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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102980/microbiology-devices-reclassification-of-influenza-virus-antigen-detection-test-systems-intended-for-use-directly-with-clinical-specimens-final-order
#1
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reclassifying antigen based rapid influenza virus antigen detection test systems intended to detect influenza virus directly from clinical specimens that are currently regulated as influenza virus serological reagents from class I into class II with special controls and into a new device classification regulation.
12, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102191/a-broadly-protective-therapeutic-antibody-against-influenza-b-virus-with-two-mechanisms-of-action
#2
Ning Chai, Lee R Swem, Summer Park, Gerald Nakamura, Nancy Chiang, Alberto Estevez, Rina Fong, Lynn Kamen, Elviza Kho, Mike Reichelt, Zhonghua Lin, Henry Chiu, Elizabeth Skippington, Zora Modrusan, Jeremy Stinson, Min Xu, Patrick Lupardus, Claudio Ciferri, Man-Wah Tan
Influenza B virus (IBV) causes annual influenza epidemics around the world. Here we use an in vivo plasmablast enrichment technique to isolate a human monoclonal antibody, 46B8 that neutralizes all IBVs tested in vitro and protects mice against lethal challenge of all IBVs tested when administered 72 h post infection. 46B8 demonstrates a superior therapeutic benefit over Tamiflu and has an additive antiviral effect in combination with Tamiflu. 46B8 binds to a conserved epitope in the vestigial esterase domain of hemagglutinin (HA) and blocks HA-mediated membrane fusion...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102001/evaluation-of-the-hybrid-resolution-pace-model-for-the-study-of-folding-insertion-and-pore-formation-of-membrane-associated-peptides
#3
Michael D Ward, Shivangi Nangia, Eric R May
The PACE force field presents an attractive model for conducting molecular dynamics simulations of membrane-protein systems. PACE is a hybrid model, in which lipids and solvents are coarse-grained consistent with the MARTINI mapping, while proteins are described by a united atom model. However, given PACE is linked to MARTINI, which is widely used to study membranes, the behavior of proteins interacting with membranes has only been limitedly examined in PACE. In this study, PACE is used to examine the behavior of several peptides in membrane environments, namely WALP peptides, melittin and influenza hemagglutinin fusion peptide (HAfp)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100622/glycosylation-of-the-ha-protein-of-h5n1-virus-increases-its-virulence-in-mice-by-exacerbating-the-host-immune-response
#4
Dongming Zhao, Libin Liang, Shuai Wang, Tomomi Nakao, Yanbing Li, Liling Liu, Yuntao Guan, Satoshi Fukuyama, Zhigao Bu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Hualan Chen
: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in nature and threaten public health. Although several viral determinants and host factors that influence the virulence of HPAI H5N1 viruses in mammals have been identified, the detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly defined and requires further clarification. In our previous studies, we characterized two naturally isolated HPAI H5N1 viruses that had similar viral genomes but differed substantially in their lethality in mice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100621/recombinant-adenoviruses-displaying-matrix-2-ectodomain-epitopes-m2e-on-their-fiber-proteins-as-universal-influenza-vaccines
#5
Xinying Tang, Yong Yang, Xiaoli Xia, Chao Zhang, Xi Yang, Yufeng Song, Xinyi Dai, Min Wang, Dongming Zhou
: Influenza is a zoonotic disease that poses severe threats to public health and the global economy. Re-emerging influenza pandemics highlight the demand for universal influenza vaccines. We developed a novel virus platform, AdC68-F3M2e, by introducing three conserved M2e epitopes into the HI loop of the chimpanzee adenovirus (AdV) fiber protein. The M2e epitopes were expressed sufficiently on the AdV virion surface without affecting fiber trimerization. Additionally, one recombinant adenovirus, AdC68-F3M2e(H1-H5-H7), induced robust M2e-specific antibody responses in BALB/c mice after two sequential vaccinations and conferred efficient protection against homologous and heterologous IV challenges...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100497/avian-derived-and-human-seasonal-derived-hemagglutinin-proteins-elicit-cd4-t-cell-responses-that-are-comparable-in-epitope-abundance-and-diversity
#6
Anthony DiPiazza, Katherine Richards, Nicholas Poulton, Andrea J Sant
Avian influenza viruses remain a significant concern due to their pandemic potential. Vaccine trials have suggested that humans respond poorly to avian influenza vaccines, relative to seasonal vaccines. It is important to understand, first, if there is a general deficiency in the ability of avian HA proteins to generate immune responses and if so, what underlies this defect. This question is of particular interest because it has been suggested that in humans, the poor immunogenicity of H7 vaccines may be due to a paucity of CD4 T cell epitopes...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100496/preexisting-immunity-not-frailty-phenotype-predicts-influenza-post-vaccination-titers-among-older-veterans
#7
Puja Van Epps, Terrence Tumpey, Melissa B Pearce, Hana Golding, Patricia Higgins, Thomas Hornick, Christopher Burant, Brigid M Wilson, Richard Banks, Stefan Gravenstein, David H Canaday
