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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230376/facet-dependent-thermal-instability-in-licoo2
#1
Soroosh Sharifi-Asl, Fernando A Soto, Anmin Nie, Yifei Yuan, Hasti Asayesh-Ardakani, Tara Foroozan, Vitaliy Yurkiv, Boao Song, Farzad Mashayek, Robert F Klie, Khalil Amine, Jun Lu, Perla B Balbuena, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar
Thermal runaways triggered by the oxygen release from oxide cathode materials pose a major safety concern for widespread application of lithium ion batteries. Utilizing in-situ aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) at high temperatures, we show that oxygen release from LixCoO2 cathode crystals is occurring at the surface of particles. We correlated this local oxygen evolution from the LixCoO2 structure with local phase transitions spanning from layered to spinel and then to rock salt structure upon exposure to elevated temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230202/ecosystem-composition-controls-the-fate-of-rare-earth-elements-during-incipient-soil-genesis
#2
Dragos G Zaharescu, Carmen I Burghelea, Katerina Dontsova, Jennifer K Presler, Raina M Maier, Travis Huxman, Kenneth J Domanik, Edward A Hunt, Mary K Amistadi, Emily E Gaddis, Maria A Palacios-Menendez, Maria O Vaquera-Ibarra, Jon Chorover
The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229026/spawning-aggregation-of-white-streaked-grouper-epinephelus-ongus-spatial-distribution-and-annual-variation-in-the-fish-density-within-a-spawning-ground
#3
Atsushi Nanami, Taku Sato, Yuuki Kawabata, Junichi Okuyama
White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1) spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2) the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3) inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4) the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre-and post-spawning and (5) the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227291/development-of-a-head-phantom-and-measurement-setup-for-lightning-effects
#4
Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Rene Machts, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Alexander Hunold, Carsten Leu, Jens Haueisen, Michael Rock, Rene Machts
Direct lightning strikes to human heads lead to various effects ranging from Lichtenberg figures, over loss of consciousness to death. The evolution of the induced current distribution in the head is of great interest to understand the effect mechanisms. This work describes a technique to model a simplified head-phantom to investigate effects during direct lightning strike. The head-phantom geometry, conductive and dielectric parameters were chosen similar to that of a human head. Three layers (brain, skull, and scalp) were created for the phantom using agarose hydrogel doped with sodium chloride and carbon...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226801/electrocorticographic-signals-comparison-in-sensorimotor-cortex-between-contralateral-and-ipsilateral-hand-movements
#5
Yile Jin, Mingwei Lu, Xiaotian Wang, Shaomin Zhang, Junming Zhu, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Yile Jin, Mingwei Lu, Xiaotian Wang, Shaomin Zhang, Junming Zhu, Xiaoxiang Zheng
Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have emerged as a technology to restore lost functionality in motor impaired patients. Most BMI systems employed neural signals from contralateral hemisphere. But many studies have also demonstrated the possibility to control hand movement using signals from ipsilateral one. However, the relationship of neural signals in sensorimotor cortex between contralateral and ipsilateral hand movement control is still unclear. In this study, the electrocorticographic signals (ECoG) of sensorimotor cortex were analyzed in two epilepsy participants when they performed a visual guided rock-scissors-paper task by using contralateral and ipsilateral hand respectively...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225457/rhoa-rock-pathway-inhibition-by-fasudil-suppresses-the-vasculogenic-mimicry-of-u2os-osteosarcoma-cells-in-vitro
#6
Yun Xia, Xianyi Cai, Jiquan Fan, Liling Zhang, Zhenyu Li, Jinghua Ren, Gang Wu, Fang Zhu
GTPase RhoA and its downstream Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinases (ROCKs) are frequently overexpressed in human cancers. Inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway blocks angiogenesis mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor, which led us to investigate the role of this pathway in vasculogenic mimicry (VM) - a process by which aggressive cancer cells form vessel-like structures that provide adequate blood supply for tumor growth. We showed that the expression of RhoA and its effector kinases ROCK1/2 was much higher in human osteosarcoma (OS) tissues and the human OS cell line U2OS than in nontumorous tissues and cell line hFOB 1...
