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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944495/functional-morphology-of-the-gonoduct-of-the-viviparous-teleost-poeciliopsis-gracilis-heckel-1848-poeciliidae
#1
Juan Carlos Campuzano-Caballero, Mari Carmen Uribe
Female teleosts do not develop Müllerian ducts; consequently, the ovary of teleosts contains two zones: germinal and gonoduct. The gonoduct lacks germinal cells, but has relevant functions in the reproductive process. We describe the functional morphology of the gonoduct in the viviparous teleost Poeciliopsis gracilis during nongestation and gestation stages. This study tests the hypothesis that the gonoduct functions as a barrier between the germinal zone and the exterior. By providing information about morphology and function of the gonoduct we show that this part of the ovary has an essential role in the reproduction of teleosts...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944450/review-dynamic-spatial-models-of-parasite-transmission-in-wildlife-their-structure-applications-and-remaining-challenges
#2
REVIEW
L A White, J D Forester, M E Craft
1.Individual differences in contact rate can arise from host, group, and landscape heterogeneity and can result in different patterns of spatial spread for diseases in wildlife populations with concomitant implications for disease control in wildlife of conservation concern, livestock, and humans. While dynamic disease models can provide a better understanding of the drivers of spatial spread, the effects of landscape heterogeneity have only been modelled in a few well-studied wildlife systems such as rabies and bovine tuberculosis...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944300/proteomic-analysis-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-a-plasmodium-falciparum-kenyan-clinical-isolate-defines-a-core-parasite-secretome
#3
Abdirahman Abdi, Lu Yu, David Goulding, Martin K Rono, Philip Bejon, Jyoti Choudhary, Julian Rayner
BACKGROUND: Many pathogens secrete effector molecules to subvert host immune responses, to acquire nutrients, and/or to prepare host cells for invasion. One of the ways that effector molecules are secreted is through extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes. Recently, the malaria parasite P. falciparum has been shown to produce EVs that can mediate transfer of genetic material between parasites and induce sexual commitment. Characterizing the content of these vesicles may improve our understanding of P...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944299/geographic-genetic-analysis-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-populations-from-surveys-of-primary-school-children-in-western-kenya
#4
Irene Omedo, Polycarp Mogeni, Kirk Rockett, Alice Kamau, Christina Hubbart, Anna Jeffreys, Lynette Isabella Ochola-Oyier, Etienne P de Villiers, Caroline W Gitonga, Abdisalan M Noor, Robert W Snow, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Philip Bejon
Background. Malaria control, and finally malaria elimination, requires the identification and targeting of residual foci or hotspots of transmission. However, the level of parasite mixing within and between geographical locations is likely to impact the effectiveness and durability of control interventions and thus should be taken into consideration when developing control programs. Methods. In order to determine the geographic-genetic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations at a sub-national level in Kenya, we used the Sequenom platform to genotype 111 genome-wide distributed single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) positions in 2486 isolates collected from children in 95 primary schools in western Kenya...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944014/honey-bee-collected-pollen-in-agro-ecosystems-reveals-diet-diversity-diet-quality-and-pesticide-exposure
#5
Megan J Colwell, Geoffrey R Williams, Rodger C Evans, Dave Shutler
European honey bees Apis mellifera are important commercial pollinators that have suffered greater than normal overwintering losses since 2007 in North America and Europe. Contributing factors likely include a combination of parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition. We examined diet diversity, diet nutritional quality, and pesticides in honey bee-collected pollen from commercial colonies in the Canadian Maritime Provinces in spring and summer 2011. We sampled pollen collected by honey bees at colonies in four site types: apple orchards, blueberry fields, cranberry bogs, and fallow fields...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943886/sleeping-site-ecology-but-not-sex-affect-ecto-and-hemoparasite-risk-in-sympatric-arboreal-primates-avahi-occidentalis-and-lepilemur-edwardsi
#6
May Hokan, Christina Strube, Ute Radespiel, Elke Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: A central question in evolutionary parasitology is to what extent ecology impacts patterns of parasitism in wild host populations. In this study, we aim to disentangle factors influencing the risk of parasite exposure by exploring the impact of sleeping site ecology on infection with ectoparasites and vector-borne hemoparasites in two sympatric primates endemic to Madagascar. Both species live in the same dry deciduous forest of northwestern Madagascar and cope with the same climatic constraints, they are arboreal, nocturnal, cat-sized and pair-living but differ prominently in sleeping site ecology...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943068/hepatic-expression-of-metal-related-genes-and-gill-histology-in-sand-flathead-platycephalus-bassensis-from-a-metal-contaminated-estuary
#7
Dingkun Fu, Andrew Bridle, Melanie Leef, Catarina Norte Dos Santos, Barbara Nowak
Hepatic gene expression and gill histology were measured in sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis) from a metal polluted estuary. The gene expression analyses were conducted on fish from two most polluted sites and a reference site. The metal-related genes were metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1), transferrin (TF), ferriportin1 (FPN1), ferritin and metallothionein. The transcripts of MTF1, TF, and FPN1 were significantly higher in the liver of fish caught at polluted sites, suggesting these genes are potential biomarkers for environmental exposure to metal...
