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Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mainly composed of adipocytes, it is highly vascularized and innervated, and can be activated in adult humans. Brown adipocytes are responsible for performing non-shivering thermogenesis, which is exclusively mediated by uncoupling protein (UCP) -1 (a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane), the hallmark of BAT, responsible for the uncoupling of the proton leakage from the ATP production, therefore, generating heat (i.e. thermogenesis). Besides UCP1, other compounds are essential not only to thermogenesis, but also to the proliferation and differentiation of BAT, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family, PPARgamma coactivator 1 (PGC1)-alpha, and PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain protein containing protein (PRDM) -16...
October 2016: Tissue & Cell
Bin Xu, Michael O'Donnell, Jeffrey O'Donnell, Jingcheng Yu, Yanxiao Zhang, Maureen A Sartor, Ronald J Koenig
A subset of thyroid carcinomas contains a t(2;3)(q13;p25) chromosomal translocation that fuses paired box gene 8 (PAX8) with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ gene (PPARG), resulting in expression of a PAX8-PPARγ fusion protein, PPFP. We previously generated a transgenic mouse model of PPFP thyroid carcinoma and showed that feeding the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone greatly decreased the size of the primary tumor and prevented metastatic disease in vivo The antitumor effect correlates with the fact that pioglitazone turns PPFP into a strongly PPARγ-like molecule, resulting in trans-differentiation of the thyroid cancer cells into adipocyte-like cells that lose malignant character as they become more differentiated...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Li-Li Wen, Chien-Yu Lin, Hsiu-Chu Chou, Chih-Cheng Chang, Hau-Yin Lo, Shu-Hui Juan
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environments including stainless pan-coating, raincoat, fire extinguisher, and semiconductor products. The PPAR family has been shown to contribute to the toxic effects of PFCs in thymus, immune and excretory systems. Herein, we demonstrated that perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) caused cell apoptosis through increasing ratio of Bcl-xS/xL, cytosolic cytochrome C, and caspase 3 activation in renal tubular cells (RTCs). In addition, PFOS increased transcription of inflammatory cytokines (i...
2016: PloS One
Vian Peshdary, AnneMarie Gagnon, Alexander Sorisky
OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue expands via differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes (adipogenesis) and/or hypertrophy of existing adipocytes. A low adipogenic capacity promotes adipocyte hypertrophy, causing inflammatory macrophage accumulation and insulin resistance. Macrophage-conditioned medium (MacCM) inhibits adipogenesis and promotes adipocyte inflammation, but it is unknown whether these effects are altered by high glucose (HG) versus normal glucose (NG) concentrations. Our aim was to compare the effect of HG-MacCM versus NG-MacCM on human adipogenesis and adipocyte inflammation...
May 2, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Yuan Xue, Xiaoyang Xu, Xue-Qing Zhang, Omid C Farokhzad, Robert Langer
The incidence of obesity, which is recognized by the American Medical Association as a disease, has nearly doubled since 1980, and obesity-related comorbidities have become a major threat to human health. Given that adipose tissue expansion and transformation require active growth of new blood vasculature, angiogenesis offers a potential target for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders. Here we construct two peptide-functionalized nanoparticle (NP) platforms to deliver either Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activator rosiglitazone (Rosi) or prostaglandin E2 analog (16,16-dimethyl PGE2) to adipose tissue vasculature...
May 17, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chen-Jei Tai, Chen-Yen Choong, Yu-Chun Lin, Yeu-Ching Shi, Cheng-Jeng Tai
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) were shown to play an important role in metabolic syndrome and were suggested to contribute to the development of hepatic fibrosis. Evidence indicates that AGEs resulted in hepatic fibrosis coupled to the activation of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). NADPH oxidase is downstream of the RAGE signaling pathway, resulting in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), RAGE, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)...
