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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913339/a-parametric-study-for-the-design-of-an-optimized-ultrasonic-percussive-planetary-drill-tool
#1
Xuan Li, Patrick Harkness, Kevin Worrall, Ryan Timoney, Margaret Lucas
Traditional rotary drilling for planetary rock sampling, in-situ analysis and sample return, is challenging because the axial force and holding torque requirements are not necessarily compatible with lightweight spacecraft architectures in low-gravity environments. This article seeks to optimize an ultrasonic-percussive drill tool to achieve rock penetration with lower reacted force requirements, with a strategic view towards building an Ultrasonic Planetary Core Drill (UPCD) device. The UPCD is a descendant of the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) technique...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912988/sequential-electrodialytic-recovery-of-phosphorus-from-low-temperature-gasification-ashes-of-chemically-precipitated-sewage-sludge
#2
Raimon Parés Viader, Pernille Erland Jensen, Lisbeth M Ottosen, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Henrik Hauggaard-Nielsen
Phosphorus recycling from secondary materials like sewage sludge ashes offers an alternative to mining of phosphates from primary resources and a mean to counteract the current phosphorous rock depletion concern. A separation of P from the bulk ash is normally required, due to its low plant availability and the presence of heavy metals. Previously, more than 80% of P was recovered from incineration sewage sludge ashes using a two-compartment electrodialytic cell. In contrast, the recovery was below 30% for ashes from low-temperature gasification using the same setup...
November 29, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911419/methods-of-soil-resampling-to-monitor-changes-in-the-chemical-concentrations-of-forest-soils
#3
Gregory B Lawrence, Ivan J Fernandez, Paul W Hazlett, Scott W Bailey, Donald S Ross, Thomas R Villars, Angelica Quintana, Rock Ouimet, Michael R McHale, Chris E Johnson, Russell D Briggs, Robert A Colter, Jason Siemion, Olivia L Bartlett, Olga Vargas, Michael R Antidormi, Mary M Koppers
Recent soils research has shown that important chemical soil characteristics can change in less than a decade, often the result of broad environmental changes. Repeated sampling to monitor these changes in forest soils is a relatively new practice that is not well documented in the literature and has only recently been broadly embraced by the scientific community. The objective of this protocol is therefore to synthesize the latest information on methods of soil resampling in a format that can be used to design and implement a soil monitoring program...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911143/factors-predicting-life-threatening-infections-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-adult-patients
#4
Se Yoon Park, Taeeun Kim, Young Rock Jang, Min-Chul Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of acute respiratory illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from self-limiting upper respiratory infection to severe lower respiratory infection in elderly persons as well as young children. However, there are limited data on risk factors for life-threatening infections that could guide the appropriate use of antiviral agents in adult patients with RSV. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from October 2013 to September 2015...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910841/incommensurate-density-modulation-in-a-na-rich-plagioclase-feldspar-z-contrast-imaging-and-single-crystal-x-ray-diffraction-study
#5
Huifang Xu, Shiyun Jin, Bruce C Noll
Plagioclase feldspars are the most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. Intermediate plagioclase feldspars commonly display incommensurately modulated or aperiodic structures. Z-contrast images show both Ca-Na ordering and density modulation. The local structure of lamellae domains has I1-like symmetry. The neighboring lamellae domains are in an inversion twinning relationship. With a state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction unit, second-order satellite reflections (f-reflections) are observed for the first time in andesine (An45), a Na-rich e-plagioclase...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910652/measurement-and-models-of-bent-kap-001-crystal-integrated-reflectivity-and-resolution-invited
#6
G P Loisel, M Wu, W Stolte, C Kruschwitz, P Lake, G S Dunham, J E Bailey, G A Rochau
The Advanced Light Source beamline-9.3.1 x-rays are used to calibrate the rocking curve of bent potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals in the 2.3-4.5 keV photon-energy range. Crystals are bent on a cylindrically convex substrate with a radius of curvature ranging from 2 to 9 in. and also including the flat case to observe the effect of bending on the KAP spectrometric properties. As the bending radius increases, the crystal reflectivity converges to the mosaic crystal response. The X-ray Oriented Programs (xop) multi-lamellar model of bent crystals is used to model the rocking curve of these crystals and the calibration data confirm that a single model is adequate to reproduce simultaneously all measured integrated reflectivities and rocking-curve FWHM for multiple radii of curvature in both 1st and 2nd order of diffraction...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910647/a-technique-for-measuring-the-quality-of-an-elliptically-bent-pentaerythritol-pet-002-crystal
#7
M J Haugh, K D Jacoby, M A Barrios, D Thorn, J A Emig, M B Schneider
We present a technique for determining the X-ray spectral quality from each region of an elliptically curved PET(002) crystal. The investigative technique utilizes the shape of the crystal rocking curve which changes significantly as the radius of curvature changes. This unique quality information enables the spectroscopist to verify where in the spectral range that the spectrometer performance is satisfactory and where there are regions that would show spectral distortion. A collection of rocking curve measurements for elliptically curved PET(002) has been built up in our X-ray laboratory...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910450/first-order-reversal-curves-forc-analysis-of-individual-magnetic-nanostructures-using-micro-hall-magnetometry