September 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942847/identification-and-preliminary-characterization-of-a-putative-c-type-lectin-receptor-like-protein-in-the-t-cruzi-tomato-lectin-endocytic-enriched-proteome
#8
Sébastien Brosson, Guy Bottu, Etienne Pays, Sabrina Bousbata, Didier Salmon
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the Chagas' disease in Latin America undergoes a complex life cycle involving two hosts, a mammalian host and a reduviid insect vector (triatomine). In the insect midgut the parasite multiplies as epimastigote forms, which rely on endocytosis for their energy requirement. We recently showed that posttranslational modification of endocytic N-glycoproteins by tomato lectin (TL) binding-N-glycans is crucial for receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) in epimastigote forms...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942829/epidemiological-analysis-of-133-malaria-cases-in-shanxian-county-shandong-province-china
#9
Qi-Qi Shi, Peng Cheng, Chong-Xing Zhang, Xiu-Xia Guo, Li-Juan Liu, Hai-Fang Wang, Jing-Xuan Kou, Xiao-Dan Huang, Huai-Wei Wang, Mao-Qing Gong
OBJECTIVE: To conduct an analysis of the epidemiological changes in malaria that have occurred in Shanxian county from 2002 to 2016. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted and data were collected from web-based reporting system to explore the epidemiological characteristics in Shanxian county from 2002 to 2016. All individual case information was obtained from village malaria servicers organized by the local Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases. RESULTS: A total of 133 cases were identified as malaria in Shanxian county during this period, including 124 indigenous cases (93...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942797/apicowplexa-2017-4th-international-meeting-on-apicomplexan-parasites-in-farm-animals
#10
EDITORIAL
Andrew Hemphill, Alexandre Leitão, Luis-Miguel Ortega-Mora, Brian M Cooke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942772/hook-line-and-infection-a-guide-to-culturing-parasites-establishing-infections-and-assessing-immune-responses-in-the-three-spined-stickleback
#11
Alexander Stewart, Joseph Jackson, Iain Barber, Christophe Eizaguirre, Rachel Paterson, Pieter van West, Chris Williams, Joanne Cable
The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a model organism with an extremely well-characterized ecology, evolutionary history, behavioural repertoire and parasitology that is coupled with published genomic data. These small temperate zone fish therefore provide an ideal experimental system to study common diseases of coldwater fish, including those of aquacultural importance. However, detailed information on the culture of stickleback parasites, the establishment and maintenance of infections and the quantification of host responses is scattered between primary and grey literature resources, some of which is not readily accessible...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942769/life-history-systematics-and-evolution-of-the-diplostomoidea-poirier-1886-progress-promises-and-challenges-emerging-from-molecular-studies
#12
Isabel Blasco-Costa, Sean A Locke
Members of the Diplostomoidea mature in amniotes and employ vertebrates, annelids and molluscs as second intermediate hosts. Diplostomoid life cycles generally follow a three-host pattern typical of digeneans, but novelties have arisen in some species, including obligate four-host life cycles, vertical transmission, and intracellular parasitism. In this review, we summarize the basic biology of diplostomoids with reference to molecular studies, and present challenges, gaps and areas where molecular data could address long-standing questions...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942753/microrna-expression-profile-in-raw264%C3%A2-7-macrophage-cells-exposed-to-echinococcus-multilocularis-metacestodes
#13
Xiaola Guo, Yadong Zheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs, involved in the regulation of parasite diseases. However, a role of miRNAs in Echinococcus multilocularis infection remains largely unknown. In this study, we first found the expression levels of key genes involved in miRNA biogenesis and function, including Ago2, Xpo5, Tarbp2 and DgcR8, were obviously altered in the macrophage RAW264·7 cells exposed to E. multilocularis metacestodes. Compared with the control, 18 and 32 known miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (P 2) in the macrophages exposed to E...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942752/multiple-origins-of-parasitic-feminization-thelygeny-and-intersexuality-in-beach-hoppers-are-caused-by-paramyxid-parasites-not-microsporidia
#14
James Pickup, Joseph Edward Ironside
Within populations of the amphipod crustaceans Orchestia gammarellus and Orchestia aestuarensis, a proportion of females produce thelygenic (female-only) broods, which often contain intersexual individuals. This phenomenon is associated with the presence of two putative feminizing parasites, the paramyxid Paramarteilia orchestiae and the microsporidian Dictyocoela cavimanum, which frequently co-infect the same host. In order to determine which of the parasites causes feminization, Orchestia were resampled from the type locality of P...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942744/biological-function-of-dictyocaulus-viviparus-asparaginyl-peptidase-legumain-1-and-its-suitability-as-a-vaccine-target
#15
Julia Holzhausen, Claas Haake, Sabine Schicht, Petra Hinse, Daniela Jordan, Elisabeth Kremmer, Christina Strube
The present study characterized the biological function of the asparaginyl peptidase legumain-1 (LEG-1) of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus and its suitability as a recombinant vaccine against dictyocaulosis. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis revealed LEG-1 to be almost exclusively transcribed and expressed in parasitic lungworm stages. Immunohistochemistry localized the enzyme in the parasite's gut, which was confirmed by immunoblots detecting LEG-1 in the gut as well as male testes...
