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Geography Medicine

Tatjana Buklijas
Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Jeremy D Young, Melissa E Badowski
The United States (US) has a large correctional population. However, many incarcerated persons lack access to evidence-based, up-to-date medical care, particularly by subspecialty providers, due to limitations of geography, travel, cost and other resources. The use of telehealth technologies can remove these barriers, increasing access to high quality, multidisciplinary care. Studies have shown that, with telemedicine, timely triage and medical management can be provided across many disciplines, which may lead to improved clinical outcomes and significant cost savings...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Rachel B Ramoni, John J Mulvihill, David R Adams, Patrick Allard, Euan A Ashley, Jonathan A Bernstein, William A Gahl, Rizwan Hamid, Joseph Loscalzo, Alexa T McCray, Vandana Shashi, Cynthia J Tifft, Anastasia L Wise
Diagnosis at the edges of our knowledge calls upon clinicians to be data driven, cross-disciplinary, and collaborative in unprecedented ways. Exact disease recognition, an element of the concept of precision in medicine, requires new infrastructure that spans geography, institutional boundaries, and the divide between clinical care and research. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund supports the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) as an exemplar of this model of precise diagnosis. Its goals are to forge a strategy to accelerate the diagnosis of rare or previously unrecognized diseases, to improve recommendations for clinical management, and to advance research, especially into disease mechanisms...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
Alexandra J Greenberg, Danielle Haney, Kelly D Blake, Richard P Moser, Bradford W Hesse
PURPOSE: The increase in use of health information technologies (HIT) presents new opportunities for patient engagement and self-management. Patients in rural areas stand to benefit especially from increased access to health care tools and electronic communication with providers. We assessed the adoption of 4 HIT tools over time by rural or urban residency. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using data from 7 iterations of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS; 2003-2014)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
Shira M Goldenberg, Kathleen Deering, Ofer Amram, Silvia Guillemi, Paul Nguyen, Julio Montaner, Kate Shannon
Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Lissa Roberts
As global history continues to take shape as an important field of research, its interactive relationships with the history of science, technology, and medicine are recognized and being investigated as significant areas of concern. Strangely, despite the fact that it is key to understanding so many of the subjects that are central to global history and would itself benefit from a broader geographical perspective, the history of chemistry has largely been left out of this process - particularly for the modern historical period...
December 2016: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Sharon J Parish, Andrew T Goldstein, Sue W Goldstein, Irwin Goldstein, James Pfaus, Anita H Clayton, Annamaria Giraldi, James A Simon, Stanley E Althof, Gloria Bachmann, Barry Komisaruk, Roy Levin, Susan Kellogg Spadt, Sheryl A Kingsberg, Michael A Perelman, Marcel D Waldinger, Beverly Whipple
INTRODUCTION: Current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) definitions of sexual dysfunction do not identify all sexual problems experienced clinically by women and are not necessarily applicable for biologic or biopsychosocial management of female sexual dysfunction. A unified nomenclature system enables clinicians, researchers, and regulatory agencies to use the same language and criteria for determining clinical end points, assessing research results, and managing patients...
December 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Maharra Hussain, Sanjay A Pai
Geographic eponyms have commonly been used in medical terminology, with diseases and medical entities being named after the place where the condition was discovered (e.g. Bombay Blood group) or invented (Jaipur Foot) or where the disease was first detected (Rocky Mountain Spotted fever) or where a consensus meeting has been held (Banff) or for other reasons (Argentina flag, Congo red stain). In 2015, the WHO decided to adopt a politically correct method to name infectious diseases in the future. We illustrate, in verse form, some of the places that have been used in medical terminology, over the centuries...
May 2016: National Medical Journal of India
Dowin Boatright, Java Tunson, Emily Caruso, Christy Angerhofer, Brooke Baker, Renee King, Katherine Bakes, Stephanie Oberfoell, Steven Lowenstein, Jeffrey Druck
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) developed a set of recruitment strategies designed to increase the number of under-represented minorities (URMs) in Emergency Medicine (EM) residency. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a survey of United States (US) EM residency program directors to: describe the racial and ethnic composition of residents; ascertain whether each program had instituted CORD recruitment strategies; and identify program characteristics associated with recruitment of a high proportion of URM residents...
November 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mónica García, Stefan Pohl-Valero
Argument Using the notion of styles of knowledge we refer to the ways diverse scientific communities claim to produce true knowledge, their understandings regarding the attitudes and values that scientists should have in order to grasp natural and social reality, and the practices and technologies developed within such styles. This paper analyzes scientific and medical enterprises that explored the relationship between environment, population, and society in Colombia between 1850 and 1920. We argue that similar styles of knowledge production were shared in human geography, medical geography, and climatic physiology at the mid-nineteenth century; and that some physicians working in bacteriology and physiology since the 1880s established epistemic boundaries between their work and earlier scientific activities, while others found these distinctions irrelevant...
