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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222842/kinetic-characterisation-of-wild-type-and-mutant-human-thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase-defines-its-reaction-and-regulatory-mechanisms
#1
Christina Brandstaedter, Karin Fritz-Wolf, Stine Weder, Marina Fischer, Beate Hecker, Stefan Rahlfs, Katja Becker
In most cells the thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione systems are essentially involved in maintaining redox homeostasis. The selenoprotein thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is a hybrid enzyme in which a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain is linked to a thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Notably, the protein is also capable of reducing glutathione disulfide (GSSG) thus representing an important link between the two redox systems. In this study, we recombinantly produced human TGR (hTGR wild type) by fusing its open reading frame with a bacterial SECIS element and co-expressing the construct in E...
December 8, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222720/reproductive-ecology-of-a-parasitic-plant-differs-by-host-species-vector-interactions-and-the-maintenance-of-host-races
#2
Kelsey M Yule, Judith L Bronstein
Parasitic plants often attack multiple host species with unique defenses, physiology, and ecology. Reproductive phenology and vectors of parasitic plant genes (pollinators and dispersers) can contribute to or erode reproductive isolation of populations infecting different host species. We asked whether desert mistletoe, Phoradendron californicum (Santalaceae tribe Visceae syn. Viscaceae), differs ecologically across its dominant leguminous hosts in ways affecting reproductive isolation. Parasite flowering phenology on one host species (velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina) differed significantly from that on four others, and phenology was not predicted by host species phenology or host individual...
December 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222665/small-but-diverse-larval-trematode-communities-in-the-small-freshwater-planorbids-gyraulus-albus-and-segmentina-nitida-gastropoda-pulmonata-from-the-ruhr-river-germany
#3
J Schwelm, M Soldánová, T Vyhlídalová, B Sures, C Selbach
In contrast to the well-studied trematode fauna of lymnaeid snails, only little is known about the role of small planorbid snails as first intermediate hosts for trematodes in temperate freshwater systems. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the diversity and composition of larval trematode communities in Gyraulus albus and Segmentina nitida in a Central European reservoir system, and by providing an updated comprehensive review of the published trematode records of these snail hosts. A total of 3691 planorbid snails (3270 G...
December 8, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222644/membrane-shed-vesicles-from-the-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis-characterization-and-their-association-with-cell-interaction
#4
Yesica R Nievas, Veronica M Coceres, Victor Midlej, Wanderley de Souza, Marlene Benchimol, Antonio Pereira-Neves, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, Patricia J Johnson, Natalia de Miguel
Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract, where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Despite the serious consequences associated with trichomoniasis disease, little is known about parasite or host factors involved in attachment of the parasite-to-host epithelial cells. Here, we report the identification of microvesicle-like structures (MVs) released by T...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222473/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-is-essential-for-macrophage-mediated-erythroblast-proliferation-in-acute-friend-retrovirus-infection
#5
Timm Schreiber, Theresa Quinting, Ulf Dittmer, Joachim Fandrey, Kathrin Sutter
Macrophages are the frontline of defence against foreign microorganisms, including bacteria, parasites, and viruses. During acute viral infection, macrophages must invade the inflamed tissue toward low oxygen concentrations, where genetic cellular responses depend on hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In the study reported here we investigated the role of HIF-1α in macrophage function during acute retroviral infection. Wild-type and myeloid cell-specific HIF-1α knockout mice were infected with Friend retrovirus (FV), and immune response was analysed 7 and 10 days after infection...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221891/the-evolution-of-host-defence-to-parasitism-in-fluctuating-environments
#6
Charlotte Ferris, Alex Best
Given rapidly changing environments, it is important for us to understand how the evolution of host defence responds to fluctuating environments. Here we present the first theoretical study of evolution of host resistance to parasitism in a classic epidemiological model where the host birth rate varies seasonally. We show that this form of seasonality has clear qualitative and quantitative impacts on the evolution of resistance. When the host can recover from infection, it evolves a lower level of defence when the amplitude is high...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221851/ccr5-chemokine-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#7
Geraldo M de Faria, Christiane M Ayo, Amanda P de Oliveira, Alessandro G Lopes, Fábio B Frederico, Aparecida P Silveira-Carvalho, Mariana Previato, Amanda P Barbosa, Fernando H A Murata, Gildásio Castello de Almeida, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Luiz C de Mattos, Cinara C Brandão de Mattos
C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that influences the immune response to infectious and parasitic diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms are associated with the development of ocular toxoplasmosis in humans. Patients with positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii were analyzed and grouped as 'with ocular toxoplasmosis' (G1: n=160) or 'without ocular toxoplasmosis' (G2: n=160). A control group (G3) consisted of 160 individuals with negative serology...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221633/proteases-of-sporothrix-schenckii-cytopathological-effects-on-a-host-cell-model
#8
Myrna Sabanero López, Lérida L Flores Villavicencio, Karla Soto Arredondo, Gloria Barbosa Sabanero, Julio César Villagómez-Castro, Gustavo Cruz Jiménez, Gerardo Sandoval Bernal, Haydee Torres Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The adhesion of the fungus to the host tissue has been considered the key step in the colonization and invasion, but little is known about the early events in the host-parasite interaction. AIMS: To evaluate the proteolytic activity of S. schenckii on epithelial cells. METHODS: The proteolytic system (at pH 5 and 7) was evaluated using azocoll and zymograms...