Both preexisting immunity to influenza and age have been shown to be a correlate of influenza vaccine response. Frailty, an indicator of functional impairment in older adults, has also been shown in one study to predict lower influenza vaccine responses among non-veterans. In the current study we aimed to determine the association between frailty, preexisting immunity and immune response to influenza vaccine in older veterans. We analyzed 117 subjects (age range 62-95 years; median 81) divided into 3 cohorts based on the Fried frailty test: non-frail (NF: N=23; median age 68), pre-frail (PF: N=50; median age 80) and frail (F:N=44; median age 82) during the 2010-2011 and 11-12 influenza seasons...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100299/pathogenicity-of-modified-bat-influenza-virus-with-different-m-genes-and-its-reassortment-potential-with-swine-influenza-a-virus
#8
Jianmei Yang, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuekun Lang, Jerome Nietfeld, Yuhao Li, Michael Duff, Yonghai Li, Yuju Yang, Haixia Liu, Bin Zhou, David E Wentworth, Juergen A Richt, Zejun Li, Wenjun Ma
In our previous studies the reassortant virus containing only the PR8 H1N1 matrix (M) gene in the background of the modified bat influenza Bat09:mH1mN1 virus could be generated. However, whether M genes from other origins can be rescued in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus and whether the resulting novel reassortant virus is virulent remain unknown. Herein, two reassortant viruses were generated in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus containing either a North American or a Eurasian swine influenza virus M gene...
January 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100186/influenza-epidemic-surveillance-and-prediction-based-on-electronic-health-record-data-from-an-out-of-hours-general-practitioner-cooperative-model-development-and-validation-on-2003-2015-data
#9
Barbara Michiels, Van Kinh Nguyen, Samuel Coenen, Philippe Ryckebosch, Nathalie Bossuyt, Niel Hens
BACKGROUND: Annual influenza epidemics significantly burden health care. Anticipating them allows for timely preparation. The Scientific Institute of Public Health in Belgium (WIV-ISP) monitors the incidence of influenza and influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and reports on a weekly basis. General practitioners working in out-of-hour cooperatives (OOH GPCs) register diagnoses of ILIs in an instantly accessible electronic health record (EHR) system. This article has two objectives: to explore the possibility of modelling seasonal influenza epidemics using EHR ILI data from the OOH GPC Deurne-Borgerhout, Belgium, and to attempt to develop a model accurately predicting new epidemics to complement the national influenza surveillance by WIV-ISP...
January 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099486/do-thai-physicians-recommend-seasonal-influenza-vaccines-to-pregnant-women-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-physicians-perspectives-and-practices-in-thailand
#10
Prabda Praphasiri, Darunee Ditsungneon, Adena Greenbaum, Fatimah S Dawood, Pornsak Yoocharoen, Deborah M Stone, Sonja J Olsen, Kim A Lindblade, Charung Muangchana
BACKGROUND: Physicians play a major role in influencing acceptance and uptake of vaccines. However, little is known about physicians' perspectives on influenza vaccination of pregnant women in Thailand, for whom vaccine coverage is estimated at <1%. METHOD: In 2013, a self-administered questionnaire on physicians' perceptions, attitudes and practices related to influenza vaccination for pregnant women was distributed to 1,134 hospitals with an antenatal care clinic (ANC) in Thailand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099485/cell-based-systems-biology-analysis-of-human-as03-adjuvanted-h5n1-avian-influenza-vaccine-responses-a-phase-i-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Leigh M Howard, Kristen L Hoek, Johannes B Goll, Parimal Samir, Allison Galassie, Tara M Allos, Xinnan Niu, Laura E Gordy, C Buddy Creech, Nripesh Prasad, Travis L Jensen, Heather Hill, Shawn E Levy, Sebastian Joyce, Andrew J Link, Kathryn M Edwards
BACKGROUND: Vaccine development for influenza A/H5N1 is an important public health priority, but H5N1 vaccines are less immunogenic than seasonal influenza vaccines. Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) markedly enhances immune responses to H5N1 vaccine antigens, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We compared the safety (primary endpoint), immunogenicity (secondary), gene expression (tertiary) and cytokine responses (exploratory) between AS03-adjuvanted and unadjuvanted inactivated split-virus H5N1 influenza vaccines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098551/seroprevalence-and-transmission-of-human-influenza-a-h5n1-virus-before-and-after-virus-reassortment-cambodia-2006-2014
#12
Sowath Ly, Paul Horwood, Malen Chan, Sareth Rith, Sopheak Sorn, Kunthea Oeung, Kunthy Nguon, Siam Chan, Phalla Y, Amy Parry, Reiko Tsuyuoka, Sovann Ly, Beat Richner, Denis Laurent, Sirenda Vong, Philippe Dussart, Philippe Buchy, Arnaud Tarantola
Thirty-five human influenza A(H5N1) cases were reported in Cambodia during 2013-2014 after emergence of a clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus. We tested 881 villagers and found 2 cases of pauci- or asymptomatic infection. Seroprevalence after emergence of the reassortant strain (0.2%) was lower than the aggregate seroprevalence of 1.3% reported in earlier studies.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098546/reoccurrence-of-avian-influenza-a-h5n2-virus-clade-2-3-4-4-in-wild-birds-alaska-usa-2016
#13
Dong-Hun Lee, Mia K Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Thomas J DeLiberto, David E Swayne
We report reoccurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus clade 2.3.4.4 in a wild mallard in Alaska, USA, in August 2016. Identification of this virus in a migratory species confirms low-frequency persistence in North America and the potential for re-dissemination of the virus during the 2016 fall migration.
