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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538782/diffuse-cystic-lung-diseases-differential-diagnosis
#1
Bruno Guedes Baldi, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, Olívia Meira Dias, Edson Marchiori, Bruno Hochhegger
Diffuse cystic lung diseases are characterized by cysts in more than one lung lobe, the cysts originating from various mechanisms, including the expansion of the distal airspaces due to airway obstruction, necrosis of the airway walls, and parenchymal destruction. The progression of these diseases is variable. One essential tool in the evaluation of these diseases is HRCT, because it improves the characterization of pulmonary cysts (including their distribution, size, and length) and the evaluation of the regularity of the cyst wall, as well as the identification of associated pulmonary and extrapulmonary lesions...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538743/pathophysiology-of-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#2
Lauren K Hoffman, Mondana H Ghias, Michelle A Lowes
The pathophysiology of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is not well understood. Some of our knowledge comes from clinical and epidemiological observations, along with studies of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry of affected skin. More recently, cutaneous molecular studies and transcriptomic analyses have provided additional information regarding inflammatory processes. The chronic cutaneous inflammation, systemic symptoms, and associated comorbidities suggest that HS should be classified as an immune-mediated disease, rather than a primary infectious disease...
June 2017: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538739/multiplex-pcr-method-for-minion-and-illumina-sequencing-of-zika-and-other-virus-genomes-directly-from-clinical-samples
#3
Joshua Quick, Nathan D Grubaugh, Steven T Pullan, Ingra M Claro, Andrew D Smith, Karthik Gangavarapu, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Thomas F Rogers, Nathan A Beutler, Dennis R Burton, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Jaqueline Goes de Jesus, Marta Giovanetti, Sarah C Hill, Allison Black, Trevor Bedford, Miles W Carroll, Marcio Nunes, Luiz Carlos Alcantara, Ester C Sabino, Sally A Baylis, Nuno R Faria, Matthew Loose, Jared T Simpson, Oliver G Pybus, Kristian G Andersen, Nicholas J Loman
Genome sequencing has become a powerful tool for studying emerging infectious diseases; however, genome sequencing directly from clinical samples (i.e., without isolation and culture) remains challenging for viruses such as Zika, for which metagenomic sequencing methods may generate insufficient numbers of viral reads. Here we present a protocol for generating coding-sequence-complete genomes, comprising an online primer design tool, a novel multiplex PCR enrichment protocol, optimized library preparation methods for the portable MinION sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and the Illumina range of instruments, and a bioinformatics pipeline for generating consensus sequences...
June 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#4
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538160/colonialism-and-genetics-of-comparative-development
#5
Ideen Riahi
This study argues that European colonial policies and former colonies' genetic variation (genetic distance to Europeans and genetic diversity) were interlinked. Over a prolonged period of time, populations that were genetically far from Europeans and had extreme levels of genetic diversity (e.g. in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas) adapted to environments that were significantly different from the climatic conditions of continental Europe. This resulted in a divergence in populations' resistance to infectious diseases and positive relationships between European settler mortality at the time of colonization, genetic distance to the technological frontier, and genetic diversity...
May 9, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538045/donor-derived-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients-toward-a-holistic-approach
#6
Esther Benamu, Cameron R Wolfe, Jose G Montoya
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solid organ demand far exceeds organ supply. Strategies to increase the donor pool include the liberalization of selection criteria without increasing the risk of unexpected donor-derived infection (DDI), a rare complication of transplantation carrying high morbidity and mortality. We review the challenging aspects in the prevention of DDI, focusing on the complexities of data sharing and efficient communication and the role infectious diseases specialists play in the process...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537720/chromone-as-a-privileged-scaffold-in-drug-discovery-recent-advances
#7
Joana Reis, Alexandra Gaspar, Nuno Milhazes, Fernanda M Borges
The use of privileged structures in drug discovery has proven to be an effective strategy allowing the generation of innovative hits/leads and successful optimization processes. Chromone is actually recognized as a privileged structure and a valid template for the design of novel compounds with potential pharmacological interest, particularly in the field of neurodegenerative, inflammatory and infectious diseases as well as diabetes and cancer. Within this framework, this review provides the reader with a literature update following the preceding article entitled Chromone: a valid scaffold in Medicinal Chemistry...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535299/analysis-of-bacterial-metagenomes-from-the-southwestern-gulf-of-mexico-for-pathogens-detection
#8
Wendy Escobedo-Hinojosa, Liliana Pardo-López
Little is known about the diversity of bacteria in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The aim of the study illustrated in this perspective was to search for the presence of bacterial pathogens in this ecosystem, using metagenomic data recently generated by the Mexican research group known as the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium. Several genera of bacteria annotated as pathogens were detected in water and sediment marine samples. As expected, native and ubiquitous pathogenic bacteria genera such as Burkolderia, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio were highly represented...