December 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221457/capillaria-hepatica-calodium-hepaticum-infection-in-a-horse-a-case-report
#9
Akihiro Ochi, Tatsuro Hifumi, Takanori Ueno, Yoshinari Katayama
BACKGROUND: Capillaria hepatica is a zoonotic parasite in humans and animals and has a worldwide distribution. However, infections in mammals apart from rodents, which are natural hosts of the parasite, have rarely been reported. This report describes the first known case of C. hepatica infection in a horse in Japan. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old filly without clinical signs was presented at a slaughterhouse in Japan. Gross examination revealed white to tan nodules 0...
December 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221060/active-metasurface-modulator-with-electro-optic-polymer-using-bimodal-plasmonic-resonance
#10
Jiaqi Zhang, Yuji Kosugi, Akira Otomo, Yoshiaki Nakano, Takuo Tanemura
Electrically tunable metasurfaces have gained special interest as they can realize ultrathin surface-normal modulators in planar geometries. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel metasurface modulator based on electro-optic (EO) polymer that utilizes bimodal resonance inside a metallic subwavelength grating to increase the modulation efficiency. When two metal-insulator-metal (MIM) resonant modes are excited simultaneously inside the grating, they couple strongly to generate a sharp dip in the reflected spectrum...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220874/evolution-of-larval-competitiveness-and-associated-life-history-traits-in-response-to-host-shifts-in-a-seed-beetle
#11
Charles W Fox, Frank J Messina
Resource competition is frequently strong among parasites that feed within small discrete resource patches, such as seeds or fruits. The properties of a host can influence the behavioral, morphological, and life history traits of associated parasites, including traits that mediate competition within the host. For seed parasites, host size may be an especially important determinant of competitive ability. Using the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, we performed replicated, reciprocal host shifts to examine the role of seed size in determining larval competitiveness and associated traits...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220495/converting-a-liability-to-an-asset-using-the-clearance-of-a-malaria-parasite-protein-from-the-blood-of-infected-subjects-to-predict-the-outcome-of-treatment
#12
Ousmane A Koita, Donald J Krogstad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220464/kipho-malaria-parasite-kinome-and-phosphatome-portal
#13
Rajan Pandey, Pawan Kumar, Dinesh Gupta
The Plasmodium kinases and phosphatases play an essential role in the regulation of substrate reversible-phosphorylation and overall cellular homeostasis. Reversible phosphorylation is one of the key post-translational modifications (PTMs) essential for parasite survival. Thus, a complete and comprehensive information of malarial kinases and phosphatases as a single web resource will not only aid in systematic and better understanding of the PTMs, but also facilitate efforts to look for novel drug targets for malaria...
January 1, 2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220419/high-resolution-single-cell-sequencing-of-malaria-parasites
#14
Simon G Trevino, Standwell C Nkhoma, Shalini Nair, Benjamin J Daniel, Karla Moncada, Stanley Khoswe, Rachel L Banda, François Nosten, Ian H Cheeseman
Single-cell genomics is a powerful tool for determining the genetic architecture of complex communities of unicellular organisms. In areas of high transmission, malaria patients are often challenged by the activities of multiple Plasmodium falciparum lineages, which can potentiate pathology, spread drug resistance loci and also complicate most genetic analysis. Single-cell sequencing of P. falciparum would be key to understanding infection complexity, though efforts are hampered by the extreme nucleotide composition of its genome (∼80% AT-rich)...