April 2016: Food & Function
Isabel Moreno-Indias, Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Antonio Omiste, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Said Lhamyani, Antonio Camargo, Francisco J Tinahones
Discordant phenotypes, metabolically healthy obese and unhealthy normal-weight individuals, are always interesting to provide important insights into the mechanistic link between adipose tissue dysfunction and associated metabolic alterations. Macrophages can release factors that impair the proper activity of the adipose tissue. Thus, studying subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, we investigated for the first time the differences in monocyte/macrophage infiltration, inflammation, and adipogenesis of normal-weight subjects who differed in their degree of metabolic syndrome...
June 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Suxuan Liu, Xinyu Xiong, Sam Varghese Thomas, Yanjie Xu, Xiaoshu Cheng, Xianxian Zhao, Xiaofeng Yang, Hong Wang
Carom is a novel protein that regulates membrane curvature and transmits pathophysiological signaling. The tissue expression of Carom is unclear and its functional role and signaling are unknown. We employed a group of combined database mining strategies and established a working model of Carom signaling. We identified 26 Carom partners and established their expression profiles in human and mouse tissues. We classified three tiers of tissues for Carom/partner expression and found lymph node was the tier 1 tissue expressing Carom and most of its partners...
2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
J Szostak, C Miguet-Alfonsi, A Berthelot, P Laurant
AIM: Physical exercise prevents cardiovascular risk and atherosclerosis lesions. However, the molecular aspects are still unknown. Vascular peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) exert anti-atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether exercise-induced anti-atherosclerotic effect is associated with change in PPARs vascular expression in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-) ) mice. METHODS: Male ApoE(-/-) mice were fed with a high-fat diet and randomized into two groups: one trained group undergoing swimming training for 3 months and one sedentary group...
February 2016: Acta Physiologica
Hong-xin Cui, Yan-ge Tian, Jian-sheng Li, Yang Xie, Ya Li
Previous studies showed that three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney (lung invigorating and spleen strengthening, lung invigorating and kidney tonifying, and Qi supplementing and kidney nourishing) could regulate inflammatory signaling pathways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rats, so as to alleviate inflammation. In the present study, R-value comprehensive evaluation method was used to evaluate the comprehensive effect of three methods for regulating and invigorating lung and kidney on inflammatory signaling pathways...
April 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe
Capsaicin, the phytochemical responsible for the spiciness of peppers, has the potential to modulate metabolism via activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, which are found not only on nociceptive sensory neurons, but also in a range of other tissues. TRPV1 activation induces calcium influx, and in certain tissues this is associated with increased activation or expression of key proteins such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), KLF2, PPARdelta, PPARgamma, and LXRα...
2015: Open Heart
Marilyne Labrie, Simon Lalonde, Ouafa Najyb, Maxime Thiery, Caroline Daneault, Chrisitne Des Rosiers, Eric Rassart, Catherine Mounier
Transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human apolipoprotein D (H-apoD) in the brain are resistant to neurodegeneration. Despite the use of a neuron-specific promoter to generate the Tg mice, they expressed significant levels of H-apoD in both plasma and liver and they slowly develop hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We show here that hepatic PPARγ expression in Tg mice is increased by 2-fold compared to wild type (WT) mice. Consequently, PPARγ target genes Plin2 and Cide A/C are overexpressed, leading to increased lipid droplets formation...
2015: PloS One
Han Seok Choi, Su Jin Park, Zang Hee Lee, Sung-Kil Lim
PURPOSE: In epidemiologic and animal studies, a high fat diet (HFD) has been shown to be associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and a higher risk of osteoporotic fractures. Meanwhile, consuming a HFD containing diacylglycerol (DAG) instead of triacylglycerol (TAG) is known to offer metabolically beneficial effects of reductions in body weight and abdominal fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a HFD containing DAG (HFD-DAG) on bone in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n=39) were divided into three weight-matched groups based on diet type: a chow diet group, a HFD containing TAG (HFD-TAG) group, and a HFD-DAG group...
