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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723116/integrated-magnetic-bead-quantum-dot-immunoassay-for-malaria-detection
#1
Chloe Kim, Gwendolyn Hoffmann, Peter C Searson
Malaria persists as a disease of high morbidity and mortality due to improper diagnosis, overuse of drugs, rapidly evolving drug resistant parasites, and poor disease monitoring. The two common tests used in developing countries, microscopic examination of Glemsa slides and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), have limitations associated with variability in specificity and sensitivity, and qualitative outcome. Here we report on an immunoassay using magnetic beads for capture and quantum dots for detection of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722637/schistosomiasis-in-european-travelers-and-migrants-analysis-of-14-years-tropnet-surveillance-data
#2
Tilman Lingscheid, Florian Kurth, Jan Clerinx, Stefania Marocco, Begoña Trevino, Mirjam Schunk, José Muñoz, Ida E Gjørup, Tomas Jelinek, Michel Develoux, Graham Fry, Thomas Jänisch, Matthias L Schmid, Olivier Bouchaud, Sabino Puente, Lorenzo Zammarchi, Kristine Mørch, Anders Björkman, Heli Siikamäki, Andreas Neumayr, Henrik Nielsen, Urban Hellgren, Malgorzata Paul, Guido Calleri, Pavel Kosina, Bjørn Myrvang, José M Ramos, Gudrun Just-Nübling, Anna Beltrame, José Saraiva da Cunha, Peter Kern, Laurence Rochat, August Stich, Peter Pongratz, Martin P Grobusch, Norbert Suttorp, Martin Witzenrath, Christoph Hatz, Thomas Zoller, TropNet Schistosomiasis Investigator Group
Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide and the infection is frequently found in travelers and migrants. The European Network for Tropical Medicine and Travel Health conducted a sentinel surveillance study on imported schistosomiasis between 1997 and 2010. This report summarizes epidemiological and clinical data from 1,465 cases of imported schistosomiasis. Direct pathogen detection and serology were the main diagnostic tools applied. Of these, 486 (33%) cases were identified among European travelers, 231 (16%) among long-term expatriates, and 748 (51%) among non-European immigrants...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722623/the-use-of-xenosurveillance-to-detect-human-bacteria-parasites-and-viruses-in-mosquito-bloodmeals
#3
Joseph R Fauver, Alex Gendernalik, James Weger-Lucarelli, Nathan D Grubaugh, Doug E Brackney, Brian D Foy, Gregory D Ebel
Infectious disease surveillance is hindered by several factors, including limited infrastructure and geographic isolation of many resource-poor regions. In addition, the complexities of sample acquisition, processing, and analysis, even in developed regions, can be rate limiting. Therefore, new strategies to survey human populations for emerging pathogens are necessary. Xenosurveillance is a method that utilizes mosquitoes as sampling devices to search for genetic signatures of pathogens in vertebrates. Previously we demonstrated that xenosurveillance can detect viral RNA in both laboratory and field settings...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722616/recurrence-of-guinea-worm-disease-in-chad-after-a-10-year-absence-risk-factors-for-human-cases-identified-in-2010-2011
#4
Nandini Sreenivasan, Adam Weiss, Jean-Paul Djiatsa, Fernand Toe, Ngarodjel Djimadoumaji, Tracy Ayers, Mark Eberhard, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Sharon Roy
A decade after reporting its last case of Guinea worm disease (GWD), a waterborne parasitic disease targeted for eradication, Chad reported 20 confirmed human cases from 17 villages-10 cases in 2010 and 10 cases in 2011. In 2012, the first GWD dog infections were diagnosed. We conducted a case-control study during April-May 2012 to identify human transmission risk factors and epidemiologic links. We recruited 19 cases and 45 controls matched by age, sex, time, and location of exposure based on the case patients' periods of infection 10-14 months earlier...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722615/assessing-the-short-term-global-health-experience-a-cross-sectional-study-of-demographics-socioeconomic-factors-and-disease-prevalence
#5
Olivia Geen, Allison Pumputis, Cristina Kochi, Andrew Costa, Karl Stobbe
