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S M Shah, J P Crawshaw, E S Boek
In the last decade, imaging techniques capable of reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D) pore-scale model have played a pivotal role in the study of fluid flow through complex porous media. In this study, we present advances in the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to image, reconstruct and characterize complex porous geological materials with hydrocarbon reservoir and CO2 storage potential. CLSM has a unique capability of producing 3-D thin optical sections of a material, with a wide field of view and submicron resolution in the lateral and axial planes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
Susan M Perkins, Peter Bacchetti, Cynthia S Davey, Christopher J Lindsell, Madhu Mazumdar, Robert A Oster, Peter N Peduzzi, David M Rocke, Kyle D Rudser, Mimi Kim
Given the increasing level and scope of biostatistics expertise needed at academic health centers today, we developed best practices guidelines for biostatistics units to be more effective in providing biostatistical support to their institutions, and in fostering an environment in which unit members can thrive professionally. Our recommendations focus on the key areas of: 1) funding sources and mechanisms; 2) providing and prioritizing access to biostatistical resources; and 3) interacting with investigators...
2016: American Statistician
Michael S Samuel, Nicola Rath, Siti F Masre, Sarah T Boyle, David A Greenhalgh, Marina Kochetkova, Sheila Bryson, David Stevenson, Michael F Olson
The serine/threonine kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 are central mediators of actomyosin contractile force generation that act downstream of the RhoA small GTP-binding protein. As a result, they have key roles in regulating cell morphology and proliferation, and have been implicated in numerous pathological conditions and diseases including hypertension and cancer. Here we describe the generation of a gene-targeted mouse line that enables CRE-inducible expression of a conditionally-active fusion between the ROCK2 kinase domain and the hormone-binding domain of a mutated estrogen receptor (ROCK2:ER)...
October 24, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Hyun Deog Yoo, Sang-Don Han, Ryan D Bayliss, Andrew A Gewirth, Bostjan Genorio, Nav Nidhi Rajput, Kristin A Persson, Anthony K Burrell, Jordi Cabana
Hybrid supercapacitors that follow a 'rocking-chair'-type mechanism were developed by coupling divalent metal and activated carbon electrodes in non-aqueous electrolytes. Conventional supercapacitors require large amount of electrolyte to provide a sufficient quantity of ions to the electrodes, due to their Daniell-type mechanism that depletes the ions from the electrolyte whilst charging. The alternative 'rocking-chair'-type mechanism effectively enhances the energy density of supercapacitors by minimizing the necessary amount of electrolyte, because the ion is replenished from the metal anode while it is adsorbed to the cathode...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Arnaud Hemmerle, Matthias Schröter, Lucas Goehring
By mixing glass beads with a curable polymer we create a well-defined cohesive granular medium, held together by solidified, and hence elastic, capillary bridges. This material has a geometry similar to a wet packing of beads, but with an additional control over the elasticity of the bonds holding the particles together. We show that its mechanical response can be varied over several orders of magnitude by adjusting the size and stiffness of the bridges, and the size of the particles. We also investigate its mechanism of failure under unconfined uniaxial compression in combination with in situ x-ray microtomography...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Joachim Richter, Roya Ostovar
The functions of dance and music in human evolution are a mystery. Current research on the evolution of music has mainly focused on its melodic attribute which would have evolved alongside (proto-)language. Instead, we propose an alternative conceptual framework which focuses on the co-evolution of rhythm and dance (R&D) as intertwined aspects of a multimodal phenomenon characterized by the unity of action and perception. Reviewing the current literature from this viewpoint we propose the hypothesis that R&D have co-evolved long before other musical attributes and (proto-)language...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Niya Xiong, Shun Li, Kai Tang, Hongxia Bai, Yueting Peng, Hong Yang, Chunhui Wu, Yiyao Liu
Tumor cells translocating to distant sites are subjected to hemodynamic shear forces during their passage in the blood vessels. Low shear stress (LSS) plays a critical role in the regulation of various aspects of tumor cells functions, including motility and adhesion. Beyond its structural role, caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the important component of caveolae, represents a modulator of several cancer-associated functions as tumor progression and metastasis. However, the role of Cav-1 in regulating tumor cells response to shear stress remains poorly explored...
