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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449332/behavioural-disinhibition-in-the-general-population-during-the-antiretroviral-therapy-roll-out-in-sub-saharan-africa-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Eva M Legemate, Jan A C Hontelez, Caspar W N Looman, Sake J De Vlas
OBJECTIVES: Improved life expectancy and reduced transmission probabilities due to ART may result in behavioural disinhibition - i.e. an increase in sexual risk behaviour in response to a perceived lower risk of HIV. We examined trends in sexual risk behaviour in the general population of sub-Saharan African countries 1999 - 2015. METHODS: We systematically reviewed scientific literature of sexual behaviour, and reviewed trends in Demographic and Health Surveys...
April 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449059/marijuana-use-impacts-midlife-cardiovascular-events-in-hiv-infected-men
#2
David R Lorenz, Anupriya Dutta, Shibani S Mukerji, Alex Holman, Hajime Uno, Dana Gabuzda
Background.: Marijuana use is prevalent among persons infected with HIV, but its long-term effects on HIV disease progression and comorbidities are unknown. Methods.: A prospective study of 558 HIV-infected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1990-2010: 182 HIV seroconverters and 376 with viral suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). Associations between heavy marijuana use and HIV disease markers or white blood cell (WBC) count were examined using mixed-effects and linear regression models...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449051/viral-kinetics-in-semen-with-different-antiretroviral-families-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-patients-a-randomized-trial
#3
Alicia Gutierrez-Valencia, Omar J Benmarzouk-Hidalgo, Inmaculada Rivas-Jeremías, Nuria Espinosa, María Trujillo-Rodríguez, Tamara Fernandez-Magdaleno, Pompeyo Viciana, Luis F López-Cortés
Background: There are several regimens for starting antiretroviral treatment, but it remains unknown whether either of them is more advantageous regarding the time course and magnitude of HIV-RNA decay in semen. Objective: To evaluate the differential effect of different antiretroviral drug families on viral kinetics in seminal plasma of treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. Methods: Phase II, randomized, open-label study in which participants were randomized 1:1:1 to receive tenofovir-DF plus emtricitabine, and either cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir (EVGcobi), rilpivirine (RPV), or ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRVrtv)...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448963/paradoxical-aging-in-hiv-immune-senescence-of-b-cells-is-most-prominent-in-young-age
#4
Stefano Rinaldi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Varghese K George, Lesley R de Armas, Rajendra Pahwa, Celeste M Sanchez, Maria Fernanda Pallin, Li Pan, Nicola Cotugno, Gordon Dickinson, Allan Rodriguez, Margaret Fischl, Maria Alcaide, Louis Gonzalez, Paolo Palma, Savita Pahwa
Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART)can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative "healthy controls" (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (<40 yrs), middle-aged (40-59yrs) or old (>60 yrs)...
April 27, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448615/emphysema-is-associated-with-thoracic-vertebral-bone-attenuation-on-chest-ct-scan-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#5
Alycia Petraglia, Joseph K Leader, Matthew Gingo, Meghan Fitzpatrick, John Ries, Cathy Kessinger, Lorrie Lucht, Danielle Camp, Alison Morris, Jessica Bon
BACKGROUND: Age-related chronic diseases are prevalent in HIV-infected persons in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Bone mineral density (BMD) loss and emphysema have separately been shown to occur at a younger age and with lesser risk exposure in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. In non-HIV infected smokers, emphysema has been shown to independently predict low BMD. We hypothesized that emphysema would independently associate with thoracic vertebral bone attenuation, a surrogate for bone mineral density, in HIV-infected individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448581/the-performance-of-bd-facspresto%C3%A2-for-cd4-t-cell-count-cd4-and-hemoglobin-concentration-test-in-ethiopia
#6
Gebremedhin Gebremicael, Yohanes Belay, Fitsum Girma, Yemane Abreha, Atsbeha Gebreegziabxier, Simret Tesfaye, Zelalem Messele, Yibeltal Assefa, Bahrie Bellete, Desta Kassa, Lara Vojnov
INTRODUCTION: In Ethiopia, CD4+ T-cell counting is still required for all patients at baseline before antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to determine eligibility and follow-up of opportunistic infection prophylaxis. However, access to CD4+ T cell count in rural health facilities remains a major challenge in Ethiopia like other resource-limited settings. METHODOLOGY: Both capillary and venous blood was drawn from each of 325 study participant recruited in Addis Ababa and surroundings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447585/metabolic-profiles-of-individuals-switched-to-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-after-failing-standard-first-line-therapy-for-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Amanda H Yao, Cecilia L Moore, Poh Lian Lim, Jean-Michel Molina, Juan Sierra Madero, Stephen Kerr, Paddy Wg Mallon, Sean Emery, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd
BACKGROUND: To investigate metabolic changes associated with second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following virological failure of first-line ART. METHODS: SECOND-LINE was an open-label randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTI-group) or raltegravir (RAL-group) Two hundred and ten participants had a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scan at baseline, week 48 and 96...
