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Guillaume Hékimian, Tamara Jovanovic, Nicolas Bréchot, Guillaume Lebreton, Pascal Leprince, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Matthieu Schmidt, Ania Nieszkowska, Sébastien Besset, Jean Chastre, Alain Combes, Charles-Edouard Luyt
PURPOSE: To describe patients with refractory cardiogenic shock related to influenza B virus myocarditis rescued by venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VA-ECMO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized in our unit for influenza-associated myocarditis were prospectively included. We also conducted a systematic MEDLINE database literature review through the PubMed search engine, between 1946 and 2017. RESULTS: We report the cases of 4 young patients with fulminant myocarditis requiring VA-ECMO for 6 [5-8] days...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Daniil A Korenkov, Karen L Laurie, Patrick C Reading, Louise A Carolan, Kok Fei Chan, Irina I Isakova-Sivak, Tatiana A Smolonogina, Kanta Subbarao, Ian G Barr, Julie Villanueva, Svetlana Shcherbik, Tatiana Bousse, Larisa G Rudenko
Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are promising tools for the induction of broad protection from influenza due to their ability to stimulate cross-reactive T cells against influenza pathogens. One of the major targets for cytotoxic T-cell immunity is viral nucleoprotein (NP), which is relatively conserved among antigenically distant influenza viruses. Nevertheless, a diversity of epitope composition has been found in the NP protein of different lineages of influenza A viruses. The H2N2 master donor virus which is currently used as a backbone for the LAIV and donor of the six genomic segments encoding the internal proteins, A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (MDV Len/17), was isolated 60 years ago...
June 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Patrick Saunders-Hastings, Bryson Quinn Hayes, Robert Smith, Daniel Krewski
Background: Influenza pandemics emerge at irregular and unpredictable intervals to cause substantial health, economic and social burdens. Optimizing health-system response is vital to mitigating the consequences of future pandemics. Methods: We developed a mathematical model to assess the preparedness of Canadian health systems to accommodate pandemic-related increases in patient demand. We identify vulnerable areas, assess the potential of inter-wave vaccination to mitigate impacts and evaluate the association between demographic and health-system characteristics in order to identify predictors of pandemic consequences...
August 2017: Infectious Disease Modelling
Evan Kesinger, Jianing Liu, Aaron Jensen, Catherine P Chia, Andrew Demers, Hideaki Moriyama
BACKGROUND: A new type of influenza virus, known as type D, has recently been identified in cattle and pigs. Influenza D virus infection in cattle is typically asymptomatic; however, its infection in swine can result in clinical disease. Swine can also be infected with all other types of influenza viruses, namely A, B, and C. Consequently, swine can serve as a "mixing vessel" for highly pathogenic influenza viruses, including those with zoonotic potential. Currently, the only antiviral drug available targets influenza M2 protein ion channel is not completely effective...
2018: PloS One
Thomas N Kakuda, Jeysen Yogaratnam, Jennifer Rito, Malcolm Boyce, Toni Mitchell, Kusum Gupta, Julian A Symons, Sushmita Chanda, Pieter Van Remoortere, John Fry
BACKGROUND: This double-blind, first-in-human phase 1 study evaluated pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of AL-794 (prodrug of ALS-033719), a potent endonuclease inhibitor of influenza A and B in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to AL-794 (50-2000 mg single ascending doses, fasting) or placebo (5 cohorts, n=6:2 AL-794: placebo/cohort) in part 1, and AL-794 (50-600 mg multiple ascending doses, twice-daily, fed or fasted) or placebo (3 cohorts, n=8:2 AL-794: placebo/cohort) for 7 days in part 2...
