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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922065/detc-based-bacterial-cellulose-bio-curatives-for-topical-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#1
Fabiana S Celes, Eliane Trovatti, Ricardo Khouri, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Sidney J L Ribeiro, Valeria M Borges, Hernane S Barud, Camila I de Oliveira
The treatment of leishmaniasis still relies on drugs with potentially serious adverse effects. Herein, we tested a topical formulation of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes containing Diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC), a superoxide dismutase 1 inhibitor. Leishmania-infected macrophages exposed to BC-DETC resulted in parasite killing, without pronounced toxic effects to host cells. This outcome was associated with lower SOD1 activity and higher production of superoxide and cytokine mediators. Topical application of BC-DETC significantly decreased lesion size, parasite load and the inflammatory response at the infection site, as well as the production of both IFN-γ and TNF...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922000/membrane-pyrophosphatases-from-thermotoga-maritima-and-vigna-radiata-suggest-a-conserved-coupling-mechanism
#2
Kun-Mou Li, Craig Wilkinson, Juho Kellosalo, Jia-Yin Tsai, Tommi Kajander, Lars J C Jeuken, Yuh-Ju Sun, Adrian Goldman
Membrane-bound pyrophosphatases (M-PPases), which couple proton/sodium ion transport to pyrophosphate synthesis/hydrolysis, are important in abiotic stress resistance and in the infectivity of protozoan parasites. Here, three M-PPase structures in different catalytic states show that closure of the substrate-binding pocket by helices 5-6 affects helix 13 in the dimer interface and causes helix 12 to move down. This springs a 'molecular mousetrap', repositioning a conserved aspartate and activating the nucleophilic water...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921993/can-sergentomyia-diptera-psychodidae-play-a-role-in-the-transmission-of-mammal-infecting-leishmania
#3
Carla Maia, Jérôme Depaquit
Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The parasites, which infect various wild and domestic mammals, including humans, are transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to the Phlebotomus genus in the Old World and to several genera (including Lutzomyia, Psychodopygus and Nyssomyia) in the New World. In this paper, we consider the genus Sergentomyia as divided into seven subgenera, mainly based on spermathecal morphology: Sergentomyia, Sintonius, Parrotomyia, Rondanomyia, Capensomyia, Vattieromyia and Trouilletomyia...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921293/coloniality-and-migration-are-related-to-selection-on-mhc-genes-in-birds
#4
Piotr Minias, Linda A Whittingham, Peter O Dunn
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a key role in pathogen recognition as a part of vertebrate adaptive immune system. The great diversity of MHC genes in natural populations is maintained by different forms of balancing selection and its strength should correlate with the diversity of pathogens to which a population is exposed and the rate of exposure. Despite this prediction, little is known about how the life-history characteristics affect selection at the MHC. Here, we examined whether the strength of balancing selection on MHC class II genes in birds (as measured with nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions, dN) was related to their social or migratory behaviour, two life-history characteristics correlated with pathogen exposure...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921011/mechanisms-of-infectivity-and-evasion-derived-from-microvesicles-cargo-produced-by-trypanosoma-cruzi
#5
REVIEW
Bruna C Borges, Isadora A Uehara, Laysa O S Dias, Paula C Brígido, Claudio V da Silva, Marcelo J B Silva
Cell invasion by the intracellular protozoans requires interaction of proteins from both the host and the parasite. Many parasites establish chronic infections, showing they have the potential to escape the immune system; for example, Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease. Parasite internalization into host cell requires secreted and surface molecules, such as microvesicles. The release of microvesicles and other vesicles, such as exosomes, by different eukaryotic organisms was first observed in the late twentieth century...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920891/working-principle-and-application-of-magnetic-separation-for-biomedical-diagnostic-at-high-and-low-field-gradients
#6
REVIEW
Sim Siong Leong, Swee Pin Yeap, JitKang Lim
Magnetic separation is a versatile technique used in sample preparation for diagnostic purpose. For such application, an external magnetic field is applied to drive the separation of target entity (e.g. bacteria, viruses, parasites and cancer cells) from a complex raw sample in order to ease the subsequent task(s) for disease diagnosis. This separation process not only can be achieved via the utilization of high magnetic field gradient, but also, in most cases, low magnetic field gradient with magnitude less than 100 T m(-1) is equally feasible...
