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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350860/uniquely-altered-transcripts-are-associated-with-immune-preservation-in-hiv-infection
#1
Michelle Zanoni, Ítalo Karmann Aventurato, James Hunter, Maria Cecilia Araripe Sucupira, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
The mechanisms underlying host HIV control hold much promise in the search for a functional HIV cure. We investigated the host genomic signatures in elite controllers or rapid progressors following recent infection and the correlates of immune reconstitution during combination antiretroviral therapy. We characterized the HIV-specific longitudinal host transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from elite controllers, rapid progressors, immune responders and non-responders using a RT-qPCR array in a cohort of recently HIV-infected Brazilian individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350802/impact-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-exposure-in-hiv-1-infected-children-and-adolescents-in-madrid-spain-during-2000-2014
#2
Patricia Rojas Sánchez, Luis Prieto, Santiago Jiménez De Ory, Elisa Fernández Cooke, Maria Luisa Navarro, José Tomas Ramos, África Holguín
BACKGROUND: The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain. METHODOLOGY: Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r as different line therapy during 2000-2014 were selected. The baseline epidemiological-clinical features, viral suppression, changes in CD4+T-CD8+T cell counts and drug susceptibility were recorded before and during LPV/r exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350554/high-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-cepheid-xpert%C3%A2-hiv-1-qualitative-point-of-care-test-among-newborns-in-botswana
#3
Maryanne Ibrahim, Sikhulile Moyo, Terence Mohammed, Lucy Mupfumi, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenneth Maswabi, Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Gelman, Oganne Batlang, Maureen Sakoi, Chloe Auletta-Young, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Roger L Shapiro
BACKGROUND: HIV point-of-care (POC) testing allows for early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment, but POC accuracy at birth and in the setting of antiretroviral prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the Cepheid Xpert® HIV-1 Qual POC test against the Roche Taqman HIV-1 PCR platform using dried blood spots from 15 HIV-infected and 75 HIV-exposed uninfected newborns. These infants were screened for HIV at <96 hours of life at 5 hospital maternity wards in Botswana; all infants received post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis (PEP) and most mothers received 3-drug antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy and at delivery...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346597/association-of-risk-of-viremia-immunosuppression-serious-clinical-events-and-mortality-with-increasing-age-in-perinatally-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-youth
#4
Anne M Neilan, Brad Karalius, Kunjal Patel, Russell B Van Dyke, Mark J Abzug, Allison L Agwu, Paige L Williams, Murli Purswani, Deborah Kacanek, James M Oleske, Sandra K Burchett, Andrew Wiznia, Miriam Chernoff, George R Seage, Andrea L Ciaranello
Importance: As perinatally human immunodeficiency virus-infected youth (PHIVY) in the United States grow older and more treatment experienced, clinicians need updated information about the association of age, CD4 cell count, viral load (VL), and antiretroviral (ARV) drug use with risk of opportunistic infections, key clinical events, and mortality to understand patient risks and improve care. Objective: To examine the incidence or first occurrence during follow-up of key clinical events (including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B [CDC-B] and stage C [CDC-C] events) and mortality among PHIVY stratified by age, CD4 cell count, and VL and ARV status...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346521/hiv-1-gp120-envelope-glycoprotein-determinants-for-cytokine-burst-in-human-monocytes
#5
Benoît Levast, Lucie Barblu, Mathieu Coutu, Jérémie Prévost, Nathalie Brassard, Adam Peres, Camille Stegen, Joaquín Madrenas, Daniel E Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi
The first step of HIV infection involves the interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein to its receptor CD4, mainly expressed on CD4+ T cells. Besides its role on HIV-1 entry, the gp120 has been shown to be involved in the production of IL-1, IL-6, CCL20 and other innate response cytokines by bystander, uninfected CD4+ T cells and monocytes. However, the gp120 determinants involved in these functions are not completely understood. Whether signalling leading to cytokine production is due to CD4 or other receptors is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346490/effect-of-hiv-and-malaria-parasites-co-infection-on-immune-hematological-profiles-among-patients-attending-anti-retroviral-treatment-art-clinic-in-infectious-disease-hospital-kano-nigeria