Interest in short-term global health experiences to underserviced populations has grown rapidly in the last few decades. However, there remains very little research on what participants can expect to encounter. At the same time, it has been suggested that in order for physicians and workers to provide safe and effective care, volunteers should have a basic understanding of local culture, health systems, epidemiology, and socioeconomic needs of the community before arriving. Our objective was to add to the limited literature on what short-term global health trips can expect to encounter through a cross-sectional study of patient demographics, socioeconomic markers, and the prevalence of diseases encountered on a short-term medical service trip to Lima, Peru...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722611/phase-2a-open-label-4-escalating-dose-randomized-multicenter-study-evaluating-the-safety-and-activity-of-ferroquine-ssr97193-plus-artesunate-versus-amodiaquine-plus-artesunate-in-african-adult-men-with-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#6
Christian Supan, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Maryvonne Kombila, Carmen L Ospina Salazar, Jana Held, Bertrand Lell, Cathy Cantalloube, Elhadj Djeriou, Bernhards Ogutu, John Waitumbi, Nekoye Otsula, Duncan Apollo, Mark E Polhemus, Peter G Kremsner, Douglas S Walsh
Artemisinin-based combination therapies are recommended as first-line agents for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Ferroquine, a 4-aminoquinolone, is a novel long-acting combination partner for fast-acting drugs like artesunate (AS). We did a small phase 2a, multicenter, open-label, safety-focused dose-ranging randomized study of ferroquine at three African hospitals: two Gabonese and one Kenyan. We recruited adult men with symptomatic uncomplicated P. falciparum monoinfection. Four escalating doses of ferroquine (100, 200, 400, and 600 mg) were assessed in sequence, versus an amodiaquine comparator...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722605/characterizing-reactivity-to-onchocerca-volvulus-antigens-in-multiplex-bead-assays
#7
Karla R Feeser, Vitaliano Cama, Jeffrey W Priest, Elizabeth A Thiele, Ryan E Wiegand, Thomson Lakwo, Sendeaw M Feleke, Paul T Cantey
Multiplex bead assays (MBAs) may provide a powerful integrated tool for monitoring, evaluation, and post-elimination surveillance of onchocerciasis and co-endemic diseases; however, the specificity and sensitivity of Onchocerca volvulus antigens have not been characterized within this context. An MBA was developed to evaluate three antigens (OV-16, OV-17, and OV-33) for onchocerciasis. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to characterize antigen performance using a panel of 610 specimens: 109 O...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722588/optimizing-direct-membrane-and-direct-skin-feeding-assays-for-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-blocking-vaccine-trials-in-bancoumana-mali
#8
Mamadou B Coulibaly, Erin E Gabriel, Youssouf Sinaba, Daman Sylla, Adama Sacko, Lakamy Sylla, Boubacar Coulibaly, Jen C C Hume, Ibrahima Baber, Mahamadoun H Assadou, Issaka Sagara, Yimin Wu, Sara A Healy, Ogobara Doumbo, Sekou F Traore, Patrick E Duffy
Malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) have been evaluated in field trials in Mali, since 2013. However, the assays currently used to measure serum antibody TB activity (TBA) after vaccination are highly variable, in part due to the lack of optimization and standardization for field assays in which mosquitoes feed on gametocytemic blood. Herein, we report a study conducted in Bancoumana village, Mali, where we identify and optimize the parameters that contribute to successful mosquito feeding outcomes in both direct skin feeds (DSFs) and direct membrane feeding assays (DMFA)...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722587/lack-of-geospatial-population-structure-yet-significant-linkage-disequilibrium-in-the-reservoir-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-bongo-district-ghana
#9
Shazia Ruybal-Pesántez, Kathryn E Tiedje, Mary M Rorick, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Anita Ghansah, Abraham Oduro, Kwadwo A Koram, Karen P Day
Malaria control in West Africa is impeded by the large reservoir of chronic asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in the human population. This study aimed to assess the extent of diversity in the P. falciparum reservoir in Bongo District (BD), Ghana, at the end of the dry season, the lowest point in malaria transmission over the course of the year. Analysis of the variation in 12 microsatellite loci was completed for 200 P. falciparum isolates collected from a cross-sectional survey of residents of all ages from two catchment areas in BD...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722585/school-children-s-intestinal-parasite-and-nutritional-status-1-year-after-complementary-school-garden-nutrition-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-interventions-in-burkina-faso
