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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346537/deep-mutational-scanning-identifies-sites-in-influenza-nucleoprotein-that-affect-viral-inhibition-by-mxa
#1
Orr Ashenberg, Jai Padmakumar, Michael B Doud, Jesse D Bloom
The innate-immune restriction factor MxA inhibits influenza replication by targeting the viral nucleoprotein (NP). Human influenza virus is more resistant than avian influenza virus to inhibition by human MxA, and prior work has compared human and avian viral strains to identify amino-acid differences in NP that affect sensitivity to MxA. However, this strategy is limited to identifying sites in NP where mutations that affect MxA sensitivity have fixed during the small number of documented zoonotic transmissions of influenza to humans...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346512/bacterial-and-viral-pathogen-spectra-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-under-5-children-in-hospital-settings-in-dhaka-city
#2
Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Asifuzzaman Rahat, Md Tarikul Islam, Tanjina Noor Haque, Noorjahan Begum, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Nafisa Nawal Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul Islam, Nusrat Sultana, Manjur Hossain Khan Jony, Farhana Khanam, Golam Mowla, Abdul Matin, Firoza Begum, Tahmina Shirin, Dilruba Ahmed, Narayan Saha, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346504/diagnostic-accuracy-of-two-multiplex-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-meningitis-in-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#3
Jermaine Khumalo, Mark Nicol, Diana Hardie, Rudzani Muloiwa, Phindile Mteshana, Colleen Bamford
INTRODUCTION: Accurate etiological diagnosis of meningitis is important, but difficult in resource-limited settings due to prior administration of antibiotics and lack of viral diagnostics. We aimed to develop and validate 2 real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) assays for the detection of common causes of community-acquired bacterial and viral meningitis in South African children. METHODS: We developed 2 multiplex RT- PCRs for detection of S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346498/characteristics-of-seasonal-influenza-a-and-b-in-latin-america-influenza-surveillance-data-from-ten-countries
#4
Saverio Caini, Wladimir J Alonso, Angel Balmaseda, Alfredo Bruno, Patricia Bustos, Leticia Castillo, Celina de Lozano, Doménica de Mora, Rodrigo A Fasce, Walquiria Aparecida Ferreira de Almeida, Gabriela F Kusznierz, Jenny Lara, Maria Luisa Matute, Brechla Moreno, Claudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Juan Manuel Rudi, Clotilde El-Guerche Séblain, François Schellevis, John Paget
INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the spatio-temporal patterns of influenza epidemics, in ten countries and sub-national regions in Latin America. METHODS: We aggregated the data by year and country and characteristics of eighty-two years were analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346430/il-17c-mediates-the-recruitment-of-tumor-associated-neutrophils-and-lung-tumor-growth
#5
C Jungnickel, L H Schmidt, L Bittigkoffer, L Wolf, A Wolf, F Ritzmann, A Kamyschnikow, C Herr, M D Menger, T Spieker, R Wiewrodt, R Bals, C Beisswenger
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer and an aberrant microbiota of the lung. Microbial colonization contributes to chronic neutrophilic inflammation in COPD. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is frequently found in lungs of stable COPD patients and is the major pathogen triggering exacerbations. The epithelial cytokine interleukin-17C (IL-17C) promotes the recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of IL-17C in the pulmonary tumor microenvironment...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346319/effect-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-on-hiv-1-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-responses-in-subtype-b-and-subtype-c-infected-cohorts
#6
Vijaya Madhavi, Archana Kulkarni, Ashwini Shete, Wen Shi Lee, Milla R Mclean, Anne B Kristensen, Manisha Ghate, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Matthew S Parsons, Anthony Kelleher, David A Cooper, Janaki Amin, Sean Emery, Madhuri Thakar, Stephen J Kent
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in immune therapies to clear the latent HIV-1 after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is limited information on the effect of cART on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and no studies have directly compared ADCC in HIV-1 subtype B- and subtype C-infected subjects. The effect of improving immunocompetence on ADCC to influenza also remains unexplored. METHODS: The effect of cART on HIV-1- and influenza-specific ADCC was analyzed in two cohorts (39 subtype B- and 47 subtype C-infected subjects) before and after two years of cART...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346272/influenza-in-children
#7
