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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150598/redox-independent-chromium-isotope-fractionation-induced-by-ligand-promoted-dissolution
#1
Emily M Saad, Xiangli Wang, Noah J Planavsky, Christopher T Reinhard, Yuanzhi Tang
The chromium (Cr) isotope system has emerged as a potential proxy for tracing the Earth's atmospheric evolution based on a redox-dependent framework for Cr mobilization and isotope fractionation. Although studies have demonstrated that redox-independent pathways can also mobilize Cr, no quantitative constraints exist on the associated isotope fractionations. Here we survey the effects of common environmental ligands on the dissolution of Cr(III)-(oxy)hydroxide solids and associated Cr isotope fractionation...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150517/multi-omics-reveal-the-lifestyle-of-the-acidophilic-mineral-oxidizing-model-species-leptospirillum-ferriphilum-t
#2
Stephan Christel, Malte Herold, Sören Bellenberg, Mohamed El Hajjami, Antoine Buetti-Dinh, Igor V Pivkin, Wolfgang Sand, Paul Wilmes, Ansgar Poetsch, Mark Dopson
Leptospirillum ferriphilum plays a major role in acidic, metal rich environments where it represents one of the most prevalent iron oxidizers. These milieus include acid rock and mine drainage as well as biomining operations. Despite its perceived importance, no complete genome sequence of this model species' type strain is available, limiting the possibilities to investigate the strategies and adaptations Leptospirillum ferriphilum(T) applies to survive and compete in its niche. This study presents a complete, circular genome of Leptospirillum ferriphilum(T) DSM 14647 obtained by PacBio SMRT long read sequencing for use as a high quality reference...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149278/interdisciplinary-stem-education-reform-dishing-out-art-in-a-microbiology-laboratory
#3
Sarah J Adkins, Rachel K Rock, J Jeffrey Morris
In the modern educational framework, life science and visual art are usually presented as mutually exclusive subjects. Despite this perceived disciplinary contrast, visual art has the ability to engage and provoke students in ways that can have important downstream effects on scientific discovery, especially when applied in a practical setting such as a laboratory course. This review broadly examines the benefit of interdisciplinary fusions of science and art as well as recent ways in which art strategies have been used in undergraduate biology classrooms...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146256/isolation-purification-structural-elucidation-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-kocumarin-a-novel-antibiotic-isolated-from-actinobacterium-kocuria-marina-cmg-s2-associated-with-the-brown-seaweed-pelvetia-canaliculata
#4
Bushra Uzair, Farid Menaa, Barkat Ali Khan, Faryal Vali Mohammad, Viqar Uddin Ahmad, Ryad Djeribi, Bouzid Menaa
AIMS: Screening of seaweed-associated bacteria capable of producing antimicrobials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen microbial strains, associated to the brown seaweed Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) attached to the rocks of Sonmiani Beach (Karachi, Pakistan), were screened. Crude extract filtrates of CMG S2 strain grew on Zobell marine agar (ZMA) had the most remarkable antimicrobial activity. Based on its phenotypic aspects (e.g. Gram-positive, microccoid form), biochemical characteristics (e...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145589/the-abcds-of-pain-management-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-examining-the-impact-of-a-brief-educational-video-on-infants-and-toddlers-pain-scores-and-parent-soothing-behavior
#5
Rebecca Pillai Riddell, Monica C O'Neill, Lauren Campbell, Anna Taddio, Saul Greenberg, Hartley Garfield
Objectives: To test the efficacy of a brief behavioral pain management strategy (The ABCDs of Needle Pain Management), delivered via video, on infants' and toddlers' pain scores and on parental soothing behavior. Methods: This was a double-blind, parallel trial design. Parent-child dyads (N = 128) were recruited before their child's 6-month (infant) or 18-month (toddler) vaccination in a pediatric clinic and randomly assigned to watch a 5-min treatment video or a placebo video...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145408/effect-of-pulse-pressure-on-borehole-stability-during-shear-swirling-flow-vibration-cementing
#6
Zhihua Cui, Chi Ai, Lei Lv, Fangxian Yin
The shear swirling flow vibration cementing (SSFVC) technique rotates the downhole eccentric cascade by circulating cementing fluid. It makes the casing eccentrically revolve at high speed around the borehole axis. It produces strong agitation action to the annulus fluid, makes it in the state of shear turbulent flow, and results in the formation of pulse pressure which affects the surrounding rock stress. This study was focused on 1) the calculation of the pulse pressure in an annular turbulent flow field based on the finite volume method, and 2) the analysis of the effect of pulse pressure on borehole stability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145080/comparing-the-efficacy-of-solid-and-magic-echo-refocusing-sequences-applications-to-1-h-nmr-echo-spectroscopy-of-shale-rock
#7
Gregory S Boutis, Ravinath Kausik
Quantitative evaluation of the solid and viscous components of unconventional shale rock, namely kerogen and bitumen, is important for understanding reservoir quality. Short transverse coherence times, due to strong (1)H-(1)H dipolar interactions, motivates the application of solid state refocusing pulse sequences that allow for investigating components of the free-induction decay that are otherwise obscured by instrumental effects such as probe ringdown. This work reports on static, wide-line (1)H spectroscopy of shale rock and their extracted components, which include kerogen and bitumen, by the application of solid echo and magic echo pulse sequences...