October 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jonathan S Coravos, Adam C Martin
Actomyosin networks generate contractile force that changes cell and tissue shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments and myosin II appear in a polarized structure called a sarcomere, in which myosin II is localized in the center. Nonmuscle cortical actomyosin networks are thought to contract when nonmuscle myosin II (myosin) is activated throughout a mixed-polarity actin network. Here, we identified a mutant version of the myosin-activating kinase, ROCK, that localizes diffusely, rather than centrally, in epithelial cell apices...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
Li Qi, Yong-Gang Tang, Lin Wang, Wei He, Hong-Hua Pan, Rong-Rong Nie, Yan Can
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to elucidate the role of Rho-mediated ROCK-Semaphorin3A signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) in a mouse model. METHODS: One-hundred twelve eight-week male C57BL/6 mice were selected. The mouse model of PD was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP. All mice were divided into four groups (28 mice in each group): Blank group, Model group, Rho knockout (Rho+/-) group and ROCK knockout (ROCK+/-) group...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Young-Rock Ha, Sin-Youl Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Katharina Grundler, Raffaela Rotter, Sloane Tilley, Joachim Pircher, Thomas Czermak, Mustaf Yakac, Erik Gaitzsch, Steffen Massberg, Florian Krötz, Hae-Young Sohn, Ulrich Pohl, Hanna Mannell, Bjoern F Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: Platelets possess critical hemostatic functions in the system of thrombosis and hemostasis, which can be affected by a multitude of external factors. Previous research has shown that platelets have the capacity to synthesize proteins de novo and more recently a multicatalytic protein complex, the proteasome, has been discovered in platelets. Due to its vital function for cellular integrity, the proteasome has become a therapeutic target for anti-proliferative drug therapies in cancer...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis Research
Jayant M Pinto, Ryan Salvador, Robert M Naclerio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Hui-Ju Tsai, Ching-Ping Tseng
Multiple functions of platelets in various physiological and pathological conditions have prompted considerable attention on understanding how platelets are generated and activated. Of the adaptor proteins that are expressed in megakaryocytes and platelets, Disabled-2 (Dab2) has been demonstrated in the past decades as a key regulator of platelet signaling. Dab2 has two alternative splicing isoforms p82 and p59. However, the mode of Dab2's action remains to be clearly defined. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of Dab2 expression and function in megakaryocytic differentiation, platelet activation and integrin signaling...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Gavin R McCormack, Taryn M Graham, Hayley Christian, Ann M Toohey, Melanie J Rock
OBJECTIVES: Our study objectives were to: 1) estimate differences in perceptions of the neighbourhood built environment among non-dog-owners, owners who walk their dogs (dog-walkers) and owners who do not walk their dogs (non-dog-walkers), and 2) estimate associations between perceptions of the neighbourhood built environment and dog-walking frequency. METHOD: A random cross-section of Calgary adults completed telephone interviews during August-October 2007 (n = 2,199, response rate = 33...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Pieter Uvin, Maarten Albersen, Ine Bollen, Maarten Falter, Emmanuel Weyne, Loes Linsen, Hanna Tinel, Peter Sandner, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Dirk Jmk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Bert Brône, Koenraad Van Renterghem
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of the Rho/Rho associated protein kinase (ROCK) pathway in corpus cavernosum of patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED) compared to healthy human corpus cavernosum, and to test the functional effects of two Rho Kinase Inhibitors (RKI) on erectile tissue of patients with severe ED, not responding to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-i). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Human corpus cavernosum samples were obtained after consent from individuals undergoing penile prosthesis implantation (n = 7 for organ bath experiments, n = 17 for qPCR)...
October 20, 2016: BJU International
(no author information available yet)
An Irish polka tune, 1950s rock and roll and African music were among the songs chosen by celebrated nurse Elizabeth Anionwu at a Desert Island Discs-style event for Black History Month.
October 12, 2016: Nursing Standard
Vendela K Lagerholm, Edson Sandoval-Castellanos, Amélie Vaniscotte, Olga R Potapova, Teresa Tomek, Zbigniew M Bochenski, Paul Shepherd, Nick Barton, Marie-Claire Van Dyck, Rebecca Miller, Jacob Höglund, Nigel G Yoccoz, Love Dalén, John R Stewart
Global warming is predicted to cause substantial habitat rearrangements, with the most severe effects expected to occur in high-latitude biomes. However, one major uncertainty is whether species will be able to shift their ranges to keep pace with climate-driven environmental changes. Many recent studies on mammals have shown that past range contractions have been associated with local extinctions rather than survival by habitat tracking. Here, we have used an interdisciplinary approach that combines ancient DNA techniques, coalescent simulations and species distribution modelling, to investigate how two common cold-adapted bird species, willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and Lagopus muta), respond to long-term climate warming...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
Anup Arumughan, Yvette Roske, Carolin Barth, Laura Lleras Forero, Kenny Bravo-Rodriguez, Alexandra Redel, Simona Kostova, Erik McShane, Robert Opitz, Katja Faelber, Kirstin Rau, Thorsten Mielke, Oliver Daumke, Matthias Selbach, Elsa Sanchez-Garcia, Oliver Rocks, Daniela Panáková, Udo Heinemann, Erich E Wanker
Interaction mapping is a powerful strategy to elucidate the biological function of protein assemblies and their regulators. Here, we report the generation of a quantitative interaction network, directly linking 14 human proteins to the AAA+ ATPase p97, an essential hexameric protein with multiple cellular functions. We show that the high-affinity interacting protein ASPL efficiently promotes p97 hexamer disassembly, resulting in the formation of stable p97:ASPL heterotetramers. High-resolution structural and biochemical studies indicate that an extended UBX domain (eUBX) in ASPL is critical for p97 hexamer disassembly and facilitates the assembly of p97:ASPL heterotetramers...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Sonja Mertsch, Solon Thanos
For normal embryonic development/morphogenesis, cell migration and homing are well-orchestrated and important events requiring specific cellular mechanisms. In diseases such as cancer deregulated cell migration represents a major problem. Therefore, numerous efforts are under way to understand the molecular mechanisms of tumor cell migration and to generate more efficient tumor therapies. Cell migration assays are one of the most commonly used functional assays. The wound-healing assay or the Boyden chamber assay are variations of these assays...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jason Gien, Nancy Tseng, Gregory J Seedorf, Katherine Kuhn, Steven H Abman
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease associated with premature birth, characterized by impaired vascular and alveolar growth. In neonatal rats bleomycin decreases lung growth and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is poorly responsive to nitric oxide. In the developing lung, through rho-kinase (ROCK) activation, ET-1 impairs endothelial cell function, however, whether ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to impaired vascular and alveolar growth in experimental BPD is unknown. Neonatal rats were treated daily with intra-peritoneal bleomycin with and without selective ETA (BQ123/BQ610) and ETB (BQ788) receptor blockers, non-selective ET receptor blocker (ETRB) (bosentan) or fasudil (ROCK inhibitor)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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