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Infectious diseases

Claudiu T Supuran
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC is found in numerous organisms across the tree of life, with seven distinct classes known to date. CA inhibition can be exploited for the treatment of edema, glaucoma, seizures, obesity, cancer and infectious diseases. A myriad of CA inhibitor (CAI) classes and inhibition mechanisms have been identified over the past decade, mainly through structure-based drug design approaches. Five different CA inhibition mechanisms are presently known. Areas covered: Recent advances in structure-based CAI design are reviewed, with periodic table-based organization of inhibitor classes...
October 26, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Shigellosis represents a major burden of disease in developing countries. A low infectious dose allows the disease to be spread effectively. Although shigellosis is mostly a self-limiting disease, antibiotics are recommended to reduce deaths, disease symptoms, and organism-shedding time. However, In India, antimicrobial resistance among the genus Shigella is more common than among any other enteric bacteria. Notably, new serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are reported from various parts of the world. Identification of new subserotypes of Shigella spp is becoming a major issue as these strains are non-typeable by conventional serotyping...
October 26, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Christina M Mariaselvam, Ryad Tamouza, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Dominique Charron, Durga Prasanna Misra, Vikramraj K Jain, Vir Singh Negi
INTRODUCTION: NKG2D (KLRK1) is a C-type lectin receptor present on NK cells, γδ, CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. Upon ligand binding, NKG2D mediates activatory and co-stimulatory signals to NK cells and activated CD4+ T cells, respectively. Polymorphisms in NKG2D predispose to infectious diseases, cancer, transplantation and autoimmune disorders. We studied the influence of this NK receptor polymorphism on predisposition to and modification of the disease phenotype in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Paola Cipriani, Onorina Berardicurti, Francesco Masedu, Francesca D'Onofrio, Luca Navarini, Piero Ruscitti, Nicola Maruotti, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Vasiliki Liakouli, Paola Di Benedetto, Francesco Carubbi, Marco Valenti, Francesco Paolo Cantatore, Antonella Afeltra, Roberto Giacomelli
Since the introduction of biologics, many concerns about the increased risk of infections have been reported and, to date, the real impact of infections on the daily practice in the rheumatologic centers is still largely unknown. In this work, we evaluated the infection rates associated with the use of biologics in a large cohort of patients. A prospective study, between January 2010 and December 2013, enrolling 731 rheumatic patients, was performed. Demographic and disease characteristics, therapies, comorbidities, and infectious events were recorded and statistically analyzed by multivariate analysis...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
Barry R Masters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Figen Özçay, Eda Karadağ Öncel, Zeren Barış, Oğuz Canan, Gökhan Moray, Mehmet Haberal
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our aim was to determine the etiologies, outcomes, and prognostic indicators in children with acute liver failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-one patients who were followed for pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) over a 15-year period were included. Patients who survived with supportive therapy were designated as Group 1, while those who died or underwent liver transplantation were designated as Group 2. RESULTS: There were 37 (40...
September 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Rowayda M Amin, Mohamed Gowieda, Ahmed Bedda, Ahmed Kamel, Alaa Radwan
PURPOSE: To analyze the patterns and causes of intraocular inflammation in patients attending uveitis referral clinics in Egypt. METHODS: The study included 454 patients with uveitis examined both at the Department of Ophthalmology, Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, and tertiary uveitis referral clinics in Cairo and the International Eye Clinic in Upper Egypt, between August 2013 and March 2016. All patients had a comprehensive ocular examination and systemic work-up...
October 26, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Peter Garred, Ninette Genster, Katrine Pilely, Rafael Bayarri-Olmos, Anne Rosbjerg, Ying Jie Ma, Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), collectin-10, collectin-11, and the ficolins (ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3) are soluble pattern recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. These proteins act as mediators of host defense and participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis. They bind to conserved pathogen-specific structures and altered self-antigens and form complexes with the pentraxins to modulate innate immune functions. All molecules exhibit distinct expression in different tissue compartments, but all are found to a varying degree in the circulation...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
João Luiz Silva-Filho, Celso Caruso-Neves, Ana Acacia Sá Pinheiro
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and its receptor AT1 (AT1R), an important effector axis of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), have been demonstrated to regulate T-cell responses. However, these studies characterized Ang II and AT1R effects using pharmacological tools, which do not target only Ang II/AT1R axis. The specific role of AT1R expressed by antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells is unknown. Then we immunized transgenic mice expressing a T-cell receptor specific for SIINFEKL epitope (OT-I mice) with sporozoites of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei expressing the cytotoxic epitope SIINFEKL...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mark R Schleiss
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infectious cause of disability in newborn infants. CMV also causes serious disease in solid organ (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In otherwise healthy children and adults, primary CMV infection rarely causes illness. However, even asymptomatic CMV infections may predispose an individual towards an increased risk of atherosclerosis, cancer and immune senescence over the life course, although such associations remain controversial...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Eugene T Richardson, Mohamed Bailor Barrie, J Daniel Kelly, Yusupha Dibba, Songor Koedoyoma, Paul E Farmer