November 3, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145057/bioerosive-and-bioprotective-role-of-barnacles-on-rocky-shores
#8
Marta Pappalardo, Elena Maggi, Chiara Geppini, Federica Pannacciulli
Bioerosion and bioprotection (bio-remodeling) is the action exerted by biota colonizing rocky shores. It represents an important component among processes responsible for shaping coastal landforms, and a clear evidence of interaction between the biosphere and the solid earth. Barnacles extensively colonize the midlittoral belt of rocky shores in the Mediterranean Basin. Previous research, mostly based on laboratory evidence, suggests that barnacles are bioprotectors, in that they protect the rock surface from different types of physical and chemical weathering...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144142/nanoscale-zirconium-abundant-surface-layers-on-lithium-and-manganese-rich-layered-oxides-for-high-rate-lithium-ion-batteries
#9
Juhyeon Ahn, Jong Hak Kim, Byung Won Cho, Kyung Yoon Chung, Sangryun Kim, Jang Wook Choi, Si Hyoung Oh
Battery performance, such as the rate capability and cycle stability of lithium transition metal oxides, is strongly correlated with the surface properties of active particles. For lithium-rich layered oxides, transition metal segregation in the initial state and migration upon cycling leads to a significant structural rearrangement, which eventually degrades the electrode performance. Here, we show that a fine-tuning of surface chemistry on the particular crystal facet can facilitate ionic diffusion and thus improve the rate capability dramatically, delivering a specific capacity of ∼110 mAh g(-1) at 30C...
November 16, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143490/rock-glaciers-in-crystalline-catchments-hidden-permafrost-related-threats-to-alpine-headwater-lakes
#10
Boris P Ilyashuk, Elena A Ilyashuk, Roland Psenner, Richard Tessadri, Karin A Koinig
A global warming-induced transition from glacial to periglacial processes has been identified in mountainous regions around the world. Degrading permafrost in pristine periglacial environments can produce acid rock drainage (ARD) and cause severe ecological damage in areas underlain by sulfide-bearing bedrock. Limnological and paleolimnological approaches were used to assess and compare ARDs generated by rock glaciers, a typical landform of the mountain permafrost domain, and their effects on alpine headwater lakes with similar morphometric features and underlying bedrock geology, but characterized by different intensities of frost action in their catchments during the year...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143263/enhanced-stabilization-of-pb-zn-and-cd-in-contaminated-soils-using-oxalic-acid-activated-phosphate-rocks
#11
Zhuo Zhang, Guanlin Guo, Mei Wang, Jia Zhang, Zhixin Wang, Fasheng Li, Honghan Chen
Phosphate amendments, especially phosphate rock (PR), are one of the most commonly used materials to stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, most of PR reserve consists of low-grade ore, which limits the efficiency of PR for stabilizing heavy metals. This study was to enhance the stabilization of heavy metals through improving the available phosphorous (P) release of PR by oxalic acid activation. Raw PR and activated PR (APR) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, and laser diffraction to determine the changes of structure and composition of APR...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143227/pdgfr-inhibition-mediated-intracellular-signalling-in-c6-glioma-growth-and-migration-role-of-erk-and-rock-pathway
#12
Juhi Singh, Kedarlal Sharma, Prakash P Pillai
Aberrant PDGFR (Platelet derived growth factor receptor) signalling in brain tumors and gliomas is one of the primary cause of tumor progression. PDGFR stimulation by its ligand and the role of its downstream mediators such as extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2), PI3K and ROCK pathways have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study sought to investigate the role of PDGF receptor signalling inhibition on suppression of rat C6 glioma growth and migration. Treatment of C6 cells with PDGFR inhibitor, AG1295 caused a significant reduction in migration and proliferation by regulating the ERK and ROCK signalling...
