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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917869/high-aspect-ratio-phospho-calcified-rock-candy-like-cellulose-nanowhiskers-of-wastepaper-applicable-in-osteogenic-differentiation-of-hmscs
#1
Mohsen Shahrousvand, Fatemeh Ahmadi Tabar, Ehsan Shahrousvand, Amir Babaei, Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi, Gity Mir Mohamad Sadeghi, Hafez Jafari, Ali Salimi
The aim of this study was to prepare cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) from wastepaper powder (WPP), as an environmentally friendly approach for obtaining the source material, which is a highly available and low-cost precursor for cellulose nanomaterial processing. Acid hydrolysis and calcification treatments were employed for extraction of CNWs and preparation of novel phospho-calcified cellulose nanowhiskers (PCCNWs). CNWs and PCCNWs were analyzed through optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectra (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917488/gene-expression-regulation-of-the-tlr9-and-myd88-dependent-pathways-in-rock-bream-against-rock-bream-iridovirus-rbiv-infection
#2
Myung-Hwa Jung, Sung-Ju Jung
Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV), which is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus, causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream in Korea. To date, the innate immune defense mechanisms of rock bream against RBIV is unclear. In this study, we assessed the expression levels of genes related to TLR9 and MyD88-dependent pathways in RBIV-infected rock bream in high, low or no mortality conditions. In the high mortality group (100% mortality at 15 days post infection (dpi)), high levels of TLR9 and MyD88 expressions (6...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916267/comparison-of-phagocytosis-in-three-caribbean-sea-urchins
#3
John DeFilippo, John Ebersole, Gregory Beck
In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916199/erk-and-rock-functionally-interact-in-a-signaling-network-that-is-compensationally-upregulated-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#4
Niko Hensel, Svetlana Baskal, Lisa Marie Walter, Hella Brinkmann, Manuela Gernert, Peter Claus
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a motoneuron disease caused by low levels of functional survival of motoneuron protein (SMN). Molecular disease mechanisms downstream of functional SMN loss are still largely unknown. Previous studies suggested an involvement of Rho kinase (ROCK) as well as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) pathways in the pathomechanism. Both pathways are bi-directionally linked and inhibit each other. Thus, we hypothesize that both pathways regulate SMA pathophysiology in vivo in a combined manner rather than acting separately...
September 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916103/controlled-synchronized-actuation-of-microdroplets-by-gravity-in-a-superhydrophobic-3d-printed-device
#5
P E Oomen, J P S H Mulder, E Verpoorte, R D Oleschuk
Droplet manipulation over open surfaces allows one to perform assays with a large degree of control and high throughput, making them appealing for applications in drug screening or (bio)analysis. However, the design, manufacturing and operation of these systems comes with high technical requirements. In this study we employ a commercial, low-friction, superhydrophobic coating, Ultra-Ever Dry(®), on a 3D-printed microfluidic device. The device features individual droplet compartments, which allow the manipulation of discrete droplets (10-50 μL) actuated by gravity alone...
October 2, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915740/charge-compensation-at-the-interface-between-the-polar-nacl-111-surface-and-a-nacl-aqueous-solution
#6
Thomas Sayer, Chao Zhang, Michiel Sprik
Periodic supercell models of electric double layers formed at the interface between a charged surface and an electrolyte are subject to serious finite size errors and require certain adjustments in the treatment of the long-range electrostatic interactions. In a previous publication Zhang and Sprik [Phys. Rev. B 94, 245309 (2016)], we have shown how this can be achieved using finite field methods. The test system was the familiar simple point charge model of a NaCl aqueous solution confined between two oppositely charged walls...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915028/acid-rock-drainage-treatment-using-membrane-distillation-impacts-of-chemical-free-pretreatment-on-scale-formation-pore-wetting-and-product-water-quality
#7
Eric J Hull, Katherine Zodrow
Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a metal-rich wastewater that forms upon oxidation of sulfidic minerals. Although ARD impacts >12,000 miles of rivers in the U.S. and has an estimated cleanup cost of $32 - $72 billion, the low pH and high metal concentrations in ARD make rapid, high volume treatment without chemical addition difficult. This research focuses on a novel method of ARD treatment, membrane distillation (MD). In MD, heated ARD is separated from a cooled distillate by a hydrophobic, water-excluding membrane...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914001/comparative-study-of-the-effects-of-trabecular-meshwork-outflow-drugs-on-the-permeability-and-nitric-oxide-production-in-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#8