Despite more than 25 documented outbreaks of Ebola since 1976, our understanding of the disease is limited, in particular the social, political, ecological, and economic forces that promote (or limit) its spread. In the following study, we seek to provide new ways of understanding the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. We use the term, 'pandemic,' instead of 'epidemic,' so as not to elide the global forces that shape every localized outbreak of infectious disease. By situating life histories via a biosocial approach, the forces promoting or retarding Ebola transmission come into sharper focus...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Yukihiro Yoshimura, Nobuyuki Miyata, Makiko Miyajima, Yohei Sakamoto, Yuichiro Amano, Natsuo Tachikawa
The number of patients returning from or staying abroad is likely to increase in the future. We performed a retrospective study of patients returning from abroad in our travel clinic in Japan. All patients presenting within 6 months of traveling abroad between 2004 and 2014 were included in the present study. A total of 2374 (mean age, 35 years) patients were seen by doctors specializing in treating infectious diseases. Of these, 918 were females and 87 of them lived abroad. Diagnoses and exposure regions were recorded for all patients...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
T Rashid, H Vonville, I Hasan, K W Garey
Shoe soles have been shown to transfer infectious microorganisms to floor and ground surfaces. However, the possible modes of transmission of infectious agents from floors or ground surfaces to human contact for infection have not been systematically reviewed. A systematic review was performed on articles indexed in medical databases (Medline, EMBASE, PubMed) using a pre-defined search strategy and MeSH terms (date of last search: 15 March 2016). Only primary research studies in English that investigated the transmission dynamics of infectious microorganisms from floor or ground surfaces to human infection were included...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
C Schwarze-Zander, R Draenert, C Lehmann, M Stecher, C Boesecke, S Sammet, J C Wasmuth, U Seybold, D Gillor, U Wieland, T Kümmerle, C P Strassburg, A Mankertz, A M Eis-Hübinger, G Jäger, G Fätkenheuer, J R Bogner, J K Rockstroh, J J Vehreschild
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Jennifer R Honda, Nabeeh A Hasan, Rebecca M Davidson, Myra D Williams, L Elaine Epperson, Paul R Reynolds, Terry Smith, Elena Iakhiaeva, Matthew J Bankowski, Richard J Wallace, Edward D Chan, Joseph O Falkinham, Michael Strong
Lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Epidemiologic studies have shown the Hawaiian Islands have the highest prevalence of NTM lung infections in the United States. However, potential environmental reservoirs and species diversity have not been characterized. In this cross-sectional study, we describe molecular and phylogenetic comparisons of NTM isolated from 172 household plumbing biofilms and soil samples from 62 non-patient households and 15 respiratory specimens...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Asif J Iqbal, Edward A Fisher, David R Greaves
What is inflammation's big idea? In this brief overview of the role of myeloid cells in inflammation, we will critically discuss what drives the initiation, amplification, and resolution of inflammation in different anatomical sites in response to different pathological stimuli. It can be argued that we have a good understanding of the basic principles that underlie myeloid cell activation and the mobilization of innate immune cells to sites of injury and infection in acute inflammation. The challenge now for inflammation biologists is to understand how resolution of this normal physiological response goes wrong in hyperacute and chronic inflammation...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Anthony M Cadena, Edwin C Klein, Alexander G White, Jaime A Tomko, Chelsea L Chedrick, Douglas S Reed, Laura E Via, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn
Identifying and refining small-animal models of tuberculosis that recapitulate aspects of human Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can contribute to advancing our understanding of critical facets of the disease. To study the effects of very low-dose infections with 2 strains of M. tuberculosis on disease progression and survival in common marmosets, animals were challenged with strains Erdman and CDC1551 at doses ranging from 1 to 12 cfu. These data revealed that the susceptibility of marmosets to M. tuberculosis infection is influenced by strain virulence and initial dose...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Hellen J Amuguni, Melissa Mazan, Robert Kibuuka
Infectious diseases of grave concern to human health are emerging from wildlife and livestock populations in multiple regions of the world. Responding effectively to these emerging pandemics requires engagement of multidisciplinary groups of professionals. Using a One Health approach, One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), a network of seven schools of public health and seven veterinary schools, with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has engaged in curriculum review with the aim of building the skills of multidisciplinary groups of professionals to improve their capacity to respond to emerging infectious diseases...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Adrian Guthals, Yutian Gan, Laura Murray, Yongmei Chen, Jeremy Stinson, Gerald R Nakamura, Jennie R Lill, Wendy Sandoval, Nuno Bandeira
One direct route for the discovery of therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) involves the isolation of peripheral B cells from survivors/sero-positive individuals after exposure to an infectious reagent or disease etiology followed by single-cell sequencing or hybridoma generation. Peripheral B cells, however, are not always easy to obtain and only represent a small percentage of the total B cell population across all bodily tissues. Although it has been demonstrated that tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques can interrogate the expressed polyclonal antibody (pAb) response to an antigen in vivo, all current approaches identify MS/MS spectra against databases derived from genetic sequencing of B cells from the same patient...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Andrzej Zieliński, Jolanta Rudowska
: For many years the number of tetanus cases reported in Poland remaing below fifty with marked random variations. Almost all disease occur in people unvaccinated. Some of them, especially in people over age 60, are fatal. THE AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study is to present the data of epidemiological surveillance of tetanus in Poland in 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analyzed material are the individual reports of cases of tetanus sent to the Department of Epidemiology at NIPH-PZH and bulletin data “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2014”...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
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