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pediatric cardiac imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439302/pediatric-viral-myocarditis-a-review
#1
Teresa Frey, Nofil Arain
Pediatric myocarditis is a common pediatric illness most commonly secondary to a preceding viral infection. It is a leading cause of acquired heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and cardiac transplantation in pediatrics. Due to the variability in presentation, the diagnosis is often unrecognized until later in the disease course. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all children presenting with respiratory distress, since this is the most common presentation. Imagining modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have become a useful diagnostic tool in recent years; however, endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard diagnostic test...
January 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423213/cardiovascular-effects-of-metabolic-syndrome-after-transplantation-convergence-of-obesity-and-transplant-related-factors
#2
Kristen Sgambat, Sarah Clauss, Asha Moudgil
Children are at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) after kidney transplantation, which contributes to long-term cardiovascular (CV) morbidities and decline in allograft function. While MS in the general population occurs due to excess caloric intake and physical inactivity, additional chronic kidney disease and transplant-related factors contribute to the development of MS in transplant recipients. Despite its significant health consequences, the interplay of the individual components in CV morbidity in pediatric transplant recipients is not well understood...
February 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416073/diagnostic-accuracy-of-three-dimensional-turbo-field-echo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-sequence-in-pediatric-tracheobronchial-anomalies-with-congenital-heart-disease
#3
QiaoRu Hou, Wei Gao, YuMin Zhong, AiMin Sun, Qian Wang, LiWei Hu, JingLei Wang
Tracheobronchial anomalies are common in congenital heart disease (CHD), including tracheobronchial stenosis, tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, and bronchial isomerism, which can cause varying degrees of respiratory illness. It is necessary to assess tracheobronchial anomalies and make a preoperative airway evaluation. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most effective noninvasive modalities for the diagnosis of CHD and the associated tracheobronchial anomalies...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399969/role-of-virtual-reality-in-congenital-heart-disease
#4
Chin Siang Ong, Aravind Krishnan, Chen Yu Huang, Philip Spevak, Luca Vricella, Narutoshi Hibino, Juan R Garcia, Lasya Gaur
OBJECTIVE: New platforms for patient imaging present opportunities for improved surgical planning in complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Virtual reality (VR) allows for interactive manipulation of high-resolution representations of patient-specific imaging data, as a supplement to traditional 2D visualizations and 3D printed heart models. DESIGN: We present the novel use of VR for the presurgical planning of cardiac surgery in two infants with complex CHD to demonstrate interactive real-time views of complex intra and extracardiac anatomy...
February 5, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352416/point-of-care-ultrasound-in-pediatric-anesthesiology-and-critical-care-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Erik Su, Nicholas Dalesio, Aliaksei Pustavoitau
Ultrasound has increasingly become a clinical asset in the hands of the anesthesiologist and intensivist who cares for children. Though many applications for ultrasound parallel adult modalities, children as always are not simply small adults and benefit from the application of ultrasound to their management in various ways. Body composition and size are important factors that affect ultrasound performance in the child, as are the pathologies that may uniquely afflict children and aspects of procedures unique to this patient population...
January 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349617/use-of-venovenous-ecmo-for-neonatal-and-pediatric-ecmo-a-decade-of-experience-at-a-tertiary-children-s-hospital
#6
Jennifer L Carpenter, Yangyang R Yu, Darrell L Cass, Oluyinka O Olutoye, James A Thomas, Cole Burgman, Caraciolo J Fernandes, Timothy C Lee
BACKGROUND: Advances in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have led to increased use of venovenous (VV) ECMO in the pediatric population. We present the evolution and experience of pediatric VV ECMO at a tertiary care institution. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from 01/2005 to 07/2016 was performed, comparing by cannulation mode. Survival to discharge, complications, and decannulation analyses were performed. RESULTS: In total, 160 patients (105 NICU, 55 PICU) required 13 ± 11 days of ECMO...
January 18, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297180/giant-cardiac-tumors-in-the-newborn-an-unusual-image
#7
Joanna Kwiatkowska, Sebastian Ciemny, Dariusz Kozłowski
Primary heart tumors in the pediatric population are very rare and they range from 0.01% to 0.04%. Most are benign lesions of which about half are rhabdomyomas. Rhabdomyoma tumor diagnosis is associated with a 75-80% risk of TSC. TSC are characterised with numerous changes of hamartoma type located in the brain, kidneys, skin and other organs including in the heart. More than two thirds of newborns with TSC present rhabdomyomas in the heart. These changes may be asymptomatic, but in some cases they may cause heart failure, arrhythmias and death...
