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Infectious diseases

Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti, Célia Pereira Caldas, Kenio Costa de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To identify the diseases that lead older persons to hospitalizations in the public health system in the state of Rio de Janeiro and, through a study of spatial distribution among hospitalization rates of the municipal districts, discuss the social contexts involved in the hospitalization of the elderly. METHODS: An ecological cross-sectional study using secondary data from the Brazilian hospital information system from the period 2009 to 2015 was performed...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Carmen Scheibenbogen, Madlen Loebel, Helma Freitag, Anne Krueger, Sandra Bauer, Michaela Antelmann, Wolfram Doehner, Nadja Scherbakov, Harald Heidecke, Petra Reinke, Hans-Dieter Volk, Patricia Grabowski
INTRODUCTION: Infection-triggered disease onset, chronic immune activation and autonomic dysregulation in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) point to an autoimmune disease directed against neurotransmitter receptors. We had observed elevated autoantibodies against ß2 adrenergic receptors, and muscarinic 3 and 4 acetylcholine receptors in a subset of patients. Immunoadsorption (IA) was shown to be effective in removing autoantibodies and improve outcome in various autoimmune diseases...
2018: PloS One
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Madan Upadhyay, Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Bharat Shrestha, Bhaiya Khanal, Bishnu Psd Upadhyay, Jeevan B Sherchand, Prakash Ghimire
PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a detailed update in Seasonal hypercute panuveitis (SHAPU) which is a blinding disease of unknown etiology reported only from Nepal, occurring every odd year since 1975 predominantly in children. METHODS: Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1975 to late 2017). Search items included SHAPU, seasonal endophthalmitis, hypopyon uveitis, caterpillar induced uveitis alone or in combination with white moth, panuveitis, and review...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
M T Slockers, W J Nusselder, J Rietjens, E F van Beeck
OBJECTIVE: Get insight into excess mortality in the Rotterdam homeless population according to cause of death and changes in this mortality after introduction of social policies in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, in 2006. DESIGN: Uncontrolled before-and-after study. METHOD: We included homeless adults who visited the Rotterdam shelter in 2001 and followed them for 10 years (2001-2010). We then linked the data of this cohort to Statistics Netherlands mortality figures...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
E Laurin, K K Thakur, I A Gardner, P Hick, N J G Moody, M S J Crane, I Ernst
Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Francesco Caso, Marco Tasso, Pasquale Ambrosino, Matteo Nicola, Dario Di Minno, Roberta Lupoli, Livio Criscuolo, Paolo Caso, Francesco Ursini, Antonio Del Puente, Raffaele Scarpa, Luisa Costa, Rosario Peluso
BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory arthropathy that affects 14%-30% of patients with skin and/or nail psoriasis and leading to severe physical limitations and disability. It has been included in the group of spondyloarthropathy with which it shares clinical, radiologic, and serologic features in addition to familial and genetic relationship. Beyond skin and joint involvement, psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a high prevalence of extra-articular manifestation and comorbidities, such as autoimmune, infectious and neoplastic diseases...
March 13, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Albert Boada, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Jordi Real, Elisabet Grezner, Bonventura Bolíbar, Carl Llor
INTRODUCTION: Commensal flora of healthy people is becoming an important reservoir of resistant bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship of previous antibiotic-dispensed and resistance pattern of strains of Staphylococcus aureus in primary care patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven primary care centres in Catalonia, Spain, from October 2010 to May 2011, as part of the APRES (The appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics in primary care in Europe concerning antibiotic resistance) study...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
Bei Jia, Weihua Wu, Rui Huang, Guiyang Wang, Peixin Song, Yang Li, Yong Liu, Yali Xiong, Xiaomin Yan, Yingying Hao, Juan Xia, Zhaoping Zhang, Yuxin Chen, Chao Wu
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a life-threatening infectious disease identified in 2009. SFTS is mainly transmitted by contact with ticks or animals; however, sporadic reports suggested that SFTS could be transmitted among humans. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to comprehensively characterize clinical features and disease progression of SFTS acquired by human-to-human transmission. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 90 SFTS patients was performed in a tertiary hospital of Nanjing, China, from October 2010 to October 2016...
March 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Paulo André Dias Bastos, Lúcio Lara Santos, Rui Miguel Pinheiro Vitorino
The human gut barrier is the tissue exposed to the highest load of microorganisms, harbouring 100 trillion bacteria. In addition, the gut's renewal rate outruns that of any other human tissue. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly optimized defense molecules in the intestinal barrier optimized to maintain gastrointestinal homeostasis. Alterations in AMPs activity can lead to or result from human gastrointestinal diseases. In this review, unique, conserved, or otherwise regular alterations in the expression patterns of human AMPs across gastrointestinal inflammatory and infectious diseases were analyzed for pattern elucidation...