June 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Abigail L Coughtrie, Denise E Morris, Rebecca Anderson, Nelupha Begum, David W Cleary, Saul N Faust, Johanna M Jefferies, Alex R Kraaijeveld, Michael V Moore, Mark A Mullee, Paul J Roderick, Andrew Tuck, Robert N Whittaker, Ho Ming Yuen, C Patrick Doncaster, Stuart C Clarke
PURPOSE: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are responsible for over 2.8 million deaths per year worldwide with pathobiont carriage a required precursor to infection. We sought to determine carriage epidemiology for both bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens as part of a large population-based cross-sectional carriage study. METHODOLOGY: Nose self-swab samples were collected in two separate time-points, May to August 2012 (late spring/summer) and February to April 2013 (winter/early spring)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ann Sophie Schröder, Carolin Edler, Jan Peter Sperhake
The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe and life-threatening infections such as epiglottitis and meningitis. The course of the disease can be very rapid, resulting in sudden death. The incidence of Hib-induced epiglottitis in children has declined since the introduction of vaccinations in countries where such vaccinations are routinely administered. We herein present a case involving a 2.5-year-old boy who died suddenly at home. He had developed acute-onset throat and abdominal pain and a high fever...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Anthony S Gizzi, Tyler L Grove, Jamie J Arnold, Joyce Jose, Rohit K Jangra, Scott J Garforth, Quan Du, Sean M Cahill, Natalya G Dulyaninova, James D Love, Kartik Chandran, Anne R Bresnick, Craig E Cameron, Steven C Almo
Viral infections continue to represent major challenges to public health, and an enhanced mechanistic understanding of the processes that contribute to viral life cycles is necessary for the development of new therapeutic strategies 1 . Viperin, a member of the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes, is an interferon-inducible protein implicated in the inhibition of replication of a broad range of RNA and DNA viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, hepatitis C virus, influenza A virus, rabies virus 2 and HIV3,4 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
Daniel Stadlbauer, Fatima Amanat, Shirin Strohmeier, Raffael Nachbagauer, Florian Krammer
Influenza viruses remain a major global public health risk. In addition to seasonal influenza viruses, epizootic influenza A H7 subtype viruses of both the Asian and North American lineage are of concern due to their pandemic potential. In China, the simultaneous occurrence of H7N9 zoonotic episodes and seasonal influenza virus epidemics could potentially lead to novel reassortant viruses with the ability to efficiently spread among humans. Recently, the H7N9 virus has evolved into two new lineages, the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta clade...
June 20, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Salah Uddin Khan, Emily S Gurley, Nancy Gerloff, Md Z Rahman, Natosha Simpson, Mustafizur Rahman, Najmul Haider, Sukanta Chowdhury, Amanda Balish, Rashid Uz Zaman, Sharifa Nasreen, Bidhan Chandra Das, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Katharine Sturm-Ramirez, C Todd Davis, Ruben O Donis, Stephen P Luby
Avian influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic strains, pose severe economic, animal and public health concerns. We implemented live bird market surveillance in Bangladesh to identify the subtypes of avian influenza A viruses in domestic waterfowl and market environments. We collected waterfowl samples monthly from 4 rural sites from 2007 to 2012 and environmental samples from 4 rural and 16 urban sites from 2009 to 2012. Samples were tested through real-time RT-PCR, virus culture, and sequencing to detect and characterize avian influenza A viruses...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hideki Ono, Maya Okamura, Akihiro Fukushima
<bibitem lang="en">  The anti-influenza virus drug oseltamivir has been reported to have several pharmacological actions including blocking of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels and activation of the dopaminergic system. These pharmacological actions highly overlap those of amantadine, another anti-influenza virus drug authorized in Japan, and ester-type local anesthetics. Moreover, oseltamivir and amantadine can clinically induce similar adverse neuropsychiatric reactions. In the present study, from the database of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), we surveyed 2,576 drugs for which neuropsychiatric side effects similar to those of oseltamivir, amantadine and local anesthetics (abnormal behavior, confusion, consciousness disturbance, convulsion, delirium, delusion, hallucination, myoclonus, tremor) are listed as "clinically significant adverse reactions", and found 327 that had at least one of these adverse reactions...