#8
Merlin Pohlit, Paul Eibisch, Maryam Akbari, Fabrizio Porrati, Michael Huth, Jens Müller
Alongside the development of artificially created magnetic nanostructures, micro-Hall magnetometry has proven to be a versatile tool to obtain high-resolution hysteresis loop data and access dynamical properties. Here we explore the application of First Order Reversal Curves (FORC)-a technique well-established in the field of paleomagnetism for studying grain-size and interaction effects in magnetic rocks-to individual and dipolar-coupled arrays of magnetic nanostructures using micro-Hall sensors. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on a macroscopic piece of a floppy disk as a reference sample well known in the literature demonstrates that the FORC diagrams obtained by magnetic stray field measurements using home-built magnetometers are in good agreement with magnetization data obtained by a commercial vibrating sample magnetometer...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908102/solubility-of-nacl-in-water-and-its-melting-point-by-molecular-dynamics-in-the-slab-geometry-and-a-new-bk3-compatible-force-field
#9
Jiří Kolafa
Saturated concentration of rock salt in water is determined by a simulation of brine in contact with a crystal in the slab geometry. The NaCl crystals are rotated to expose facets with higher Miller indices than [001] to brine. The rock salt melting point is obtained by both the standard and adiabatic simulations in the slab geometry with attention paid to finite size effects as well as to a possible influence of facets with higher Miller indices and applied stress. Two force fields are used, the Lennard-Jones-based model by Young and Cheatham with SPC/E water and the Kiss and Baranyai polarizable model with BK3 water...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907043/thermodynamic-simulation-of-carbonate-cements-water-carbon-dioxide-equilibrium-in-sandstone-for-prediction-of-precipitation-dissolution-of-carbonate-cements
#10
Yiping Duan, Mingshi Feng, Xinyan Zhong, Ruishu Shang, Lihong Huang
Carbonate cements, such as calcite, dolomite, ferrocalcite and ankerite, play important roles in the formation of pores in sandstones: precipitation of carbonate cements modifies pores and inhibits compaction, while dissolution creates secondary pores. This work proposed a precipitation-dissolution model for carbonate cements-CO2-H2O system by means of ion equilibrium concentration ([M2+], M = Ca, Mg, Fe or Mn) with different factors, such as temperature, depth, pH, [Formula: see text], variable rock composition and overpressure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906862/correlational-study-of-diabetic-retinopathy-and-hearing-loss
#11
Caroline Ooley, Weon Jun, Kim Le, Allen Kim, Nathan Rock, Molly Cardenal, Rebecca Kline, Drew Aldrich, John Hayes
PURPOSE: Our research goal was to complete a retrospective chart review to determine if there is a correlation between the level of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neurosensory hearing loss. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 175 Department of Veterans Affairs Computerized Patient Record System charts was completed at the VA Portland Health Care System. Subjects were classified by degree of diabetic retinopathy as follows: no diabetic retinopathy (n = 80), mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 51), moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 25), and combined severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 17)...
November 30, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904131/mir-31-regulates-rho-associated-kinase-myosin-light-chain-rock-mlc-pathway-and-inhibits-gastric-cancer-invasion-roles-of-rhoa
#12
Zhuo Chen, Shengnan Liu, Yuan Xia, Kejian Wu
BACKGROUND This study evaluated how the expression of miR-31 can be used to detect gastric cancer (GC) to help illuminate the role of miR-31 and RhoA in GC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS We carried out our experiments using tissue specimens from 70 GC patients. The relative expression of miR-31 and RhoA mRNA in tissues and cells was detected by RT-PCR. The expression level of RhoA protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. GC cell line BGC-823 was transfected with six groups of vectors: blank group, NC (negative control) group, miR-31 mimics group, miR-31 mimics + RhoA group, miR-31 mimics + ROCK group, and miR-31 mimics + MLCK agonist group...
December 1, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903651/t-cells-encountering-myeloid-cells-programmed-for-amino-acid-dependent-immunosuppression-use-rictor-mtorc2-for-proliferative-checkpoint-decisions
#13
Lee-Ann Van de Velde, Chitra Subramanian, Amber M Smith, Luke Barron, Joseph E Qualls, Geoffrey Neale, Adolfo Alfonso-Pecchio, Suzanne Jackowski, Charles O Rock, Thomas A Wynn, Peter J Murray
Modulation of T cell proliferation and function by immunoregulatory myeloid cells is an essential means of preventing self-reactivity and restoring tissue homeostasis. Consumption of amino acids such as arginine and tryptophan by immunoregulatory macrophages is one pathway that suppresses local T cell proliferation. Using a reduced complexity in vitro macrophage: T cell co-culture system, we show that macrophage Arginase-1 (Arg1) is the only factor required by M2 macrophages to block T cells in G1, and this effect is mediated by L-arginine elimination rather than metabolite generation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900424/long-term-geochemical-evolution-of-lithogenic-versus-anthropogenic-distribution-of-macro-and-trace-elements-in-household-attic-dust
#14
Biljana Balabanova, Trajče Stafilov, Robert Šajn, Claudiu Tănăselia
Attic dusts were examined as historical archives of anthropogenic emissions, with the goal of elucidating the enrichment pathways associated with hydrothermal exploitation of Cu, Pb, and Zn minerals in the Bregalnica River basin in the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. Dust samples were collected from 84 settlements. Atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma were applied as analytical techniques for the determination of 69 element contents. Multivariate analysis was applied for the extraction of dominant geochemical markers...