December 6, 2016: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920563/assessing-parasite-clearance-during-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-treated-with-artesunate-monotherapy-in-suriname
#7
Stephen Gs Vreden, Rakesh D Bansie, Jeetendra K Jitan, Malti R Adhin
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is suspected when the day 3 parasitemia is >10% when treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy or if >10% of patients treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy or artesunate monotherapy harbored parasites with half-lives ≥5 hours. Hence, a single-arm prospective efficacy trial was conducted in Suriname for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection treated with artesunate-based monotherapy for 3 days assessing day 3 parasitemia, treatment outcome after 28 days, and parasite half-life...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920396/prevalence-and-subtype-identification-of-blastocystis-sp-in-healthy-individuals-in-the-tunis-area-tunisia
#8
Imène Ben Abda, Nabil Maatoug, Rania Ben Romdhane, Nada Bouhelmi, Najet Zallegua, Karim Aoun, Eric Viscogliosi, Aïda Bouratbine
Blastocystis sp. is currently the most common eukaryotic parasite found in humans. Despite its potential public health impact, epidemiological data regarding its prevalence and molecular subtype (ST) distribution in Maghreb are rarely reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the parasite in a cohort of healthy food handler Tunisian individuals and to acquire the first molecular data regarding the distribution of Blastocystis sp. STs in this country. Therefore, 524 fecal samples were collected, and 68 of them (13%) were identified as positive for the parasite by direct-light microscopy of smears...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920388/human-drivers-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-in-emerging-and-disappearing-infectious-disease-systems
#9
REVIEW
Mary A Rogalski, Camden D Gowler, Clara L Shaw, Ruth A Hufbauer, Meghan A Duffy
Humans have contributed to the increased frequency and severity of emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to wild and domestic species, as well as human health. This review examines major pathways by which humans influence parasitism by altering (co)evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these interactions, but a few well-studied cases show that humans influence disease emergence every step of the way. Human actions significantly increase dispersal of host, parasite and vector species, enabling greater frequency of infection in naive host populations and host switches...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920194/experimental-validation-of-the-avivet-trap-a-tool-to-quantitatively-monitor-the-dynamics-of-dermanyssus-gallinae-populations-in-laying-hens
#10
G A Lammers, R G G Bronneberg, J C M Vernooij, J A Stegeman
Dermanyssus gallinae (D.gallinae) infestation causes economic losses due to impaired health and production of hens and costs of parasite control across the world. Moreover, infestations are associated with reduced welfare of hens and may cause itching in humans. To effectively implement control methods it is crucially important to have high quality information about the D.gallinae populations in poultry houses in space and time. At present no validated tool is available to quantitatively monitor the dynamics of all four stages of D...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919903/high-throughput-screening-and-prediction-models-building-for-novel-hemozoin-inhibitors-using-physicochemical-properties
#11
Nguyen Tien Huy, Pham Lan Chi, Jun Nagai, Tran Ngoc Dang, Evaristus Chibunna Mbanefo, Ali Mahmoud Ahmed, Nguyen Phuoc Long, Le Thi Bich Thoa, Le Phi Hung, Titouna Afaf, Kaeko Kamei, Hiroshi Ueda, Kenji Hirayama
It is essential to continue the search for novel antimalarial drugs due to current spread of resistance against artemisinin by Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In this study, we developed in silico models to predict hemozoin inhibitors as a potential first-step screening for novel antimalarials. The in vitro colorimetric high throughput screening assay of hemozoin formation was used to identify hemozoin inhibitors from 9600 structurally diverse compounds. Physicochemical properties of positive hits and randomly selected compounds were extracted from ChemSpider database; they were used for developing prediction models to predict hemozoin inhibitors using two different approaches, i...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919897/genetic-evidence-for-cytochrome-b-qi-site-inhibition-by-4-1h-quinolone-3-diarylethers-and-antimycin-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#12
P Holland Alday, Igor Bruzual, Aaron Nilsen, Sovitj Pou, Rolf Winter, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Michael K Riscoe, J Stone Doggett
Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye disease. Endochin-like-quinolones (ELQs) are preclinical compounds that are efficacious against apicomplexan-caused diseases including toxoplasmosis, malaria and babesiosis. Of the ELQs, ELQ-316 has demonstrated the greatest efficacy against acute and chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. Although genetic analyses in other organisms have highlighted the importance of the cytochrome bc1 complex Qi site for ELQ sensitivity, the mechanism of action of ELQs against T...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919892/significant-divergence-in-sensitivity-to-antimalarial-drugs-between-neighboring-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-along-the-eastern-border-of-myanmar
#13
Weilin Zeng, Yao Bai, Meilian Wang, Zenglei Wang, Shuang Deng, Yonghua Ruan, Shi Feng, Zhaoqing Yang, Liwang Cui
Malaria parasites in different endemic areas display different levels of resistance to antimalarial drugs as the result of varied drug use histories. To provide updated knowledge of drug sensitivities during the malaria elimination phase in Southeast Asia, an epicenter of multidrug resistance, we determined in vitro susceptibilities of culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two eastern border regions (Wa and Kachin) of Myanmar to ten drugs. Despite their close proximity, the Kachin parasites displayed higher IC50 values than the Wa parasites to chloroquine, piperaquine, naphthoquine, mefloquine, quinine, pyrimethamine, pyronaridine, lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919804/prevalence-of-giardia-duodenalis-assemblages-and-sub-assemblages-in-symptomatic-patients-from-damascus-city-and-its-suburbs
#14
Dania Skhal, Ghalia Aboualchamat, Ayman Al Mariri, Samar Al Nahhas
Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important human enteric parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. However, there is limited information on the prevalent genetic variability of G. duodenalis in Syria. This study aimed to evaluate the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages causing humans infection in the city of Damascus and its suburbs. 40 symptomatic giardiasis patients were recruited in this study. Fecal samples were genotyped using PCR/RFLP assay targeting the β-giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes...