June 20, 2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Min Zhao, Junbo Chen, Shuguang Tan, Tao Dong, Hui Jiang, Jiandong Zheng, Chuansong Quan, Qiaohong Liao, Hangjie Zhang, Xiling Wang, Qianli Wang, Yuhai Bi, Fengfeng Liu, Luzhao Feng, Peter W Horby, Paul Klenerman, George F Gao, William J Liu, Hongjie Yu
Since 2013, influenza A/H7N9 has emerged as the commonest avian influenza subtype causing human infection, and is associated with a high fatality risk. However, the characteristics of immune memory in patients who have recovered from H7N9 infection are not well understood. We assembled a cohort of forty-five H7N9 survivors followed for up to 15 months after infection. Humoral and cellular immune responses were analyzed in sequential samples obtained at 1.5-4 months, 6-8 months and 12-15 months post-infection...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Qingshan Lin, Tingting Li, Yixin Chen, Siu-Ying Lau, Minxi Wei, Yuyun Zhang, Zhenyong Zhang, Qiaobin Yao, Jinjin Li, Zhihai Li, Daning Wang, Qingbing Zheng, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Jun Zhang, Honglin Chen, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses lead to cause severe diseases and fatalities. We previously identified a potent and broad-neutralizing antibody (bnAb), 13D4, against the H5N1 virus. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of 13D4 in complex with the hemagglutinin of A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1). We show that the heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) of 13D4 confers H5N1 broad yet specific neutralization against H5N1, undergoing conformational rearrangement to bind to the receptor-binding site (RBS)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Lisa Walz, Sarah-Katharina Kays, Gert Zimmer, Veronika von Messling
Immune responses induced by currently licensed inactivated influenza vaccines are mainly directed against the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, the immunodominant antigen of influenza viruses. The resulting antigenic drift of HA requires frequent updating of the vaccine composition and annual revaccination. On the other hand, the level of antibodies directed against the neuraminidase (NA) glycoprotein, the second major influenza virus antigen, vary greatly. To investigate the potential of the more conserved NA protein for the induction of a subtype-specific protection, vesicular stomatitis virus-based replicons expressing a panel of N1 proteins from prototypic seasonal and pandemic H1N1 strain and human H5N1 and H7N9 isolates were generated...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Junxiang Wang, Liang Zhao, Yanfang Ye, Yuji Zhang
BACKGROUND: Vaccine has been one of the most successful public health interventions to date. However, vaccines are pharmaceutical products that carry risks so that many adverse events (AEs) are reported after receiving vaccines. Traditional adverse event reporting systems suffer from several crucial challenges including poor timeliness. This motivates increasing social media-based detection systems, which demonstrate successful capability to capture timely and prevalent disease information...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Xiaochen Tai, Alanna M Smith, Allison J McGeer, Eve Dubé, Dorothy Linn Holness, Kevin Katz, Linda McGillis Hall, Shelly A McNeil, Jeff Powis, Brenda L Coleman
BACKGROUND: Web-based surveys have become increasingly popular but response rates are low and may be prone to selection bias. How people are invited to participate may impact response rates and needs further study as previous evidence is contradictory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether response to a web-based survey of healthcare workers would be higher with a posted or an emailed invitation. We also report results of the pilot study, which aims to estimate the percentage of adults vaccinated against influenza who report recurrent systemic adverse events (the same systemic adverse event occurring successively following receipt of influenza vaccines)...
June 20, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Pedro Brandão, Marília Freixo, Elisa Soares, Catarina Estevinho, Ana Sofia Portela Carvalho, Anabela Melo
Parvovirus B19 has tropism for red line blood cells, causing immune hydrops during pregnancy. A positive anti-Kell Coombs reaction usually happens during pregnancy when there is production of antibodies that target Kell antigens, but cross reactions to other antigens may occur. A 24-year-old Gypsy primigravida, 0 Rhesus positive, presented with persistent isolated hyperthermia for 2 weeks and a positive indirect Coombs test result with anti-Kell antibodies at routine tests. She had a 19-week live fetus. The blood tests revealed bicytopenia with iron deficiency anemia, leucopoenia with neutropenia, and elevated C-reactive protein...
June 20, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
H R Sowman, N J Cave, M Dunowska
AIMS: To determine which of the common canine respiratory pathogens circulate among selected populations of healthy and diseased dogs in New Zealand. METHODS: Coagulated blood samples for serology and oropharyngeal swabs for virology were collected from healthy dogs (n=47) and from dogs with acute respiratory disease (n=49). For diseased dogs a convalescent blood sample was also collected 3-4 weeks later. Oropharyngeal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and tested for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus (CAdV) 2, canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus equi subsp...
June 20, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Ivan Kosik, William L Ince, Lauren E Gentles, Andrew J Oler, Martina Kosikova, Matthew Angel, Javier G Magadán, Hang Xie, Christopher B Brooke, Jonathan W Yewdell
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006796.].
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Wioleta Drobik-Czwarno, Anna Wolc, Janet E Fulton, Tomasz Jankowski, Jesus Arango, Neil P O'Sullivan, Jack C M Dekkers
An outbreak of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in 2015, resulting in mandatory euthanization of millions of chickens, was one of the most fatal in the US history. The aim of this study was to detect genes associated with survival following natural infection with HPAI during this outbreak. Blood samples were collected from 274 individuals from 3 commercial varieties of White Leghorn. Survivors and age and genetics matched non-affected controls from each variety were included in the comparison. All individuals were genotyped on the 600k SNP array...
June 19, 2018: Poultry Science
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