#10
Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Christian Schindler, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Andrea Leuenberger, Akina Shrestha, Grissoum Tarnagda, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722583/a-direct-from-blood-reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-monitoring-falciparum-malaria-parasite-transmission-in-elimination-settings
#11
Brian J Taylor, Kjerstin Lanke, Shanna L Banman, Isabelle Morlais, Merribeth J Morin, Teun Bousema, Sanna R Rijpma, Stephanie K Yanow
We describe a novel one-step reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (direct RT-PCR) for Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites that amplifies RNA targets directly from blood. We developed the assay to identify gametocyte-specific transcripts in parasites from patient blood samples, as a means of monitoring malaria parasite transmission in field settings. To perform the test, blood is added directly to a master mix in PCR tubes and analyzed by real-time PCR. The limit of detection of the assay on both conventional and portable real-time PCR instruments was 100 parasites/mL for 18S rRNA, and 1,000 parasites/mL for asexual (PFE0065W) and gametocyte (PF14_0367, PFGEXP5) mRNA targets...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722579/control-of-human-echinococcosis-in-xinjiang-china-with-2-544-surgeries-in-a-multihospital-network
#12
Xinhua Chen, Xinyu Duan, Yingmei Shao, Jianwen Jiang, Shusen Zheng, Hao Wen
Human echinococcosis is a serious parasitic disease threatening public health worldwide especially in Xinjiang, China, an undeveloped farming and pastoral area. A multihospital surgical network was applied to improve human echinococcosis control. An innovative surgery network connected the 28 designated public hospitals, which distributed in a vast land of 1,600,000 m(2). The surgery network integrated the efficient patient digital information sharing, treatment consulting, patient transfer, and financial support...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722574/intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-noninfected-persons-in-a-high-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevalence-region-of-cameroon
#13
Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou, Sandrine Mboula Tchameni, Carine Nguefeu Nkenfou, Patrice Djataou, Ulrich Florian Simo, Alexandre Benjamin Nkoum, William Estrin
The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722573/killing-of-cryptosporidium-sporozoites-by-lactoferrin
#14
Jose Luis Paredes, Hayley Sparks, A Clinton White, Griselle Martinez-Traverso, Theresa Ochoa, Alejandro Castellanos-González
Intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium is a major contributor to diarrhea morbidity and mortality in young children around the world. Current treatments for children suffering from cryptosporidiosis are suboptimal. Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein found in breast milk. It has showed bacteriostatic and antimicrobial activity in the intestine. However, the effects of lactoferrin on the intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium have not been reported. In this study, we investigated the anticryptosporidial activity of human lactoferrin on different stages of Cryptosporidium...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722571/more-poop-more-precision-improving-epidemiologic-surveillance-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-with-multiple-fecal-sampling-using-the-kato-katz-technique
#15
Chengfang Liu, Louise Lu, Linxiu Zhang, Yu Bai, Alexis Medina, Scott Rozelle, Darvin Scott Smith, Changhai Zhou, Wei Zang
Soil-transmitted helminths, or parasitic intestinal worms, are among the most prevalent and geographically widespread parasitic infections in the world. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of helminth infection are critical for informing and assessing deworming interventions. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique, the most widely used laboratory method to quantitatively assess infection prevalence and infection intensity of helminths, has often been compared with other methods. Only a few small-scale studies, however, have considered ways to improve its diagnostic sensitivity...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722569/mass-azithromycin-and-malaria-parasitemia-in-niger-results-from-a-community-randomized-trial