February 20, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225301/book-reviewlifting-the-impenetrable-veil-from-yellow-fever-to-ebola-hemorrhagic-fever-and-sars-charles-h-calisher-rock-pile-press-red-feather-lakes-colorado-2013-540-pp-isbn-13-978-0-615-82773-5-35-00
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225294/role-of-rock-isoforms-in-regulation-of-stiffness-induced-myofibroblast-differentiation-in-lung-fibrosis
#8
Su S Htwe, Byung H Cha, Kan Yue, Ali Khademhosseini, Alan J Knox, Amir M Ghaemmaghami
Fibrosis is a major cause of progressive organ dysfunction in several chronic pulmonary diseases. Rho associated coiled-coil forming kinase (ROCK) has shown to be involved in myofibroblast differentiation driven by altered matrix stiffness in fibrotic state. There are two known ROCK isoforms in human, ROCK1 (ROKβ) and ROCK2 (ROKα), but specific role of each isoform in myofibroblast differentiation in lung fibrosis remains unknown. To study this, we developed a Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel based culture system with different stiffness levels relevant to healthy and fibrotic lungs...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223966/geological-and-geochemical-controls-on-subsurface-microbial-life-in-the-samail-ophiolite-oman
#9
Kaitlin R Rempfert, Hannah M Miller, Nicolas Bompard, Daniel Nothaft, Juerg M Matter, Peter Kelemen, Noah Fierer, Alexis S Templeton
Microbial abundance and diversity in deep subsurface environments is dependent upon the availability of energy and carbon. However, supplies of oxidants and reductants capable of sustaining life within mafic and ultramafic continental aquifers undergoing low-temperature water-rock reaction are relatively unknown. We conducted an extensive analysis of the geochemistry and microbial communities recovered from fluids sampled from boreholes hosted in peridotite and gabbro in the Tayin block of the Samail Ophiolite in the Sultanate of Oman...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223715/massive-production-of-abiotic-methane-during-subduction-evidenced-in-metamorphosed-ophicarbonates-from-the-italian-alps
#10
Alberto Vitale Brovarone, Isabelle Martinez, Agnès Elmaleh, Roberto Compagnoni, Carine Chaduteau, Cristiano Ferraris, Imène Esteve
Alteration of ultramafic rocks plays a major role in the production of hydrocarbons and organic compounds via abiotic processes on Earth and beyond and contributes to the redistribution of C between solid and fluid reservoirs over geological cycles. Abiotic methanogenesis in ultramafic rocks is well documented at shallow conditions, whereas natural evidence at greater depths is scarce. Here we provide evidence for intense high-pressure abiotic methanogenesis by reduction of subducted ophicarbonates. Protracted (≥0...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223534/designing-allostery-inspired-response-in-mechanical-networks
#11
Jason W Rocks, Nidhi Pashine, Irmgard Bischofberger, Carl P Goodrich, Andrea J Liu, Sidney R Nagel
Recent advances in designing metamaterials have demonstrated that global mechanical properties of disordered spring networks can be tuned by selectively modifying only a small subset of bonds. Here, using a computationally efficient approach, we extend this idea to tune more general properties of networks. With nearly complete success, we are able to produce a strain between any two target nodes in a network in response to an applied source strain on any other pair of nodes by removing only ∼1% of the bonds...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221770/the-triple-salt-sr14-ta4n13-tan4-o-a-nitridotantalate-oxide-with-19-fold-rock-salt-superstructure
#12
Matthias Wörsching, Martin Daiger, Constantin Hoch
A new structure motif in nitridometalate chemistry is the tetracatena-nitridotantalate anion [Ta4N13](19-). It occurs in the crystal structure of the triple salt Sr14[Ta4N13][TaN4]O (monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 15.062(2) Å, b = 7.2484(6) Å, c = 24.266(3) Å, and β = 97.280(10)(o)) together with ortho-tantalate and isolated oxide anions. Synthesis followed a new approach with employment of Sr surplus and reductive conditions aimed at the preparation of subvalent compounds. The new structure type was established on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and also Rietveld refinement...
February 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220886/earth-s-oldest-bobbit-worm-gigantism-in-a-devonian-eunicidan-polychaete
#13
Mats E Eriksson, Luke A Parry, David M Rudkin
Whilst the fossil record of polychaete worms extends to the early Cambrian, much data on this group derive from microfossils known as scolecodonts. These are sclerotized jaw elements, which generally range from 0.1-2 mm in size, and which, in contrast to the soft-body anatomy, have good preservation potential and a continuous fossil record. Here we describe a new eunicidan polychaete, Websteroprion armstrongi gen. et sp. nov., based primarily on monospecific bedding plane assemblages from the Lower-Middle Devonian Kwataboahegan Formation of Ontario, Canada...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220212/rho-kinase-inhibition-ameliorates-cyclophosphamide-induced-cystitis-in-rats
#14
Andrzej Wróbel, Urszula Doboszewska, Ewa Rechberger, Karol Rojek, Anna Serefko, Ewa Poleszak, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Jarosław Dudka, Piotr Wlaź
Hemorrhagic cystitis often develops in patients treated with cyclophosphamide (CYP). Studies have indicated that Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitors may suppress detrusor overactivity symptoms and possess anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibition of ROCK reduces cystometric and histopathological changes associated with CYP-induced cystitis. The rats received GSK 269962, a ROCK inhibitor, at a dose of 30 mg/kg daily, or vehicle for 7 days. Then, acute chemical cystitis leading to bladder overactivity was induced by CYP injection (200 mg/kg i...