July 2015: Yonsei Medical Journal
Perrine J Martin, Nathalie Haren, Olfa Ghali, Aline Clabaut, Christophe Chauveau, Pierre Hardouin, Odile Broux
BACKGROUND: In osteoporosis, bone loss is accompanied by increased marrow adiposity. Given their proximity in the bone marrow and their shared origin, a dialogue between adipocytes and osteoblasts could be a factor in the competition between human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) differentiation routes, leading to adipocyte differentiation at the expense of osteoblast differentiation. The adipocyte/osteoblast balance is highly regulated at the level of gene transcription. In our work, we focused on PPARgamma, CEBPalpha and CEBPdelta, as these transcription factors are seen as master regulators of adipogenesis and expressed precociously, and on leptin and adiponectin, considered as adipocyte marker genes...
2015: BMC Cell Biology
Ramgopal Mopuri, Muniswamy Ganjayi, Kruthika S Banavathy, Brahma Naidu Parim, Balaji Meriga
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and severity of obesity and associated co-morbidities are rapidly increasing across the world. Natural products-based drug intervention has been proposed as one of the crucial strategies for management of obesity ailments. This study was designed to investigate the anti-obesity activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata bark (TPEE) on high fat diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: LC-MS/MS analysis was done for ethanolic extract of T...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Tingting Shi, Rangxiao Zhuang, Hongping Zhou, Fugen Wang, Yidan Shao, Zhaobin Cai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of apigenin on the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in liver tissues of rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: The NASH rat model was established by feeding of a high-fat diet. Unmodeled rats served as the normal controls. The modeled rats were divided into a model control group, Essentiale treatment grouP(300 mg/kg/day),and three apigenin treatment groups for low-dose (15 mg/kg/day), moderate-dose (30 mg/kg/day) and high-dose (60 mg/kg/day)...
February 2015: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Ihab T Abdel-Raheem, Gamal A Omran, Mohamed Alaa Katary
Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is a chemotherapeutic agent with a potent ovarian toxic effect. CYP induces granulosa cell apoptosis and oxidative stress. Irbesartan (IRB) is a unique ARB with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonistic activity. As PPAR-ɣ activation exerts anti-inflammatory effects and reduces ROS production, IRB may further reduce inflammatory chemokine expression and suppress apoptotic cell death. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of IRB on the development of CYP-induced ovarian damage...
June 2015: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Paula Escudero, Aranzazu Martinez de Marañón, Aida Collado, Herminia Gonzalez-Navarro, Carlos Hermenegildo, Concepción Peiró, Laura Piqueras, Maria-Jesus Sanz
AIM: Mononuclear cell (MC) infiltration into the arterial subendothelium is a key event in atherogenesis. Rosuvastatin (Rosu) and bexarotene (Bex) exert anti-inflammatory activity, but serious dose-related adverse effects have emerged. The need for safer and effective strategies to prevent and treat atherosclerosis led us to test the effect of combined use of both drugs on angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced arterial MC recruitment. RESULTS: Vehicle, Rosu (10-30 nM), Bex (0...
April 10, 2015: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Yan Zhang, Jin Shao, Zhi Wang, Tieyi Yang, Shuyi Liu, Yue Liu, Xinbing Fan, Weiguang Ye
Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a TGF-β family member that is expressed widely and plays multiple roles, including regulating axial skeletal patterning during development. However, the function of GDF11 in the bone is barely understood. Here we identify GDF11 as a potent regulator of bone homeostasis. GDF11 level is significantly decreased in the plasma and bone marrow of aging mice and mice with osteoporosis. Pharmacologic GDF11 gain of function leads to a striking increase in osteoblastogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by altering the gene expression pattern...
February 25, 2015: Gene
Mariana Macedo de Almeida, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra Luquetti, Céphora Maria Sabarense, José Otávio do Amaral Corrêa, Larissa Gomes dos Reis, Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Jacy Gameiro, Marco Antônio Sundfeld da Gama, Fernando César Ferraz Lopes, Raúl Marcel González Garcia
BACKGROUND: Evidence from in vitro and animal studies indicates that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) possesses anti-diabetic properties, which appear to be attributed to cis-9, trans-11 CLA, the major CLA isomer in ruminant fat. However, there is a shortage of studies addressing CLA from natural source. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of butter naturally enriched in cis-9, trans-11 CLA on parameters related to glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in rats...
2014: Lipids in Health and Disease
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