fernando de Andrés, Santiago Terán, Marcela Bovera, Humberto Fariñas, Enrique Terán, Adrián LLerena
Phenotyping of the CYP450 enzyme activities contributes to personalized medicine, but the past phenotyping approaches have followed a piecemeal strategy measuring single enzyme activities in vivo. A barrier to phenotyping of populations in rural and remote areas is the limited time and resources for sample collection. The CEIBA cocktail approach allows metabolic capacity estimation of multiple CYP450 enzymes in a single sample analysis, but the attendant sample collection schemes for applications in diverse global settings are yet to be optimized...
February 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Daniel S W Tan, Tony S K Mok, Timothy R Rebbeck
Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Filippo Pesapane, Stefano Marcelli, Gianluca Nazzaro
Girolamo Fracastoro was a true Italian Renaissance man: he excelled in literature, poetry, music, geography, geology, philosophy, astronomy and, of course, medicine to the point that made Charles-Edward Armory Winslow define him as "a peak unequaled by anyone between Hippocrates and Pasteur". In 1521 Fracastoro wrote the poem "Syphilis Sive de Morbo Gallico" in which was established the use of the term "syphilis" for this terrible and inexplicably transmitted disease, often referred to as "French disease" by the people of the time and by Fracastoro himself...
September 2015: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Radosław Tarkowski
In 1775-1783, Jean-Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) stayed in Respublica Poloniae to oranize a veterinary school, the Royal Botanic Garden and the Royal School of Physicians in Grodno, and since 1781 he worked in Vilnius as Professor of Natural History at the Principal School of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Little is known about his work conducted in Lithuania in the field of geology and earth sciences. The author has decided, on the basis of Gilibert's publications and analysis of the literature (works of J...
2015: Kwartalnik Historii Nauki i Techniki: Kwartal'nyĭ Zhurnal Istorii Nauki i Tekhniki -
Rajesh Ghosh, David Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Advent of new technologies in mobile devices and software applications is leading to an evolving change in the extent, geographies and modes for use of internet. Today, it is used not only for information gathering but for sharing of experiences, opinions and suggestions. Web-Recognizing Adverse Drug Reactions (RADR) is a groundbreaking European Union (EU) Innovative Medicines Innovation funded 3-year initiative to recommend policies, frameworks, tools and methodologies by leveraging these new developments to get new insights in drug safety...
2015: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Max Hermann, Anja C Schunke, Thomas Schultz, Reinhard Klein
Large image deformations pose a challenging problem for the visualization and statistical analysis of 3D image ensembles which have a multitude of applications in biology and medicine. Simple linear interpolation in the tangent space of the ensemble introduces artifactual anatomical structures that hamper the application of targeted visual shape analysis techniques. In this work we make use of the theory of stationary velocity fields to facilitate interactive non-linear image interpolation and plausible extrapolation for high quality rendering of large deformations and devise an efficient image warping method on the GPU...
January 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Saikat Sen, Raja Chakraborty, Ganesh Thangavel, Sivakumar Logaiyan
BACKGROUND: The usage of Siddha medicine in Tamil Nadu and several parts of Southern India has considerably increased over the past two decades and it is steadily crossing the various geographies owing to its inexpensiveness compared to conventional medicines and has fairly high acceptance rates because of its herbal origin and therefore its nontoxic nature. AIM: This study aims to investigate the anti-hepatotoxic and antioxidant potential of the Karisalai Karpam formulation...
April 2015: Ancient Science of Life
Ralph Jay Johnson
OBJECTIVE: Post-Cold War United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UN PKOs) have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, harsh and remote geographies, simmering internecine armed conflict and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. In the interest of 'force protection' and optimising operations, a key component of UN PKOs is healthcare and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support will conform to the general intent and structure of UN PKOs...
August 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Christopher J Gouveia, Hannan A Qureshi, Robert C Kern, Stephanie Shintani Smith
OBJECTIVE: To describe current levels and trends of funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to recognize the current status of otolaryngologists in OSA research. STUDY DESIGN: Scientometric analysis. METHODS: The NIH RePORTER database was queried for the search term "obstructive sleep apnea" for all available years. Sex, degree, academic department, NIH funding source, geography, funding totals and years, and h-index of principal investigators (PIs) were collected and summarized...
October 2015: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
José Carlos Truzzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
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