January 3, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286273/the-2017-seventh-world-congress-of-pediatric-cardiology-cardiac-surgery-week-in-review-imaging
#8
Elif S Selamet Tierney
The Imaging Program at the 7th World Congress highlighted the versatility and diagnostic power of the current and upcoming imaging tools in Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. Several experts presented interesting as well as practical data on the use of 2D and 3D Echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in the fetus, child, and adult with congenital heart disease. Bridging sessions coupled use of these imaging modalities and screening practices in patients with acquired heart disease...
December 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279178/radiologic-discrepancies-in-children-with-special-healthcare-needs-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#9
Ara Festekjian, Karen Y Kwan, Todd P Chang, Hollie Lai, Margil Fahit, Danica B Liberman
BACKGROUND: After-hours radiologic interpretation by nonradiology attendings or resident radiologists introduces the risk of discrepancies. Clinical outcomes following radiologic discrepancies among pediatric emergency department (ED) patients are poorly described. In particular, children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN), have more opportunities for discrepancies and potential consequences than non- CSHCN. Our objective was to determine the rates and types of radiologic discrepancies, and to compare CSHCN to non-CSHCN...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278645/impact-of-preterm-birth-on-the-developing-myocardium-of-the-neonate
#10
Jonathan G Bensley, Lynette Moore, Robert De Matteo, Richard Harding, M Jane Black
BACKGROUND: Globally, approximately 10% of infants are born before full-term. Preterm birth exposes the heart to the demands of postnatal cardiovascular function before cardiac development is complete. Our aim was to examine, in hearts collected from infants at autopsy, the effects of preterm birth on myocardial structure and on cardiomyocyte development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Heart tissue was collected at perinatal autopsies of 16 infants who died following preterm birth between 23-36 weeks gestation, and survived for 1-42 days; the hearts of 37 appropriately grown stillborn infants, aged 20-40 weeks gestation, were used for comparison...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261360/precision-medicine-functional-advancements
#11
Thomas Caskey
Precision medicine was conceptualized on the strength of genomic sequence analysis. High-throughput functional metrics have enhanced sequence interpretation and clinical precision. These technologies include metabolomics, magnetic resonance imaging, and I rhythm (cardiac monitoring), among others. These technologies are discussed and placed in clinical context for the medical specialties of internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, and gynecology. Publications in these fields support the concept of a higher level of precision in identifying disease risk...
December 20, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250515/basics-of-functional-echocardiography-in-children-and-neonates
#12
REVIEW
Cécile Tissot, Vincent Muehlethaler, Nicole Sekarski
Functional echocardiography has become an invaluable tool in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit. "Point-of-care," "target," or "focus" echocardiography allows bedside cardiac ultrasound evaluation of the hemodynamic status of the patient, helps in directing treatment, thus improves patients care. In order to be able to perform functional echocardiography, it is essential to understand the principles of ultrasound, to know the echocardiographic equipment and settings necessary to acquire the images...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246546/surgical-unroofing-of-intramural-anomalous-aortic-origin-of-a-coronary-artery-in-pediatric-patients-single-center-perspective
#13
Shagun Sachdeva, Michele A Frommelt, Michael E Mitchell, James S Tweddell, Peter C Frommelt
BACKGROUND: Intramural anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. This is amenable to surgical coronary unroofing, but outcomes studies are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To perform a comprehensive review of our institutional experience with pediatric patients with AAOCA who underwent surgical repair with unroofing of the intramural segment, focusing on preoperative and postoperative course and testing as well as intraoperative findings...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230843/cardiac-function-in-paediatric-patients-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#14
Christiaan F Mooij, Milanthy S Pourier, Gert Weijers, Chris L de Korte, Zina Fejzic, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Livia Kapusta
BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism and exogenous glucocorticoid excess may cause unfavourable changes in the cardiovascular risk profile of patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cardiac function in paediatric patients with CAH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven paediatric patients with CAH, aged 8-16 years, were evaluated by physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and two-dimensional (2D) myocardial strain (rate) imaging...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212898/genetic-testing-in-pediatric-left-ventricular-noncompaction