November 15, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142175/macrophage-differentiation-induced-by-pma-is-mediated-by-activation-of-rhoa-rock-signaling
#13
Lifeng Yang, Fan Dai, Lian Tang, Yulan Le, Wenjuan Yao
In order to investigate the effects of RhoA/ROCK signaling in macrophage differentiation, we used 100 ng/mL PMA to induce macrophage differentiation from U937 cells in vitro. The observation of cell morphology and the expression of CD68 and SR-A were performed to confirm the differentiation induced by PMA. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of ROCK1 and ROCK2 and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 were significantly increased after PMA treatment. Pulldown assay showed that the activation of RhoA was obviously enhanced when U937 cells were treated with PMA...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141593/bidirectional-alteration-of-cav-1-expression-is-associated-with-mitogenic-conversion-of-its-function-in-gastric-tumor-progression
#14
Byung-Kyu Ryu, Min-Goo Lee, Nam-Hoon Kim, Kil Yeon Lee, Shin-Ju Oh, Jung-Rock Moon, Hyo Jong Kim, Sung-Gil Chi
BACKGROUND: Expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is frequently altered in many human cancers and both tumor suppression and promotion functions of Cav-1 have been suggested based on its expression status. However, it remains unanswered how Cav-1 provokes opposite effects in different cancers or different phases of tumor progression. METHODS: To explore the implication of Cav-1 alteration in gastric tumorigenesis, the expression and mutational status of Cav-1 and its effects on tumor cell growth were characterized...
November 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140292/anisotropic-failure-strength-of-shale-with-increasing-confinement-behaviors-factors-and-mechanism
#15
Cheng Cheng, Xiao Li, Haitao Qian
Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses...
November 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140085/electronic-structure-of-anilinopyridinate-supported-ru2-5-paddlewheel-compounds
#16
Amanda R Corcos, Michael D Roy, Michelle M Killian, Stephanie Dillon, Thomas C Brunold, John F Berry
The electronic structures of the diruthenium compounds Ru2(ap)4Cl (1, ap = 2-anilinopyridinate) and Ru2(ap)4OTf (2) were investigated with UV-vis, resonance Raman, and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopies; SQUID magnetometry; and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Both compounds have quartet spin ground states with large axial zero-field splitting of ∼60 cm(-1) that is characteristic of Ru2(5+) compounds having a (π*, δ*)(3) electron configuration and a Ru-Ru bond order of ∼2.5...
November 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137281/hic-5-regulates-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-in-a-tgf%C3%AE-1-independent-manner
#17
Razan Sheta, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Magdalena Bachvarova, Marie Plante, Jean Gregoire, Marie-Claude Renaud, Alexandra Sebastianelli, Stephane Gobeil, Chantale Morin, Elizabeth Macdonald, Barbara Vanderhyden, Dimcho Bachvarov
The molecular basis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) dissemination is still poorly understood. We have previously identified the hydrogen peroxide-inducible clone-5 (Hic-5) gene as hypomethylated in high-grade (HG) serous EOC tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. Hic-5 is a focal adhesion scaffold protein and has been primarily studied for its role as a key mediator of TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cells of both normal and malignant origin; however, its role in EOC has been never investigated...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136842/application-of-micro-x-ray-fluorescence-and-micro-computed-tomography-to-the-study-of-laser-cleaning-efficiency-on-limestone-monuments-covered-by-black-crusts
#18
Giorgio S Senesi, Ignazio Allegretta, Carlo Porfido, Olga De Pascale, Roberto Terzano
Laser cleaning is widely used to remove black crusts from weathered limestone monuments. The cleaning efficiency is commonly tested using conventional analytical techniques, which do not allow to analyze the same sample before and after the treatment. In this paper, micro computed tomography (μ-CT) and micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF) techniques were used for the first time to evaluate the laser cleaning efficiency on two different encrusted quoins collected from a limestone monument. Analyses were carried out non-destructively on the same portion of the two lithotypes before and after the treatment...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136112/local-production-of-tenascin-c-acts-as-a-trigger-for-monocyte-macrophage-recruitment-that-provokes-cardiac-dysfunction
#19
Dounia Abbadi, Fanny Laroumanie, Mathilde Bizou, Joffrey Pozzo, Danièle Daviaud, Christine Delage, Denis Calise, Fréderique Gaits-Iacovoni, Marianne Dutaur, Florence Tortosa, Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Victorine Douin-Echinard, Anne-Catherine Prats, Jerome Roncalli, Angelo Parini, Nathalie Pizzinat
Aims: Tenascin-C (TNC) is an endogenous danger signal molecule strongly associated with inflammatory diseases and with poor outcome in patients with cardiomyopathies. Its function within pathological cardiac tissue during pressure overload remains poorly understood. Methods and results: We showed that TNC accumulates after 1 week of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in the heart of 12-week-old male mice. By cross bone marrow transplantation experiments, we determined that TNC deposition relied on cardiac cells and not on haematopoietic cells...
November 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135700/safety-outcomes-following-spine-and-cranial-neurosurgery-evidence-from-the-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program
#20
Andrew K Rock, Charles F Opalak, Kathryn G Workman, William C Broaddus
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) was used to establish predictors for 30-day postoperative complications following spine and cranial neurosurgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ACS-NSQIP participant use files were queried for neurosurgical cases between 2005 and 2015. Prevalence of postoperative complications following neurosurgery was determined. Nested multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify demographic, comorbidity, and perioperative characteristics associated with any complication and mortality for spine and cranial surgery...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
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