#16
Kieran S O'Brien, Sun Y Cotter, Abdou Amza, Boubacar Kadri, Baido Nassirou, Nicole E Stoller, Zhaoxia Zhou, Chris Cotter, Sheila K West, Robin L Bailey, Philip J Rosenthal, Bruce D Gaynor, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman
Studies designed to determine the effects of mass administration of azithromycin on trachoma have suggested that mass azithromycin distributions may also reduce the prevalence of malaria. These studies have typically examined the impact of a small number of treatments over short durations. In this prespecified substudy of a cluster-randomized trial for trachoma, we compared malaria parasitemia prevalence in 24 communities in Niger randomized to receive either annual or biannual mass azithromycin distributions over 3 years...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722104/the-double-edge-to-parasite-escape-invasive-host-is-less-infected-but-more-infectable
#17
Carolyn L Keogh, Osamu Miura, Tomohiro Nishimura, James E Byers
Non-native species that escape their native range parasites may benefit not only from reduced infection pathology, but also from relaxed selection on costly immune defenses, promoting reallocation of resources towards growth or reproduction. However, benefits accruing from a reduction in defense could come at the cost of increased infection susceptibility. We conducted common garden studies of the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus from highly-parasitized native (Japan) populations and largely parasite-free invasive (USA) populations to test for differences in susceptibility to infection by native-range rhizocephalan parasites, and to explore differences in host resource allocation...
July 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721835/parasites-as-prey-the-effect-of-cercarial-density-and-alternative-prey-on-consumption-of-cercariae-by-four-non-host-species
#18
Jennifer E Welsh, Caroline Liddell, Jaap VAN DER Meer, David W Thieltges
In parasites with complex life cycles the transmission of free-living infective stages can be influenced by ambient community diversity, in particular via predation. Here, we experimentally investigated whether parasite density and the presence of alternative prey can alter predation rates on free-living cercarial stages of a marine trematode by several non-host predators. All four predator species consumed increasing numbers of cercariae with an increase in cercarial density, indicating that the removal of cercariae by predators is effective over a range of natural densities as well as in the presence of alternative prey for a number of predators typical of marine ecosystems...
July 19, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721658/microbial-communities-in-different-tissues-of-atta-sexdens-rubropilosa-leaf-cutting-ants
#19
Alexsandro S Vieira, Manuela O Ramalho, Cintia Martins, Vanderlei G Martins, Odair C Bueno
Bacterial endosymbionts are common in all insects, and symbiosis has played an integral role in ant evolution. Atta sexdens rubropilosa leaf-cutting ants cultivate their symbiotic fungus using fresh leaves. They need to defend themselves and their brood against diseases, but they also need to defend their obligate fungus gardens, their primary food source, from infection, parasitism, and usurpation by competitors. This study aimed to characterize the microbial communities in whole workers and different tissues of A...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721526/genetic-characterization-of-human-hydatid-cysts-shows-coinfection-by-echinococcus-canadensis-g7-and-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-g1-in-argentina
#20
María Florencia Debiaggi, Silvia Viviana Soriano, Nora Beatriz Pierangeli, Lorena Evelina Lazzarini, Luis Alfredo Pianciola, Melina Leonor Mazzeo, Sergio Moguillansky, Juan Angel Basualdo Farjat
Human cystic echinococcosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a highly endemic disease in the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Human infections with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and Echinococcus canadensis G6 were reported in Neuquén in previous studies, whereas four genotypes were identified in livestock: G1, G3, G6, and G7. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. isolates from humans of Neuquén province, Patagonia, Argentina, through the 2005-2014 period...
July 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
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