#6
Feyisayo Ebenezer Jegede, Tinuade Ibijoke Oyeyi, Surajudeen Abiola Abdulrahman, Henry Akwen Mbah, Titilope Badru, Chinedu Agbakwuru, Oluwasanmi Adedokun
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria co-infection may present worse health outcomes in the tropics. Information on HIV/malaria co-infection effect on immune-hematological profiles is critical for patient care and there is a paucity of such data in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune-hematological profiles among HIV infected patients compared to HIV/malaria co-infected for ART management improvement. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346319/effect-of-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-on-hiv-1-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-responses-in-subtype-b-and-subtype-c-infected-cohorts
#7
Vijaya Madhavi, Archana Kulkarni, Ashwini Shete, Wen Shi Lee, Milla R Mclean, Anne B Kristensen, Manisha Ghate, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Matthew S Parsons, Anthony Kelleher, David A Cooper, Janaki Amin, Sean Emery, Madhuri Thakar, Stephen J Kent
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in immune therapies to clear the latent HIV-1 after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is limited information on the effect of cART on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and no studies have directly compared ADCC in HIV-1 subtype B- and subtype C-infected subjects. The effect of improving immunocompetence on ADCC to influenza also remains unexplored. METHODS: The effect of cART on HIV-1- and influenza-specific ADCC was analyzed in two cohorts (39 subtype B- and 47 subtype C-infected subjects) before and after two years of cART...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346317/the-csf-immune-response-in-hiv-1-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis-macrophage-activation-correlates-of-disease-severity-and-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
James E Scriven, Lisa M Graham, Charlotte Schutz, Thomas J Scriba, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson, David R Boulware, Britta C Urban, Graeme Meintjes, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Immune modulation may improve outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. Animal studies suggest alternatively activated macrophages are detrimental but human studies are limited. We performed a detailed assessment of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune response and examined immune correlates of disease severity and poor outcome, and the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY: We enrolled persons ≥18 years with first episode of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346077/effects-of-brief-messages-about-antiretroviral-therapy-and-condom-use-benefits-among-black-and-latino-msm-in-three-us-cities
#9
Jeffrey H Herbst, Gordon Mansergh, Nicole Pitts, Damian Denson, Matthew J Mimiaga, Jeremy Holman
This pilot study examined effects of HIV prevention messages about self and partner benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and condom effectiveness on increased intentions for behavior change. Data were from Messages4Men, a study examining prevention messages among 320 HIV-positive and 605 HIV-negative black and Latino MSM. Men completed a computer-based assessment after message exposure, and multivariable models controlled for risky sex and demographics. A majority of HIV-positive men reported increased intentions for ART use; 22% reported partner benefit information was new...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346018/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-infected-children-who-require-a-rifamycin-containing-regimen-for-tuberculosis
#10
Helena Rabie, Eric H Decloedt, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Mark F Cotton, Lisa Frigati, Marc Lallemant, Anneke Hesseling, H Simon Schaaf
In high prevalence settings, tuberculosis and HIV dual infection and co-treatment is frequent. Rifamycins, especially rifampicin, in combination with isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide are key components of short-course antituberculosis therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed available data, for which articles were identified by a Pubmed search, on rifamycin-antiretroviral interactions in HIV-infected children. Rifamycins have potent inducing effects on phase I and II drug metabolising enzymes and transporters...