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098524/swine-influenza-virus-h1n2-characterization-and-transmission-in-ferrets-chile
#14
Nicolás Bravo-Vasquez, Erik A Karlsson, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm, Victoria Meliopoulos, Bryan Kaplan, Shauna Marvin, Valerie Cortez, Pamela Freiden, Melinda A Beck, Christopher Hamilton-West, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098392/bayesian-nonparametric-clustering-in-phylogenetics-modeling-antigenic-evolution-in-influenza
#15
Gabriela B Cybis, Janet S Sinsheimer, Trevor Bedford, Andrew Rambaut, Philippe Lemey, Marc A Suchard
Influenza is responsible for up to 500,000 deaths every year, and antigenic variability represents much of its epidemiological burden. To visualize antigenic differences across many viral strains, antigenic cartography methods use multidimensional scaling on binding assay data to map influenza antigenicity onto a low-dimensional space. Analysis of such assay data ideally leads to natural clustering of influenza strains of similar antigenicity that correlate with sequence evolution. To understand the dynamics of these antigenic groups, we present a framework that jointly models genetic and antigenic evolution by combining multidimensional scaling of binding assay data, Bayesian phylogenetic machinery and nonparametric clustering methods...
January 18, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098157/antibody-responses-to-trivalent-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-in-health-care-personnel-previously-vaccinated-and-vaccinated-for-the-first-time
#16
Kuan-Ying A Huang, Shih-Cheng Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Tzou-Yien Lin
Inactivated influenza vaccination induces a hemagglutinin-specific antibody response to the strain used for immunization. Annual vaccination is strongly recommended for health care personnel. However, it is debatable if repeated vaccination would affect the antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccine through the time. We enrolled health care personnel who had repeated and first trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in 2005-2008. Serological antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096411/hepatitis-e-virus-orf3-is-a-functional-ion-channel-required-for-release-of-infectious-particles
#17
Qiang Ding, Brigitte Heller, Juan M V Capuccino, Bokai Song, Ila Nimgaonkar, Gabriela Hrebikova, Jorge E Contreras, Alexander Ploss
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis globally. Of HEV's three ORFs, the function of ORF3 has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that via homophilic interactions ORF3 forms multimeric complexes associated with intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes. HEV ORF3 shares several structural features with class I viroporins, and the function of HEV ORF3 can be maintained by replacing it with the well-characterized viroporin influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 protein...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096374/phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-human-antibody-repertoire-reveals-quantitative-signatures-of-immune-senescence-and-aging
#18
Charles F A de Bourcy, Cesar J Lopez Angel, Christopher Vollmers, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, Stephen R Quake
The elderly have reduced humoral immunity, as manifested by increased susceptibility to infections and impaired vaccine responses. To investigate the effects of aging on B-cell receptor (BCR) repertoire evolution during an immunological challenge, we used a phylogenetic distance metric to analyze Ig heavy-chain transcript sequences in both young and elderly individuals before and after influenza vaccination. We determined that BCR repertoires become increasingly specialized over a span of decades, but less plastic...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096183/pneumococcal-neuraminidase-a-nana-promotes-biofilm-formation-and-synergizes-with-influenza-a-virus-in-nasal-colonization-and-middle-ear-infection
#19
John T Wren, Lance K Blevins, Bing Pang, Ankita Basu Roy, Melissa B Oliver, Jennifer L Reimche, Jessie E Wozniak, Martha A Alexander-Miller, W Edward Swords
Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large because of its high prevalence of nasal colonization in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S...
January 17, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095902/identification-of-positive-selection-in-genes-is-greatly-improved-by-using-experimentally-informed-site-specific-models
#20
Jesse D Bloom
BACKGROUND: Sites of positive selection are identified by comparing observed evolutionary patterns to those expected under a null model for evolution in the absence of such selection. For protein-coding genes, the most common null model is that nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations fix at equal rates; this unrealistic model has limited power to detect many interesting forms of selection. RESULTS: I describe a new approach that uses a null model based on experimental measurements of a gene's site-specific amino-acid preferences generated by deep mutational scanning in the lab...
January 17, 2017: Biology Direct
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