April 27, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447399/genome-wide-association-study-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-hand-a-charter-group-study
#8
Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Todd Hulgan, William S Bush, David C Samuels, Cinnamon S Bloss, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis, Nicholas Schork, Christina M Marra, Ann C Collier, David B Clifford, Benjamin B Gelman, Ned Sacktor, Susan Morgello, David M Simpson, J Allen McCutchan, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Donald R Franklin, Debralee Rosario, Scott L Letendre, Igor Grant, Asha R Kallianpur
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) often complicates HIV infection despite combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may be influenced by host genomics. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HAND in 1,050 CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Study participants. All participants underwent standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive, and neuromedical assessments to determine if they had cognitive impairment as assessed by the Global Deficit Score (GDS), and individuals with comorbidities that could confound diagnosis of HAND were excluded...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447269/estimating-hiv-medication-adherence-and-persistence-two-instruments-for-clinical-and-research-use
#9
David A Wohl, A T Panter, Christine Kirby, Brooke E Magnus, Michael G Hudgens, Andrew G Allmon, Katie R Mollan
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires lifelong daily oral therapy. While patient characteristics associated with suboptimal ART adherence and persistence have been described in cohorts of HIV-infected persons, these factors are poor predictors of individual medication taking behaviors. We aimed to create and test instruments for the estimation of future ART adherence and persistence for clinical and research applications. Following formative work, a battery of 148 items broadly related to HIV infection and treatment was developed and administered to 181 HIV-infected patients...
April 26, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446620/how-to-win-the-hiv-1-drug-resistance-hurdle-race-running-faster-or-jumping-higher
#10
REVIEW
Anna Garbelli, Valentina Riva, Emmanuele Crespan, Giovanni Maga
Infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are still totaling an appalling 36.7 millions worldwide, with 1.1 million AIDS deaths/year and a similar number of yearly new infections. All this, in spite of the discovery of HIV-1 as the AIDS etiological agent more than 30 years ago and the introduction of an effective combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART), able to control disease progression, more than 20 years ago. Although very effective, current cART is plagued by the emergence of drug-resistant viral variants and most of the efforts in the development of novel direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against HIV-1 have been devoted toward the fighting of resistance...
April 26, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446420/measuring-sexual-behavior-stigma-to-inform-effective-hiv-prevention-and-treatment-programs-for-key-populations
#11
Shauna Stahlman, James R Hargreaves, Laurel Sprague, Anne L Stangl, Stefan D Baral
BACKGROUND: The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers...
April 26, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446232/continuous-quality-improvement-interventions-to-improve-long-term-outcomes-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-women-who-initiated-therapy-during-pregnancy-or-breastfeeding-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-design-of-an-open-label-parallel-group-randomized-trial
#12
Marcel Yotebieng, Frieda Behets, Bienvenu Kawende, Noro Lantoniaina Rosa Ravelomanana, Martine Tabala, Emile W Okitolonda
BACKGROUND: Despite the rapid adoption of the World Health Organization's 2013 guidelines, children continue to be infected with HIV perinatally because of sub-optimal adherence to the continuum of HIV care in maternal and child health (MCH) clinics. To achieve the UNAIDS goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission, multiple, adaptive interventions need to be implemented to improve adherence to the HIV continuum. METHODS: The aim of this open label, parallel, group randomized trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) interventions implemented at facility and health district levels to improve retention in care and virological suppression through 24 months postpartum among pregnant and breastfeeding women receiving ART in MCH clinics in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo...
April 26, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445881/absence-of-decline-of-kidney-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-under-routine-clinical-management
#13
Julie Boucquemont, Sylvie Lawson-Ayayi, Claire Rigothier, Fabrice Bonnet, Cécile Proust-Lima, Didier Neau, Carine Greib, Ghada Miremont-Salamé, François Dabis, Michel Dupon, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a drastically improved prognosis but at the same time they are also more affected by non-HIV related complications, such as chronic kidney disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of proteinuria and tenofovir (TDF)-containing ART regimens on the temporal evolution of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: Between April 2008 and October 2012, we enrolled 395 patients with a complete renal evaluation among patients from the ANRS C03 Aquitaine cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients under routine clinical management in southwestern France...