Jae Woo Kim
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of the barrier function in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells monolayer and the production of nitric oxide (NO) between trabecular outflow drugs, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitors, adenosine, and statin. METHODS: Primary cultured TM cells were exposed to 10 or 25 μM Y-27632, 0.1 or 1 μM N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), or 15 or 30 μM simvastatin for 24 hours. NO production and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA were measured by Griess assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
July 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913869/fast-growing-oysters-show-reduced-capacity-to-provide-a-thermal-refuge-to-intertidal-biodiversity-at-high-temperatures
#9
Dominic McAfee, Wayne A O'Connor, Melanie J Bishop
1.Ecosystem engineers that modify the thermal environment experienced by associated organisms might assist in the climate change adaptation of species. This depends upon the ability of ecosystem engineers to persist and continue to ameliorate thermal stress under changing climatic conditions - traits that may display significant intraspecific variation. 2.In the physically stressful intertidal, the complex three-dimensional structure of oysters provides shading and traps moisture during aerial exposure at low tide...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912550/calcium-mediated-adhesion-of-nanomaterials-in-reservoir-fluids
#10
Shannon L Eichmann, Nancy A Burnham
Globally, a small percentage of oil is recovered from reservoirs using primary and secondary recovery mechanisms, and thus a major focus of the oil industry is toward developing new technologies to increase recovery. Many new technologies utilize surfactants, macromolecules, and even nanoparticles, which are difficult to deploy in harsh reservoir conditions and where failures cause material aggregation and sticking to rock surfaces. To combat these issues, typically material properties are adjusted, but recent studies show that adjusting the dispersing fluid chemistry could have significant impact on material survivability...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912418/genesis-of-ultra-high-ni-olivine-in-high-mg-andesite-lava-triggered-by-seamount-subduction
#11
Tatsuji Nishizawa, Hitomi Nakamura, Tatiana Churikova, Boris Gordeychik, Osamu Ishizuka, Satoru Haraguchi, Takashi Miyazaki, Bogdan Stefanov Vaglarov, Qing Chang, Morihisa Hamada, Jun-Ichi Kimura, Kenta Ueki, Chiaki Toyama, Atsushi Nakao, Hikaru Iwamori
The Kamchatka Peninsula is a prominent and wide volcanic arc located near the northern edge of the Pacific Plate. It has highly active volcanic chains and groups, and characteristic lavas that include adakitic rocks. In the north of the peninsula adjacent to the triple junction, some additional processes such as hot asthenospheric injection around the slab edge and seamount subduction operate, which might enhance local magmatism. In the forearc area of the northeastern part of the peninsula, monogenetic volcanic cones dated at <1 Ma were found...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910852/origin-and-evolution-of-aquitard-porewater-in-the-western-coastal-plain-of-bohai-bay-china
#12
Jing Li, Xing Liang, Menggui Jin, Jilong Yang, Bin Ma, Qin Ge
High-salinity paleowater from low-permeability aquitards in coastal areas can be a major threat to groundwater resources; however, such water has rarely been studied. The chemical and isotopic compositions of porewater extracted from a 200-m-thick Quaternary sedimentary sequence in the western coastal plain of Bohai Bay, China, were analyzed to investigate the salinity origin and chemical evolution of porewater in aquitards. Porewater samples derived at depths shallower than 32 m are characterized by Cl-Na type saline water (total dissolved solids [TDS], 10...
September 14, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910691/phylogeny-and-taxonomy-of-new-and-re-examined-strains-of-tubulinea-amoebozoa
#13
Tomáš Tyml, Iva Dyková
Morphological and molecular characterizations of three newly isolated tubulinean strains and re-examination of five strains formerly considered representatives of Saccamoeba and one strain formerly considered as Trichamoeba resulted in (a) the determination of strain BA02, isolated from a dripping rock ledge in Skansbukta (Billefjorden, Svalbard), as a new representative of Ptolemeba bulliensis Brown et al., 2014; (b) identification of strain ATCC(®) 50249™, deposited in the American Type Culture Collection as Trichamoeba, as the same species (P...