March 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343846/higher-levels-of-il-6-cd4-turnover-and-treg-frequency-are-already-present-before-cart-in-hiv-infected-subjects-with-later-low-cd4-recovery
#11
Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, Inmaculada Jarrín, María M Pozo-Balado, Rebeca S de Pablo-Bernal, Inés Herrero-Fernández, Ana I Alvarez-Ríos, Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Miguel Genebat, Mar Vera, Juan Berenguer, María L Martín, Enrique Bernal, Francesc Vidal, Julià Blanco, Manuel Leal, Yolanda M Pacheco
Immunological characterization of HIV-infected subjects with low CD4-recovery (LR-subjects) has been extensively performed after a variable period of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). We now explore immunological alterations present before the cART onset. In a case-control study, we selected pre-cART samples of HIV-subjects with and without low CD4-recovery after cART (n = 21 per group). CD4 T-cell activation, senescence and exhaustion related markers were not found specifically altered before cART initiation...
March 24, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343818/comparative-performances-of-serologic-and-molecular-assays-for-detecting-htlv-1-and-htlv-2-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-1
#12
Karoline Rodrigues Campos, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Nadia Aparecida Costa, Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
The present study evaluated several techniques currently available (commercial kits and in-house assays) for diagnosing human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/-2) in two groups of patients enrolled at HIV/AIDS specialized care services in São Paulo: Group 1 (G1), n=1608, 1237 male/371 female, median age 44.3 years old, majority using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); G2, n=1383, 930 male/453 female, median age of 35.6 years old, majority HAART naïve. Enzyme immunoassays [(EIA) Murex and Gold ELISA] were employed for HTLV-1/-2 screening; Western blotting (WB), INNO-LIA (LIA), real-time PCR pol (qPCR), and nested-PCR-RFLP (tax) were used to confirm infection...
March 23, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343759/incidence-of-postsuppression-virologic-rebound-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-asian-adolescents-on-stable-combination-antiretroviral-therapy
#13
Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Linda Aurpibul, Penh Sun Ly, Thoa Phan Kim Le, Torsak Bunupuradah, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Lam Van Nguyen, Kamarul Azahar Mohd Razali, Moy Siew Fong, Revathy A Nallusamy, Nia Kurniati, Viet Chau Do, David C Boettiger, Annette H Sohn, Azar Kariminia
PURPOSE: To assess the incidence and predictors of postsuppression virologic rebound (VR) among adolescents on stable combination antiretroviral therapy in Asia. METHODS: Perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents (10-19 years) with documented virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads [VLs] <400 copies/mL ≥6 months apart) were included. Baseline was the date of the first VL <400 copies/mL at age ≥10 years or the 10th birthday for those with prior suppression...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343351/health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-and-its-correlates-among-community-recruited-children-living-with-hiv-and-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-parents-in-west-bengal-india
#14
Aritra Das, Roger Detels, Abdelmonem A Afifi, Marjan Javanbakht, Frank J Sorvillo, Samiran Panda
PURPOSE: Helping children living with HIV (CLH) to attain an optimum quality of life is an important goal for HIV programs around the world. Our principal objectives were to determine the association of HIV infection with different domains of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 8- to 15-year-old CLH in India and to compare the HRQoL parameters between CLH and HIV-negative children born to HIV-infected parents ("HIV-affected"). We also assessed whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) and CD4 lymphocyte counts were associated with HRQoL among CLH...
March 25, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343331/economic-and-public-health-consequences-of-delayed-access-to-medical-care-for-migrants-living-with-hiv-in-france
#15
Marlène Guillon, Michel Celse, Pierre-Yves Geoffard
In 2013, migrants accounted for 46% of newly diagnosed cases of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection in France. These populations meet with specific obstacles leading to late diagnosis and access to medical care. Delayed access to care (ATC) for HIV-infected migrants reduces their life expectancy and quality of life. Given the reduction of infectivity under antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, delayed ATC for HIV-infected migrants may also hinder the control of the HIV epidemic. The objective of this study is to measure the public health and economic consequences of delayed ATC for migrants living with HIV in France...