September 25, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942402/the-entrapped-twin-a-case-of-fetus-in-fetu
#16
Rashide Yaacob, Annisa Zainal Mokhtar, Dyg Zahratul Hamrak Abang Jamari, Norliana Jaafar
Fetus-in-fetu (FIF) is a rare entity in which malformed parasitic twin grows inside the body of its twin. It is most commonly presented with mass in the abdomen. We present a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with abdominal mass since infancy. Radiological investigations are suggestive of FIF. Intraoperatively, malformed fetus in a sac was found and excised. Postoperatively the patient recovers well and was put on follow-up.
September 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942304/neospora-caninum-and-bovine-neosporosis-current-vaccine-research
#17
V Marugan-Hernandez
Neospora caninum, a tissue cyst-forming parasite, is the causative agent of bovine neosporosis. It is considered to be one of the most important transmissible causes of reproductive failure in cattle; abortion and neonatal mortality result in significant economic losses within the cattle industry worldwide. The balance between acute (mediated by the tachyzoite stage) and persistent (mediated by the bradyzoite stage) phases of the infection is influenced by the immune status of the animal, and for pregnant cows (the intermediate host) immune status is critical for transplacental (i...
August 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942281/antihypertrophic-effects-of-small-molecules-that-maintain-mitochondrial-atp-levels-under-hypoxia
#18
Hiroaki Nagai, Tomoko Satomi, Akiko Abiru, Kazumasa Miyamoto, Koji Nagasawa, Minoru Maruyama, Satoshi Yamamoto, Kuniko Kikuchi, Hiromitsu Fuse, Masakuni Noda, Yoshiyuki Tsujihata
Since impaired mitochondrial ATP production in cardiomyocytes is thought to lead to heart failure, a drug that protects mitochondria and improves ATP production under disease conditions would be an attractive treatment option. In this study, we identified small-molecule drugs, including the anti-parasitic agent, ivermectin, that maintain mitochondrial ATP levels under hypoxia in cardiomyocytes. Mechanistically, transcriptomic analysis and gene silencing experiments revealed that ivermectin increased mitochondrial ATP production by inducing Cox6a2, a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain...
September 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942176/recombinant-brugia-malayi-pepsin-inhibitor-rbm33-exploits-host-signaling-events-to-regulate-inflammatory-responses-associated-with-lymphatic-filarial-infections
#19
Kirthika Sreenivas, Haripriya Kalyanaraman, Subash Babu, Rangarajan Badri Narayanan
Prolonged existence of filarial parasites and their molecules within the host modulate the host immune system to instigate their survival and induce inflammatory responses that contribute to disease progression. Recombinant Brugia malayi pepsin inhibitor (rBm33) modulates the host immune responses by skewing towards Th1 responses characterized by secretion of inflammatory molecules such as TNF-α, IL-6, nitric oxide (NO). Here we also specified the molecular signaling events triggered by rBm33 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of filarial endemic normals (EN)...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942109/translational-control-in-the-latency-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#20
REVIEW
Michael J Holmes, Leonardo da Silva Augusto, Min Zhang, Ronald C Wek, William J Sullivan
Apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp. use latent stages to persist in the host, facilitate transmission, and thwart treatment of infected patients. Therefore, it is important to understand the processes driving parasite differentiation to and from quiescent stages. Here, we discuss how a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) function in translational control and drive differentiation. This translational control culminates in reprogramming of the transcriptome to facilitate parasite transition towards latency...
September 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
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