November 29, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899893/raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-brief-review-of-the-underlying-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Manal M Fardoun, Joseph Nassif, Khodr Issa, Elias Baydoun, Ali H Eid
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is characterized by exaggerated cold-induced vasoconstriction. This augmented vasoconstriction occurs by virtue of a reflex response to cooling via the sympathetic nervous system as well as by local activation of α2C adrenoceptors (α2C-AR). In a cold-initiated, mitochondrion-mediated mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and the Rho/ROCK pathway, cytoskeletal rearrangement in vascular smooth muscle cells orchestrates the translocation of α2C-AR to the cell membrane, where this receptor readily interacts with its ligand...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899880/elbow-matching-accuracy-in-young-and-elderly-humans-under-unusual-mechanical-constraints
#16
Vera L Talis, Yuri S Levik
Experiment was carried out to study the proprioception accuracy of elderly (61-83 years old) and young (22-36 years old) subjects during contralateral elbow matching in sagittal plane. The subjects performed the task under ordinary condition and under experimental condition (matching forearm attached to the rocking cylindrical platform of low (LS), or high (HS) height, so that the elbow flexion was associated with tilting movement of the support and with backward movement of the upper arm). Control matching of young and elderly subjects does not differ significantly in terms of constant and absolute error...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899253/betulin-inhibited-cigarette-smoke-induced-copd-in-mice
#17
Ma Chunhua, Hongyan Long, Weina Zhu, Zheng Liu, Ruan Jie, Yajie Zhang, Yarui Wang
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of betulin (BE) on CS (cigarette smoke)-induced COPD in mice and explore its underlying mechanisms. 60 male ICR mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, model group, dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, BE (20mg/kg) group and BE (40mg/kg) group. The COPD mice were induced by cigarette smoke exposure for 8 weeks. The result of H&E staining demonstrated that BE inhibited CS-induced pathological injury in lung tissue. Besides, BE could restore the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and in lung, catalase (CAT) in serum and reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and in lung...
November 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898793/increasing-soluble-phosphate-species-by-treatment-of-phosphate-rocks-with-acidic-waste
#18
Wedisson O Santos, Dean Hesterberg, Edson M Mattiello, Leonardus Vergütz, Matheus S C Barreto, Ivo R Silva, Luiz F S Souza Filho
The development of efficient fertilizers with a diminished environmental footprint will help meet the increasing demand for food and nutrients by a growing global population. Our objective was to evaluate whether an acidic mine waste (AMW) could be used beneficially by reacting it with sparingly soluble phosphate rocks (PRs) to produce more soluble P fertilizer materials. Three PRs from Brazil and Peru were reacted with different concentrations of AMW. Changes in mineralogy and P species were determined using a combination of X-ray diffraction and phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, in addition to extractable P concentrations...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898372/gamma-radiation-induced-thermoluminescence-trace-element-and-paramagnetic-defect-of-quartz-from-the-sambagawa-metamorphic-belt-central-shikoku-japan
#19
T Chuenpee, O Nishikawa, Y Kon, K Ninagawa, S Toyoda, T Ogata, T Uchida, I Takashima
This study analyzes the Thermoluminescence (TL) emissions for five emission bands, trace element concentrations and defects in quartz grains extracted from metamorphic rocks and quartz veins in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, central Shikoku. An emission of 500nm with 195, 245, and 320-325°C glow peaks are observed through the lowest to highest grade samples. A 450nm emission band with intense 195 and 245°C glow peaks and a 320-325°C shoulder peak is found in the higher grade samples. A 570nm emission band with a 170°C glow peak is observed in the samples derived from the lower grade zones...
November 17, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898187/tissue-engineering-acellular-scaffolds-the-significant-influence-of-physical-and-procedural-decellularization-factors
#20
F Starnecker, F Koenig, C Hagl, N Thierfelder
The importance of decellularized medical products has significantly increased during the last years. In this paper, we evaluated the effects of selected physical and procedural decellularization (DC) factors with the aim to systematically assess their influence on DC results. 72 porcine aortic walls (AW) were divided into three groups and exposed to a DC solution for 4 h and 8 h, either continuously or in repeated cycles. The AW were rocked (90bpm), whirled (10 l/min), sonicated (120W, 45 kHz) or exposed to a combination of these treatments, followed by 10 washing cycles...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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