April 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445685/outcomes-following-detection-of-low-level-plasma-hiv-rna-in-hiv-infected-patients-previously-virologically-suppressed-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-observational-study
#14
Annabelle M Warren, Allen C Cheng, Kerrie Watson, Sharon R Lewin, Jennifer F Hoy
Background: Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. Methods: A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA <20 copies/mL) over 2 years (2010 to 2012), with follow-up to June 2013...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445471/a-randomized-trial-comparing-concise-and-standard-consent-forms-in-the-start-trial
#15
Christine Grady, Giota Touloumi, A Sarah Walker, Mary Smolskis, Shweta Sharma, Abdel G Babiker, Nikos Pantazis, Jorge Tavel, Eric Florence, Adriana Sanchez, Fleur Hudson, Antonios Papadopoulos, Ezekiel Emanuel, Megan Clewett, David Munroe, Eileen Denning
BACKGROUND: Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of research informed consent is a high priority. Some express concern about longer, more complex, written consent forms creating barriers to participant understanding. A recent meta-analysis concluded that randomized comparisons were needed. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized non-inferiority comparison of a standard versus concise consent form within a multinational trial studying the timing of starting antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ adults (START)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445303/lifetime-and-recent-alcohol-use-and-bone-mineral-density-in-adults-with-hiv-infection-and-substance-dependence
#16
Alicia S Ventura, Michael R Winter, Timothy C Heeren, Meg M Sullivan, Alexander Y Walley, Michael F Holick, Gregory J Patts, Seville M Meli, Jeffrey H Samet, Richard Saitz
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in people living with HIV infection (PLWH), increasing fracture risk. Alcohol use is also common in PLWH and is a modifiable risk factor for both HIV disease progression and low BMD. In PLWH, alcohol's effect on BMD is not well understood.We studied adult PLWH with substance dependence. We measured lifetime alcohol use (kg) and recent (i.e., past 30-day) alcohol use (categorized as: abstinent, low risk, or high risk). In adjusted multivariable regression analyses, we tested associations between lifetime and recent alcohol use and (i) mean BMD (g/cm) at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine and (ii) low BMD diagnosis (i...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445088/predicting-the-need-for-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-by-identifying-patients-at-high-risk-for-failing-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#17
Dorina Onoya, Cornelius Nattey, Eric Budgell, Liudmyla van den Berg, Mhairi Maskew, Denise Evans, Kamban Hirasen, Lawrence C Long, Matthew P Fox
Although third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is available in South Africa's public sector, its cost is substantially higher than first and second line. Identifying risk factors for failure on second-line treatment remains crucial to reduce the need for third-line drugs. We conducted a case-control study including 194 adult patients (≥18 years; 70 cases and 124 controls) who initiated second-line ART in Johannesburg, South Africa. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess predictors of virologic failure (defined as 2 consecutive viral load measures ≥1000 copies/mL, ≥3 months after switching to second line)...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444829/disparities-in-hiv-1-transmitted-drug-resistance-detected-by-ultradeep-sequencing-between-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-heterosexual-populations
#18
E Todesco, C Charpentier, M Bertine, M Wirden, A Storto, N Desire, M Grude, T Nguyen, S Sayon, Y Yazdanpanah, C Katlama, D Descamps, V Calvez, A G Marcelin
OBJECTIVES: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) can impair the response to first-line antiretroviral therapy. In treatment-naïve patients chronically infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1), it was previously shown through Sanger sequencing that TDR was more common in men who have sex with men (MSM) than in other transmission risk groups. We aimed to compare two HIV-1 transmission groups in terms of the presence of TDR mutations. METHODS: We investigated, through Sanger sequencing and ultradeep sequencing (UDS), the presence of resistance mutations, both in majority (> 20%) and in minority (1-20%) proportions, in 70 treatment-naïve MSM and 70 treatment-naïve heterosexual patients who recently screened positive for HIV-1...
April 26, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444470/sexual-orientation-differences-in-health-and-wellbeing-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-canada-findings-from-a-national-cohort-study
#19
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Angela Kaida, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Kath Webster, Tracey Conway, Mona Loutfy
Sexual orientation differences in health and wellbeing among women living with HIV (WLH) are underexplored. Limited research available, however, suggests that sexual minority WLH may experience barriers to HIV care. Cross-sectional baseline data was analyzed from a Canadian cohort study with WLH (sexual minority women [SMW]: n = 180; heterosexual women: n = 1240). SMW (median age 38 years, IQR 13) included bisexual (58.9%), lesbian (17.8%) and other sexualities (23.3%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, poverty, education, and ethnicity, SMW identity was associated with increased odds of: clinical (80% vs...
April 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444469/modelling-the-unaids-90-90-90-treatment-cascade-for-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-south-africa-using-the-findings-of-a-data-triangulation-process-to-map-a-way-forward
#20
Andrew Scheibe, Michael Grasso, Henry Fisher Raymond, Albert Manyuchi, Thomas Osmand, Tim Lane, Helen Struthers
A data triangulation exercise was carried out between 2013 and 2015 to assess the HIV epidemic and response among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in South Africa. We used the findings to assess progress in achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals for GBMSM in the country. Three scenarios were developed using different GBMSM population factors (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0% of males aged ≥15) to estimate the population size, HIV prevalence of 13.2-49.5%, and 68% of GBMSM knowing their status. Due to data gaps, general population data were used as estimates of GBMSM on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and virologically suppressed (25...
April 25, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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