March 25, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342803/antigen-specific-ctls-to-produce-autologous-cells-product-for-adoptive-cellular-therapy
#16
Sai Liu, Yi Shao, Jie Xu, Na Jiang, Yanchao Dai, Yu Wang, Huanqin Sun, Jianping Sun, Yonghong Zhang
As antiretroviral therapy provides long term viral suppression but no cure, alternative therapies such as adoptive cellular therapy have thus been investigated in anti-AIDS field. OBJECTIVE: This study is to established a HLA-A02 specific CTL cell culture method with comparison of the effects of different cytokines used in CTLs cultivation to decide the best cultivation environment. In order to produce CTLs with targeted HLA-A02 restricted antigen specificity for adoptive cellular therapy, we evaluated autologous PBMC cultivation in different cytokine environment to select a better expansion condition to produce qualified CTLs production...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342224/interleukin-18-activates-vg9vd2-t-cells-from-hiv-individuals-recovering-the-response-to-phosphoantigen
#17
Alanna S Murday, Suchita Chaudhry, C David Pauza
OBJECTIVE: Identify an immunoregulatory factor that restores the phosphoantigen response of Vg9Vd2+ T cells from HIV+ individuals on antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Characterize the effects of IL-18 on proliferation and effector function in Vg9Vd2 T cells from HIV-negative individuals. Test whether exogenous IL-18 reconstitutes the Vg9Vd2 T cell response to phosphoantigen from HIV-positive donors. METHODS: The Vg9Vd2 T cells from HIV-negative individuals respond strongly to phosphoantigen or aminobisphosphonate stimulation of PBMC, while cells with similar T cell receptor profiles from HIV+ individuals only respond to aminobisphosphonate...
March 25, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342180/metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-containing-zidovudine-or-tenofovir-in-rural-lesotho-southern-africa
#18
Niklaus Daniel Labhardt, Urs Franz Müller, Isaac Ringera, Jochen Ehmer, Mokete M Motlatsi, Karolin Pfeiffer, Michael A Hobbins, Josephine A Muhairwe, Juergen Muser, Christoph Hatz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients in rural Lesotho who are taking first-line anti-retroviral therapy (ART) containing either zidovudine or tenofovir disoproxil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 10 facilities in two districts in Lesotho of adult (≥16 years) patients on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line ART for ≥6 months. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria...
March 25, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341926/risks-associated-with-antiretroviral-treatment-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-qualitative-analysis-of-social-media-data-and-health-state-utility-valuation
#19
Louis S Matza, Karen C Chung, Katherine J Kim, Trena M Paulus, Evan W Davies, Katie D Stewart, Grace A McComsey, Marshall W Fordyce
PURPOSE: Despite benefits of antiretroviral therapies (ART), people with HIV infection have increased risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and low bone mineral density. Some ARTs increase risk of these events. The purpose of this study was to examine patients' perspectives of these risks and estimate health state utilities associated with these risks for use in cost-utility models. METHODS: Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted to examine messages posted to the POZ/AIDSmeds Internet community forums, focusing on bone, kidney, and cardiovascular side effects and risks of HIV/AIDS medications...
March 24, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341759/a-phase-ib-study-of-sorafenib-bay-43-9006-in-patients-with-kaposi-sarcoma
#20
Thomas S Uldrick, Priscila H Gonçalves, Kathleen M Wyvill, Cody J Peer, Wendy Bernstein, Karen Aleman, Mark N Polizzotto, David Venzon, Seth M Steinberg, Vickie Marshall, Denise Whitby, Richard F Little, John J Wright, Michelle A Rudek, William D Figg, Robert Yarchoan
LESSONS LEARNED: Oral targeted agents are desirable for treatment of Kaposi sarcoma (KS); however, in patients with HIV, drug-drug interactions must be considered. In this study to treat KS, sorafenib was poorly tolerated at doses less than those approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for hepatocellular carcinoma and other cancers, and showed only modest activity.Sorafenib's metabolism occurs via the CYP3A4 pathway, which is inhibited by ritonavir, a commonly used antiretroviral agent used by most patients in this study...
March 24, 2017: Oncologist
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