Janienne Kondrich, Michele Rosenthal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current information and evidence available on the global burden of disease in the pediatric population, clinical presentation and complications, testing, treatment, and immunization. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to multiple other risk factors for influenza complications, children with neurologic and neuromuscular disorders are significantly higher risk for serious complications. In practice, there is no lower age limit for children with influenza who can be treated with oseltamivir...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345736/-kleine-levin-syndrome-differential-diagnosis-in-recurrent-encephalitic-syndromes-in-adolescence
#8
A Duat-Rodriguez, I Martinez-Albadalejo, I Perez-Sebastian, V Cantarin-Extremera, A Hedrera-Fernandez, J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare disease of unknown origin characterized by recurrent and self-limited episodes of hypersomnia that are also accompanied by a cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Patients present normal sleeping and behavior patterns between episodes. CASE REPORTS: We present three patients who are 14 years old: two boys and one girl. They started having the episodes after a predisposing factor (vaccine, influenza B and menstruation)...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344867/cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-are-both-needed-to-induce-paraneoplastic-neurological-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#9
Christina Gebauer, Béatrice Pignolet, Lidia Yshii, Emilie Mauré, Jan Bauer, Roland Liblau
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs) are rare human autoimmune diseases that mostly affect the central nervous system (CNS). They are triggered by an efficient immune response against a neural self-antigen that is ectopically expressed in neoplastic tumors. Due to this shared antigenic expression, the immune system reacts not only to tumor cells but also to neural cells resulting in neurological damage. Growing data point to a major role of cell-mediated immunity in PNDs associated to autoantibodies against intracellular proteins...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344806/auditory-and-visual-hallucinations-after-influenza-vaccine-a-case-report
#10
Stefania Antoniazzi, Carla Carnovale, Aurelio Sessa, Marta Gentili, Marco Matacena, Maurizia Punginelli, Emilio Clementi, Sonia Radice
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344783/retrospective-report-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-observed-in-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-ocular-samples-at-mount-sinai-hospital-2010-to-2015
#11
Marko Oydanich, Tanis C Dingle, Camille L Hamula, Claudia Ghisa, Penny Asbell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344402/preparation-of-mucosal-nanoparticles-and-polymer-based-inactivated-vaccine-for-newcastle-disease-and-h9n2-ai-viruses
#12
Heba M El Naggar, Mohamed Sayed Madkour, Hussein Ali Hussein
AIM: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND) and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific pathogen-free chickens...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344335/influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase-act-as-novel-motile-machinery
#13
Tatsuya Sakai, Shin I Nishimura, Tadasuke Naito, Mineki Saito
Influenza A virus (IAV) membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are determinants of virus infectivity, transmissibility, pathogenicity, host specificity, and major antigenicity. HA binds to a virus receptor, a sialoglycoprotein or sialoglycolipid, on the host cell and mediates virus attachment to the cell surface. The hydrolytic enzyme NA cleaves sialic acid from viral receptors and accelerates the release of progeny virus from host cells. In this study, we identified a novel function of HA and NA as machinery for viral motility...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343904/clinical-and-serologic-responses-after-a-two-dose-series-of-high-dose-influenza-vaccine-in-plasma-cell-disorders-a-prospective-single-arm-trial
#14
Andrew R Branagan, Eamon Duffy, Randy A Albrecht, Dennis L Cooper, Stuart Seropian, Terri L Parker, Geliang Gan, Fangyong Li, Daniel Zelterman, Chandra Sekhar Boddupalli, Lin Zhang, Rakesh Verma, Thomas M Ferencz, Madhav V Dhodapkar
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and other plasma cell disorders are highly susceptible to influenza infections, which are major causes of morbidity in this population, despite the routine administration of a seasonal influenza vaccination. Existing data are limited by small and retrospective studies, which suggest poor seroprotection rates of < 20% after standard influenza vaccination in patients with MM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with plasma cell dyscrasia (n = 51) were treated with a 2-dose series of high-dose inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine during the 2014 to 2015 influenza season...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343782/lifestyle-socioeconomic-characteristics-and-medical-history-of-elderly-persons-who-receive-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-a-tax-supported-healthcare-system