December 2, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919786/increasing-in-cysteine-proteinase-b-expression-and-enzymatic-activity-during-in-vitro-differentiation-of-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-first-evidence-of-modulation-during-morphological-transition
#15
Cinthia Bernardes Gomes, Franklin Souza da Silva, Karen Dos Santos Charret, Bernardo Acácio Santini Pereira, Léa Cysne Finkelstein, Raquel Santos de Souza, Luzia Monteiro de Castro Côrtes, Mirian Claudia Souza Pereira, Francisco Odêncio Rodrigues de Oliveira, Carlos Roberto Alves
Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis presents adaptive protease-dependent mechanisms, as cysteine proteinases B (CPB). This work focuses on the expression of three cpb gene isoforms and CPB enzymatic activity during the parasite differentiation. Relative expression levels of LbrM.08.0810 gene was assessed, showing a higher quantity of transcripts in the logarithmic promastigotes phase than in the stationary promastigotes phase (> 1.5 times). The cbp gene tends to decrease during acid pH shock and increases when the temperature rises (> 1...
December 2, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919688/leishmaniases-in-ecuador-comprehensive-review-and-current-status
#16
REVIEW
Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Lenin N Velez, Nancy V Villegas, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Eduardo A L Gomez, Hirotomo Kato
This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL)...
December 2, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919329/making-the-pathogen-evolution-and-adaptation-in-parasitic-protists
#17
EDITORIAL
Michael Ginger, Mark C Field
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919256/the-return-of-chloroquine-susceptible-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-zambia
#18
Sydney Mwanza, Sudhaunshu Joshi, Michael Nambozi, Justin Chileshe, Phidelis Malunga, Jean-Bertin Bukasa Kabuya, Sebastian Hachizovu, Christine Manyando, Modest Mulenga, Miriam Laufer
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum resistance to anti-malarial drugs remains a major obstacle to malaria control and elimination. The parasite has developed resistance to every anti-malarial drug introduced for wide-scale treatment. However, the spread of resistance may be reversible. Malawi was the first country to discontinue chloroquine use due to widespread resistance. Within a decade of the removal of drug pressure, the molecular marker of chloroquine-resistant malaria had disappeared and the drug was shown to have excellent clinical efficacy...
December 5, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918946/toxicity-of-ar-curcumene-and-epi-%C3%AE-bisabolol-from-hedychium-larsenii-zingiberaceae-essential-oil-on-malaria-chikungunya-and-japanese-encephalitis-mosquito-vectors
#19
Mashael Marzouq AlShebly, Fatma Saeed AlQahtani, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Kasi Gopinath, Periasamy Vijayan, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes act as vectors of key pathogens and parasites. Plant essential oils have been recognized as important sources of biopesticides, which do not induce resistance and have limited toxic effects on human health and non-target organisms. In this research, we evaluated the larvicidal and oviposition deterrence activity of Hedychium larsenii essential oil (EO) and its major compounds ar-curcumene and epi-β-bisabolol. Both molecules showed high toxicity against early third instars of Anopheles stephensi (LC50=10...
December 2, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918890/differential-expression-on-mitochondrial-tryparedoxin-peroxidase-mtctxnpx-in-trypanosoma-cruzi-after-ferrocenyl-diamine-hydrochlorides-treatments
#20
Andréa A N Kohatsu, Flávia A J Silva, Acácio I Francisco, Aline Rimoldi, Marco T A Silva, Maria D Vargas, João A da Rosa, Regina M B Cicarelli
Resistance to benznidazole in certain strains of Trypanosoma cruzi may be caused by the increased production of enzymes that act on the oxidative metabolism, such as mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase (mTcTXNPx) which catalyses the reduction of peroxides. This work presents cytotoxicity assays performed with ferrocenyl diamine hydrochlorides in six different strains of T. cruzi epimastigote forms (Y, Bolivia, SI1, SI8, QMII, and SIGR3). The last four strains have been recently isolated from triatominae and mammalian host (domestic cat)...
December 2, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
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