December 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218855/effects-of-prior-exposure-to-antibiotics-on-bacterial-adaptation-to-phages
#15
Flor I Arias-Sánchez, Richard C Allen, Alex R Hall
Understanding adaptation to complex environments requires information about how exposure to one selection pressure affects adaptation to others. For bacteria, antibiotics and viral parasites (phages) are two of the most common selection pressures and are both relevant for treatment of bacterial infections: increasing antibiotic resistance is generating significant interest in using phages in addition or as an alternative to antibiotics. However, we lack knowledge of how exposure to antibiotics affects bacterial responses to phages...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218444/resistance-to-apoptosis-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-human-macrophages-a-critical-role-for-anti-apoptotic-bcl-2-protein-and-cellular-iap1-2
#16
Antonia Cianciulli, Chiara Porro, Rosa Calvello, Teresa Trotta, Maria Antonietta Panaro
Apoptosis is essential for maintaining tissue homoeostasis in multi-cellular organisms, also occurring as a defence mechanism against a number of infectious agents, such as parasites. Among intracellular protozoan parasites reported to interfere with the apoptotic machinery of the host cell, Leishmania (L.) sp. have been described, although the various species might activate different pathways in their host cells. Since until now it is not yet well clarified the signalling pathway involved in the apoptosis modulation by L...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218443/prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-of-giardia-duodenalis-infection-among-school-going-children-in-nepal
#17
Sarmila Tandukar, Jeevan B Sherchand, Jia Xue, Sital Uprety, Samendra P Sherchan, Dinesh Bhandari, Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Laxmi Parajuli, Shristi Poudel, Ashmita Dhital, Eiji Haramoto
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among school-going children in Kathmandu, Nepal. Between August and September 2016, a total of 333 stool samples were collected from children at five public schools. The collected samples were subjected to formol-ether concentration, followed by conventional microscopic examination for intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 24.3% (81/333), with Giardia spp. showing the highest prevalence of 18...
December 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218225/the-gill-parasite-paramoeba-perurans-compromises-aerobic-scope-swimming-capacity-and-ion-balance-in-atlantic-salmon
#18
Malthe Hvas, Egil Karlsbakk, Stig Mæhle, Daniel William Wright, Frode Oppedal
The parasitic amoeba Paramoeba perurans is an aetiological agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD), a serious problem in seawater salmonid aquaculture globally. Other finfish species are also infected and infection events may be associated with periods of unusual high temperatures. Currently little is known about the impact of AGD on wild fish, but in a time with global warming and increasing aquaculture production this potential threat could be on the rise. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of infected fish is therefore warranted...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218053/marker-development-for-phylogenomics-the-case-of-orobanchaceae-a-plant-family-with-contrasting-nutritional-modes
#19
Xi Li, Baohai Hao, Da Pan, Gerald M Schneeweiss
Phylogenomic approaches, employing next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, have revolutionized systematic and evolutionary biology. Target enrichment is an efficient and cost-effective method in phylogenomics and is becoming increasingly popular. Depending on availability and quality of reference data as well as on biological features of the study system, (semi-)automated identification of suitable markers will require specific bioinformatic pipelines. Here, we established a highly flexible bioinformatic pipeline, BaitsFinder, to identify putative orthologous single copy genes (SCGs) and to construct bait sequences in a single workflow...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218050/heme-drives-oxidative-stress-associated-cell-death-in-human-neutrophils-infected-with-leishmania-infantum
#20
Graziele Quintela-Carvalho, Nívea F Luz, Fabiana S Celes, Dalila L Zanette, Daniela Andrade, Diego Menezes, Natália M Tavares, Claudia I Brodskyn, Deboraci B Prates, Marilda S Gonçalves, Camila I de Oliveira, Roque P Almeida, Marcelo T Bozza, Bruno B Andrade, Valeria M Borges
Free heme is an inflammatory molecule capable of inducing migration and activation of neutrophils. Here, we examine the heme-driven oxidative stress-associated cell death mechanisms in human neutrophils infected with Leishmania infantum, an etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We first performed exploratory analyses in a population of well characterized treatment-naïve VL patients as well as uninfected controls, who were part of previously reported studies. We noted a positive correlation between serum concentrations of heme with heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and lactate deydrogenase, as well as, a negative correlation between heme values and peripheral blood neutrophils counts...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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