August 26, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910257/between-a-rock-and-a-hard-place-prescription-opioid-restrictions-in-the-time-of-fentanyl-and-other-street-drug-adulterants
#14
Tessa Cheng, Kora DeBeck
Non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) has increased alarmingly across Canada and resulted in strict prescribing restrictions on opioids. Despite a clear need to reduce opioid prescriptions in response to this crisis, few other policies have been implemented and this singular focus is incongruent with the known characteristics of substance use disorders, negative effects of supply reduction policies, and realities of pain management. Given the recent rise of fentanyl and other dangerous adulterants in street drugs, this commentary argues that a comprehensive response to NMPOU that includes improvements to addiction management and harm-reduction services is urgently needed...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910143/the-lost-city-hydrothermal-field-a-spectroscopic-and-astrobiological-analogue-for-nili-fossae-mars
#15
Elena S Amador, Joshua L Bandfield, William J Brazelton, Deborah Kelley
Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface...
September 14, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910135/imaging-of-vanadium-in-microfossils-a-new-potential-biosignature
#16
Craig P Marshall, Alison Olcott Marshall, Jade B Aitken, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Pierre Breuer, Philippe Steemans, Peter A Lay
The inability to unambiguously distinguish the biogenicity of microfossil-like structures in the ancient rock record is a fundamental predicament facing Archean paleobiologists and astrobiologists. Therefore, novel methods for discriminating biological from nonbiological chemistries of microfossil-like structures are of the utmost importance in the search for evidence of early life on Earth. This, too, is important for the search for life on Mars by in situ analyses via rovers or sample return missions for future analysis here on Earth...
September 14, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905056/surface-alteration-of-calcite-interpreting-macroscopic-observations-by-means-of-afm
#17
Mariam Ali Al Mahri, Mashael Alshehhi, Tuza Olukan, Mijael Rodrigo Vargas, Annalisa Molini, Saeed Alhassan, Matteo Chiesa
Wettability has been recognized to play a fundamental role in the efficacy of water flooding processes of carbonate oil and gas reservoirs. However, the theoretical mechanism governing this process is still not entirely understood. This can be partly attributed to the absence of ad hoc tools and standardized sample-preparation methodologies for comprehensive transient characterization of the mineral surface. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the effect of different calcite sample-preparation methodologies in estimating the macroscopic water static contact angle (SCA)...
September 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904780/spatial-patterns-of-hypolithic-cyanobacterial-diversity-in-northern-australia
#18
Keith Christian, Mirjam Kaestli, Karen Gibb
Photosynthetic microbial communities under translucent rocks (hypolithic) are found in many arid regions. At the global scale, there has been little intercontinental gene flow, and at a local scale, microbial composition is related to fine-scale features of the rocks and their environment. Few studies have investigated patterns of hypolithic community composition at intermediate distances. We examined hypolithic cyanobacterial diversity in semi-arid Australia along a 10-km transect by sampling six rocks from four adjacent 1 m(2) quadrats ("distance zero") and from additional quadrats at 10, 100, 1,000, and 10,000 m to test the hypothesis that diversity would increase with the number of rocks sampled and distance...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902864/comparative-skull-anatomy-of-terrestrial-and-crevice-dwelling-trachylepis-skinks-squamata-scincidae-with-a-survey-of-resources-in-scincid-cranial-osteology
#19
Daniel J Paluh, Aaron M Bauer
Skinks account for more than 25% of all lizard species; however, representatives of fewer than a quarter of all species have been characterized osteologically. All but a few of the available cranial descriptions concentrate solely on characters that can be seen externally on the intact skull. Mabuyid skinks of the genus Trachylepis are the dominant, fully limbed skinks in Sub-Saharan Africa, and nearly all species have the same generalized body plan. Although a few rock crevice-dwelling species possess slight body depression, extreme dorsoventral depression is observed only in Trachylepis laevis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902377/-implementation-of-the-national-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-in-secondary-diabetes-centers
#20
Lydia Marahrens, Daniel Röck, Tjalf Ziemssen, Raimar Kern, Focke Ziemssen, Andreas Fritsche
Background The German National Disease Management Guideline (NVL) on treatment of Type 2 Diabetes recommends lowering of blood glucose in four therapy steps. There is little evidence, how NVL is implemented for the individual patients. Methods 810 patients in secondary diabetes centers were examined within the DiabCheck(OCTplus) trial. Data about the patient's health status (electronic medical record) were classified according to the NVL treatment steps. The degree of implementation was assessed for every person with diabetes type 2 (NCT02 311 504)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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