September 2016: Science in Context
Jennifer G Stadler, Kipp Donlon, Jordan D Siewert, Tessa Franken, Nathaniel E Lewis
The digitization of a patient's health record has profoundly impacted medicine and healthcare. The compilation and accessibility of medical history has provided clinicians an unprecedented, holistic account of a patient's conditions, procedures, medications, family history, and social situation. In addition to the bedside benefits, this level of information has opened the door for population-level monitoring and research, the results of which can be used to guide initiatives that are aimed at improving quality of care...
June 2016: Big Data
Poul Jennum, Line Pickering, Jakob Christensen, Rikke Ibsen, Jakob Kjellberg
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy is associated with a significant burden to patients and society. We calculated the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with childhood- and adolescent-onset epilepsy. METHODS: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2002), we identified 3123 and 5018 patients with epilepsy aged 0-5years and 6-20years at the time of diagnosis, respectively. The two age groups of patients with epilepsy were matched to 6246 and 10,036 control persons without epilepsy, respectively, by gender, age, and geography...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Oyinlola Oyebode, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Peter J Chilton, Richard J Lilford
It is frequently stated in the scientific literature, official reports and the press that 80% of Asian and African populations use traditional medicine (TM) to meet their healthcare needs; however, this statistic was first reported in 1983. This study aimed to update knowledge of the prevalence of TM use and the characteristics of those who access it, to inform health policy-makers as countries seek to fulfil the WHO TM strategy 2014-23 and harness TM for population health. Prevalence of reported use of TM was studied in 35 334 participants of the WHO-SAGE, surveyed 2007-10...
October 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Julie Shaffner, Timothy F Jones, Abelardo C Moncayo
Surveillance of arboviruses depends on health-care providers' ability to diagnose and report human cases of disease. The purposes of this study were to assess Tennessee providers' 1) self-efficacy toward diagnosis and management, 2) clinical practices, and 3) variation in these measures by provider characteristics. A survey was e-mailed to 13,851 providers, of which 916 (7%) responded. Respondents diagnosed more arboviruses in the previous year than were recorded in surveillance records, an indication of underreporting...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mona AuYoung, Sarah E Linke, Sherry Pagoto, Matthew P Buman, Lynette L Craft, Caroline R Richardson, Adrian Hutber, Bess H Marcus, Paul Estabrooks, Sherri Sheinfeld Gorin
Based on a collaborative symposium in 2014 hosted by the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), this paper presents a model for physical activity counseling for primary care physicians (PCPs). Most US adults do not meet national recommendations for physical activity levels. Socioecological factors drive differences in physical activity levels by geography, sex, age, and racial/ethnic group. The recent Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act incentivizes PCPs to offer patients physical activity counseling...
October 2016: American Journal of Medicine
Mirjana Stojanovic-Tasic, Anita Grgurevic, Goran Trajkovic, Tatjana Pekmezovic
BACKGROUND: There are many factors that affect smoking behavior. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the most important risk factors related to smoking in the sample population of students at the University of Belgrade with a special emphasize on the family role. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 2,000 students of the Belgrade University. Four faculties (Medicine, Geography, Economics, and Electrical Engineering) from which the students participating in this research were chosen by the method of random choice, conducted in the period April-June 2010...
2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Kurt T Barnhart, Steven T Nakajima, Elizabeth Puscheck, Thomas M Price, Valerie L Baker, James Segars
OBJECTIVE: To identify the current and future state of the practice of reproductive medicine. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): None. INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The survey included 57 questions designed to assess practice patterns/metrics and professional satisfaction and morale. RESULT(S): A total of 336/1,100 (31%) responded, and they were 38% women, 61% men, and 76% Caucasian, with a mean age of 54...
May 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Moyez Jiwa, Ori Gudes, Richard Varhol, Narelle Mullan
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical data for people with diabetes mellitus with reference to their location and clinical care in a general practice in Australia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient data were extracted from a general practice in Western Australia. Iterative data-cleansing steps were taken. Data were grouped into Statistical Area level 1 (SA1), designated as the smallest geographical area associated with the Census of Population and Housing. The data were analysed to identify if SA1s with people aged 70 years and older, and with relatively high glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were significantly clustered, and whether this was associated with their medical consultation rate and treatment...
2015: BMJ Open
Fernando de Andrés, Santiago Terán, Marcela Bovera, Humberto Fariñas, Enrique Terán, Adrián LLerena
Phenotyping of the CYP450 enzyme activities contributes to personalized medicine, but the past phenotyping approaches have followed a piecemeal strategy measuring single enzyme activities in vivo. A barrier to phenotyping of populations in rural and remote areas is the limited time and resources for sample collection. The CEIBA cocktail approach allows metabolic capacity estimation of multiple CYP450 enzymes in a single sample analysis, but the attendant sample collection schemes for applications in diverse global settings are yet to be optimized...
February 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Daniel S W Tan, Tony S K Mok, Timothy R Rebbeck
Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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