#15
Maja Hellfritzsch, Reimar Wernich Thomsen, Lisbeth Munksgård Baggesen, Finn Breinholt Larsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Christian Fynbo Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Observational studies on effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly are thought to be biased by healthier lifestyles and higher socioeconomic status among vaccinated vs. unvaccinated persons. We examined this hypothesis in a uniform tax-supported health care system with free-of-charge influenza vaccination to the elderly. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among Danes aged 65-79years participating in a survey. We compared elderly persons with and without a recent (within six months) influenza vaccination in terms of (i) lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics obtained from the survey and (ii) health factors including medical history provided by Danish registries...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343777/neisseria-meningitidis-nasopharyngeal-carriage-during-the-hajj-a-cohort-study-evaluating-the-need-for-ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis
#16
Ziad A Memish, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Malak Almasri, Esam I Azhar, Muhammad Yasir, Muneera S Al-Saeed, Huda Ben Helaby, Ray Borrow, Abdulhafeez Turkistani, Abdallah Assiri
BACKGROUND: The annual Muslim pilgrimage has the potential of increase risk for acquisition of Neisseria meningitidis. Here, we evaluate the Hajj impact on the prevalence of N. meningitidis carriage in a paired and non-paired cohort of pilgrims. Secondary objectives were to calculate the compliance with recommended vaccination. METHODS: This is a prospective paired (arriving and departing), non-paired arriving and non-paired departing cohort study with the collection of nasopharyngeal samples at the start and the end of the Hajj...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343775/lower-vaccine-uptake-amongst-older-individuals-living-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-social-determinants-of-vaccine-uptake
#17
REVIEW
Anu Jain, A J van Hoek, Delia Boccia, Sara L Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is a key intervention to reduce infectious disease mortality and morbidity amongst older individuals. Identifying social factors for vaccine uptake enables targeted interventions to reduce health inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To systematically appraise and quantify social factors associated with vaccine uptake amongst individuals aged ≥60years from Europe. METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase from inception to 24/02/2016...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343772/report-of-the-who-technical-consultation-on-the-effect-of-maternal-influenza-and-influenza-vaccination-on-the-developing-fetus-montreal-canada-september-30-october-1-2015
#18
Deshayne B Fell, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Ruth A Karron, Marian Knight, Michael S Kramer, Arnold S Monto, Geeta K Swamy, Justin R Ortiz, David A Savitz
In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a position paper on influenza vaccination recommending that pregnant women have the highest priority for seasonal vaccination in countries where the initiation or expansion of influenza immunization programs is under consideration. Although the primary goal of the WHO recommendation is to prevent influenza illness in pregnant women, the potential benefits of maternal immunization in protecting young infants are also recognized. The extent to which maternal influenza vaccination may prevent adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age birth, however, is unclear as available studies are in disagreement...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343691/improving-the-quality-of-nasal-specimen-collection-for-influenza-a-and-b-screening
#19
Joan Catherine Widmer, Pamela P DiNapoli
PROBLEM: Rapid diagnosis of seasonal influenza leads to optimized clinical care and reduces the spread of infection. The collection of adequate cellular material can be facilitated by the presence of moisture in the nares. The specific aim of this project was to determine if the installation of sterile saline into the nares prior to specimen collection would improve the quality of the specimen. METHODS: This quasi-experimental single group design tested an initial "dry swab" specimen against a second swab after instillation of sterile saline solution using a nasal atomizer, a "wet swab...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343529/50-years-ago-in-the-journal-of-pediatrics-systemic-infection-with-haemophilus-influenzae-in-very-young-infants
#20
Carlos A Cuello-Garcia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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