#15
Erin M Miller, Robert B Hinton, Richard Czosek, Angela Lorts, Ashley Parrott, Amy R Shikany, Richard F Ittenbach, Stephanie M Ware
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) can occur in isolation or can co-occur with a cardiomyopathy phenotype or cardiovascular malformation. The yield of cardiomyopathy gene panel testing in infants, children, and adolescents with a diagnosis of LVNC is unknown. By characterizing a pediatric population with LVNC, we sought to determine the yield of cardiomyopathy gene panel testing, distinguish the yield of testing for LVNC with or without co-occurring cardiac findings, and define additional factors influencing genetic testing yield...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181795/comparison-of-3d-echocardiogram-derived-3d-printed-valve-models-to-molded-models-for-simulated-repair-of-pediatric-atrioventricular-valves
#16
Adam B Scanlan, Alex V Nguyen, Anna Ilina, Andras Lasso, Linnea Cripe, Anusha Jegatheeswaran, Elizabeth Silvestro, Francis X McGowan, Christopher E Mascio, Stephanie Fuller, Thomas L Spray, Meryl S Cohen, Gabor Fichtinger, Matthew A Jolley
Mastering the technical skills required to perform pediatric cardiac valve surgery is challenging in part due to limited opportunity for practice. Transformation of 3D echocardiographic (echo) images of congenitally abnormal heart valves to realistic physical models could allow patient-specific simulation of surgical valve repair. We compared materials, processes, and costs for 3D printing and molding of patient-specific models for visualization and surgical simulation of congenitally abnormal heart valves...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132805/feasibility-of-the-use-of-transesophageal-echocardiography-as-a-surface-probe-for-puncturing-and-catheterization-of-the-internal-jugular-vein-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#17
Yi Teng, Mengchan Ou, Hai Yu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe as a surface probe with the vascular probe for guiding internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred cardiac surgery patients, including 50 adult and 50 pediatric patients. INTERVENTIONS: Patients in the TEE probe group received right IJV catheterization using the TEE probe, while the vascular probe group used the vascular probe for catheterization...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117866/ambulatory-systolic-blood-pressure-and-obesity-are-independently-associated-with-left-ventricular-hypertrophic-remodeling-in-children
#18
Linyuan Jing, Christopher D Nevius, Cassi M Friday, Jonathan D Suever, Arichanah Pulenthiran, Abba Mejia-Spiegeler, H Lester Kirchner, William J Cochran, Gregory J Wehner, Aftab S Chishti, Christopher M Haggerty, Brandon K Fornwalt
BACKGROUND: Children with obesity have hypertrophic cardiac remodeling. Hypertension is common in pediatric obesity, and may independently contribute to hypertrophy. We hypothesized that both the degree of obesity and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) would independently associate with measures of hypertrophic cardiac remodeling in children. METHODS: Children, aged 8-17 years, prospectively underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and ABP monitoring. Left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to height2...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084038/brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-pediatric-patients-post-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#19
Venessa L Pinto, Sumit Pruthi, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Brian C Bridges, Truc M Le
Neurologic complications can occur with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to several factors. Prior studies identified neonates as having unique risk factors and neuroimaging findings post ECMO. The aim of this study is to describe brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of pediatric patients treated with ECMO. We conducted a retrospective study of nonneonatal pediatric patients who underwent a comprehensive brain magnetic resonance imaging after ECMO between January 2000 and July 2015. We identified 47 pediatric patients in the study cohort with a median age of 8 months (interquartile range 3-170 months) and a median ECMO run duration of 7...
November 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084001/assessing-the-borderline-ventricle-in-a-term-infant-combining-imaging-and-physiology-to-establish-the-right-course
#20
Meryl S Cohen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the challenges associated with the diagnosis and treatment of children with borderline ventricles. A borderline ventricle is one in which there is concern that it will not be able to support its circulation. If a biventricular repair is attempted and fails, outcome is often poor. Thus, this early decision is important. RECENT FINDINGS: For the borderline right ventricle, options to add an additional source of pulmonary blood flow make the surgical strategy a bit more flexible than for patients with a borderline left ventricle...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
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