May 23, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535286/invited-commentary-is-strenuous-activity-good-for-you-the-legacy-of-ralph-paffenbarger
#9
Lewis H Kuller
Ralph Paffenbarger, Jr, MD, DrPH (1922-2007), was initially trained as an infectious disease epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (now the Bloomberg School of Public Health). He was the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service officer in the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service class. He joined the National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) in its very early days and later became a faculty member at Stanford University and Harvard University...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534957/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-inflammatory-responses-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-by-modulating-the-mapk-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#10
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Youngchul Kim, Minji Choi, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
In the present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms and prophylactic effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Cell counting and MTT assays were used to assess cell viability in the absence or presence of GSP. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed for several inflammation-related genes (NOD1, NOD2, TLR2, TLR4, IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS and COX-2). The expression of anti-inflammatory cell signaling molecules, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitory-κBα (IκBα), iNOS and COX-2, was evaluated by western blot analysis...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534949/regulatory-b-cells-in-infectious-disease-review
#11
You-Chao Dai, Jixin Zhong, Jun-Fa Xu
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are a subset of B cells, which reportedly exert significant immunomodulatory effects through the production of interleukin (IL)‑10, IL‑35 and transforming growth factor‑β. Over the last decade, studies have indicated that Bregs function in autoimmune and allergic diseases through antigen‑specific and non‑specific immunoregulatory mechanisms. However, only a limited number of reviews have focused on the role of Bregs during infection, particularly their functions in intracellular infections...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534685/biotin-interference-with-routine-clinical-immunoassays-understand-the-causes-and-mitigate-the-risks
#12
Shanika Samarasinghe, Farah Meah, Vinita Singh, Arshi Basit, Nicholas Emanuele, Mary Ann Emanuele, Alaleh Mazhari, Earle W Holmes
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this report are to review the mechanisms of biotin interference with streptavidin/biotin-based immunoassays, identify automated immunoassay systems vulnerable to biotin interference, describe how to estimate and minimize the risk of biotin interference in vulnerable assays, and review the literature pertaining to biotin interference in endocrine function tests. METHODS: The data in the manufacturer's "Instructions for Use" for each of the methods utilized by seven immunoassay system were evaluated...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533908/ascites-refractory-ascites-and-hyponatremia-in-cirrhosis
#13
Brett Fortune, Andres Cardenas
Ascites is the most common complication related to cirrhosis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Ascites is a consequence of the loss of compensatory mechanisms to maintain the overall effective arterial blood volume due to worsening splanchnic arterial vasodilation as a result of clinically significant portal hypertension. In order to maintain effective arterial blood volume, vasoconstrictor and antinatriuretic pathways are activated, which increase overall sodium and fluid retention...
May 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533657/esophagitis-and-its-causes-who-is-guilty-when-acid-is-found-not-guilty
#14
EDITORIAL
Laurino Grossi, Antonio Francesco Ciccaglione, Leonardo Marzio
Esophagitis is mainly a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the most common diseases affecting the upper digestive tract. However the esophageal mucosa can also be targeted by some infectious, systemic or chemical conditions. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa. Esophageal localization of Crohn's disease is not very common, but it should always be considered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease complaining of upper digestive tract symptoms...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533529/the-sustainable-development-goals-and-the-global-health-security-agenda-exploring-synergies-for-a-sustainable-and-resilient-world
#15
Sulzhan Bali, Jessica Taaffe
Both the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) represent bold initiatives to address systematically gaps in previous efforts to assure that societies can be resilient when confronted with potentially overwhelming threats to health. Despite their obvious differences, and differing criticisms of both, they shift away from vertical (problem- or disease-specific) to horizontal (comprehensive) solutions. Despite the comprehensiveness of the SDGs, they lack a specific target for global health security...
May 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#16
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533016/drodvir-a-resource-for-exploring-the-virome-diversity-in-rodents
#17
Lihong Chen, Bo Liu, Zhiqiang Wu, Qi Jin, Jian Yang
Emerging zoonotic diseases have received tremendous interests in recent years, as they pose a significant threat to human health, animal welfare, and economic stability. A high proportion of zoonoses originate from wildlife reservoirs. Rodents are the most numerous, widespread, and diverse group of mammals on the earth and are reservoirs for many zoonotic viruses responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of virome diversity in rodents would be of importance for researchers and professionals in the field...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532794/immunogenicity-of-phospholipase-a2-toxins-and-their-role-in-streptococcus-equi-pathogenicity
#18
M R López-Álvarez, M Salze, A Cenier, C Robinson, R Paillot, A S Waller
Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, one of the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses worldwide. Phospholipase A2 toxins (PLA2) cleave phospholipid molecules at position sn-2 contributing to the production of leukotrienes that are important inflammatory mediators. Two homologous phospholipases, SlaA and SlaB are encoded by the S. equi genome suggesting that PLA2 toxins may contribute to its pathogenicity. Here we report the immunogenicity and role of PLA2 toxins during natural and experimental infection of horses with S...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532790/a-safe-and-molecular-tagged-brucella-canis-ghosts-confers-protection-against-virulent-challenge-in-mice
#19
Jing Qian, Zhaoyang Bu, Xulong Lang, Guangmou Yan, Yanling Yang, Xiuran Wang, Xinglong Wang
Canine brucellosis, caused by Brucella canis, is a persistent infectious reproductive disease in dogs. The absence of effective treatment to the intracellular pathogen and the irreversible consequence of infection makes the need of a specific vaccine urgent. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are the empty envelopes of bacteria with no genome content inside, which emerge as a proper vaccine candidate due to its intact outer antigen. It is generally derived from a genetically engineered strain, through the expression of Bacteriophage phiX174 lysis E gene upon induction...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532666/transcription-of-immune-related-genes-in-solea-senegalensis-vaccinated-against-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-piscicida-identification-of-surrogates-of-protection
#20
J A Núñez-Díaz, I García de la Banda, C Lobo, M A Moriñigo, M C Balebona
Solea senegalensis is a flatfish with a great potential for aquaculture, but infectious diseases restrict its production, being this fish species highly susceptible to Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp) infections. A better understanding of the mechanisms related to fish immune response is crucial for the development of effective approaches in disease management. In the present work, transcriptional changes of immune related genes have been evaluated in farmed S. senegalensis specimens vaccinated against Phdp by intraperitoneal injection (IP) and immersion (IM)...
May 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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