March 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Preecha Patumcharoenpol, Thidarat Rujirawat, Tassanee Lohnoo, Wanta Yingyong, Nongnuch Vanittanakom, Weerayuth Kittichotirat, Theerapong Krajaejun
Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete microorganism that causes the fatal infectious disease, pythiosis, in humans and animals. The organism has been successfully isolated from the environment worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of pythiosis is difficult and challenging. Genome sequences of P. insidiosum , isolated from humans, are available and accessible in public databases. To further facilitate biology-, pathogenicity-, and evolution-related genomic and genetic studies of P. insidiosum , we report two additional draft genome sequences of the P...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Leron Khalifa, Daniel Gelman, Mor Shlezinger, Axel Lionel Dessal, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
The deteriorating effectiveness of antibiotics is propelling researchers worldwide towards alternative techniques such as phage therapy: curing infectious diseases using viruses of bacteria called bacteriophages. In a previous paper, we isolated phage EFDG1, highly effective against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of one of the most challenging pathogenic species, the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Thus, it is a promising phage to be used in phage therapy. Further experimentation revealed the emergence of a mutant resistant to EFDG1 phage: EFDG1r ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Steven Abrams, Andreas Wienke, Niel Hens
Frailty models are often used in survival analysis to model multivariate time-to-event data. In infectious disease epidemiology, frailty models have been proposed to model heterogeneity in the acquisition of infection and to accommodate association in the occurrence of multiple types of infection. Although traditional frailty models rely on the assumption of lifelong immunity after recovery, refinements have been made to account for reinfections with the same pathogen. Recently, Abrams and Hens quantified the effect of misspecifying the underlying infection process on the basic and effective reproduction number in the context of bivariate current status data on parvovirus B19 and varicella zoster virus...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics
Mariko Ito, Md Shahin Alam, Mayuko Suzuki, Satoru Takahashi, Miyuki Komura, Natthanan Sangsriratakul, Dany Shoham, Kazuaki Takehara
A quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) was evaluated for its virucidal efficacies with food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2 ). When the QAC was diluted 1:500 (QACx500) with redistilled water (dW2 ), it inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) within 30 sec at 25°C, while at 2°C, it required 1 hr for inactivation. When FdCa(OH)2 powder was added to QACx500 at a final concentration of 0.17%, the mixture, namely Mix500, inactivated AIV within 3 min at 2°C. After contamination with 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS), Mix500 inactivated AIV within 2 hr at 2°C, but QACx500 did not...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Liliana L Cubas-Gaona, Elisabet Diaz-Beneitez, Marina Ciscar, José F Rodríguez, Dolores Rodríguez
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family and is the etiological agent of a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease (IBD) that affects domestic chickens ( Gallus gallus ). IBD or Gumboro disease leads to high morbidity and mortality of infected animals, and is responsible for major economic losses to the poultry industry world-wide. IBD is characterized by a massive loss of IgM-bearing B lymphocytes and the destruction of the bursa of Fabricius. The molecular bases of the IBDV pathogenicity are still poorly understood, nonetheless, an exacerbated cytokine immune response and B cell depletion due to apoptosis are considered main factors contributing to the severity of the disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
María Cecilia Gimenez, Flavia Adriana Zanetti, Mauricio R Terebiznik, María Isabel Colombo, Laura Ruth Delgui
Birnaviruses are unconventional members of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses group that are characterized by the lack of a transcriptionally active inner core. Instead, the birnaviral particles organize their genome in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed by dsRNA segments, the dsRNA-binding VP3 protein, and the viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). This and other structural features suggests that birnaviruses may follow a completely different replication program from that followed by members of the Reoviridae family, supporting the hypothesis that birnaviruses are the evolutionary link between single-stranded positive RNA (+ssRNA) and dsRNA viruses...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sonja Günther, Sandra Felten, Gerhard Wess, Katrin Hartmann, Karin Weber
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease in cats worldwide. The aim of this study was to test two commercially available reaction mixtures in a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect feline Coronavirus (FCoV) in body cavity effusions of cats with and without FIP, in order to minimize the time from sampling to obtaining results. RNA was extracted from body cavity effusion samples of 71 cats, including 34 samples from cats with a definitive diagnosis of FIP, and 37 samples of control cats with similar clinical signs but other confirmed diseases...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Christiana R Dallas, Curtis H Harris, Cham E Dallas
In the U.S., migration has been documented to affect the prevalence of infectious disease. As a mitigation entity, border security has been recorded by numerous scholarly works as being essential to the support of the health of the U.S. POPULATION: Consequently, the lack of current health care monitoring of the permeable U.S. border places the U.S. population at risk in the broad sectors of infectious disease and interpersonal violence. Visualizing border security in the context of public health mitigation has significant potential to protect migrant health as well as that of all populations on both sides of the border...
March 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Sara Silva Pereira, Andrew P Jackson
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp. are a major source of infectious disease in humans and domestic animals worldwide. Fundamental to the host-parasite interactions of these potent pathogens are their cell surfaces, which are highly decorated with glycosylated proteins and other macromolecules. Trypanosomatid genomes contain large multi-copy gene families encoding UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), the primary role of which is cell-surface decoration...
March 14, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
A Echeverri, J Naranjo-Escobar, I Posso-Osorio, D Aguirre-Valencia, D Zambrano, G L Castaño, J D Martínez, C A Cañas, G J Tobón
Background/Objective Differentiating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) activity from infections in febrile patients is difficult because of similar initial clinical presentation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a number of biomarkers for differentiating infections from activity in SLE patients admitted with systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). Methods Patients with SLE and SIRS admitted to the emergency room were included in this study. Measurements of different markers including procalcitonin, neutrophil CD64 expression and presepsin, were performed...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
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