February 21, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215805/private-well-groundwater-quality-in-west-virginia-usa-2010
#15
R K Law, M W Murphy, E Choudhary
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the West Virginia Bureau of Public Health (BPH), initiated an investigation to characterize private well water quality in West Virginia. The objective was to better characterize private well water across various aquifer geologies by testing household drinking water samples and comparing them to EPA's National Primary Drinking Water Standards. The BPH selected ten counties representing three regions to capture geologically diverse areas that represent varying aquifer geology...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215192/music-genre-as-a-predictor-of-resource-utilization-at-outdoor-music-concerts
#16
Michael S Westrol, Susmith Koneru, Norah McIntyre, Andrew T Caruso, Faizan H Arshad, Mark A Merlin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the various modern music genres and their effect on the utilization of medical resources with analysis and adjustment for potential confounders. METHODS: A retrospective review of patient logs from an open-air, contemporary amphitheater over a period of 10 years was performed. Variables recorded by the medical personnel for each concert included the attendance, description of the weather, and a patient log in which nature and outcome were recorded...
February 20, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214969/attached-and-suspended-denitrifier-communities-in-pristine-limestone-aquifers-harbor-high-fractions-of-potential-autotrophs-oxidizing-reduced-iron-and-sulfur-compounds
#17
M Herrmann, S Opitz, R Harzer, K U Totsche, K Küsel
Oxygen and nitrate availability as well as the presence of suitable organic or inorganic electron donors are strong drivers of denitrification; however, the factors influencing denitrifier abundance and community composition in pristine aquifers are not well understood. We explored the denitrifier community structure of suspended and attached groundwater microorganisms in two superimposed limestone aquifer assemblages with contrasting oxygen regime in the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (Germany). Attached communities were retrieved from freshly crushed parent rock material which had been exposed for colonization in two groundwater wells (12...
February 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213638/hung-out-to-dry-intraspecific-variation-in-water-loss-in-a-hibernating-bat
#18
Brandon J Klüg-Baerwald, R Mark Brigham
Hibernation is a period of water deficit for some small mammals, and humidity strongly influences hibernation patterns. Dry conditions reduce length of torpor bouts, stimulate arousals, and decrease overwinter survival. To mitigate these effects, many small mammals hibernate in near saturated (100% RH) conditions. However, big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) hibernate in a wider variety of conditions and tolerate lower humidity than most other bats. To assess arid tolerance in this species, we compared torpid metabolic rates (TMR) and rates of total evaporative water loss (TEWL) between two populations of E...
February 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213151/automatic-method-for-estimation-of-in-situ-effective-contact-angle-from-x-ray-micro-tomography-images-of-two-phase-flow-in-porous-media
#19
Alessio Scanziani, Kamaljit Singh, Martin J Blunt, Alberto Guadagnini
Multiphase flow in porous media is strongly influenced by the wettability of the system, which affects the arrangement of the interfaces of different phases residing in the pores. We present a method for estimating the effective contact angle, which quantifies the wettability and controls the local capillary pressure within the complex pore space of natural rock samples, based on the physical constraint of constant curvature of the interface between two fluids. This algorithm is able to extract a large number of measurements from a single rock core, resulting in a characteristic distribution of effective in situ contact angle for the system, that is modelled as a truncated Gaussian probability density distribution...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212857/temporal-modulations-in-speech-and-music
#20
REVIEW
Nai Ding, Aniruddh D Patel, Lin Chen, Henry Butler, Cheng Luo, David Poeppel
Speech and music have structured rhythms. Here we discuss a major acoustic correlate of spoken and musical rhythms, the slow (0.25- 32Hz) temporal modulations in sound intensity and compare the modulation properties of speech and music. We analyze these modulations using over 25hours of speech and over 39hours of recordings of Western music. We show that the speech modulation spectrum is highly consistent across 9 languages (including languages with typologically different rhythmic characteristics). A different, but similarly consistent modulation spectrum is observed for music, including classical music played by single instruments of different types, symphonic, jazz, and rock...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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