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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674723/steap2-knockdown-reduces-the-invasive-potential-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
Stephanie E A Burnell, Samantha Spencer-Harty, Suzie Howarth, Owen Bodger, Howard Kynaston, Claire Morgan, Shareen H Doak
Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-2 (STEAP2) expression is increased in prostate cancer when compared to normal prostate, suggesting STEAP2 may drive prostate cancer progression. This study aimed to establish the functional role of STEAP2 in prostate tumourigenesis and evaluate if its knockdown resulted in reduced invasive potential of prostate cancer cells. PC3 and LNCaP cells were transfected with STEAP2 siRNA and proliferation, migration, invasion and gene expression analyses were performed...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669892/wing-scale-ultrastructure-underlying-convergent-and-divergent-iridescent-colours-in-mimetic-heliconius-butterflies
#2
Andrew J Parnell, James E Bradford, Emma V Curran, Adam L Washington, Gracie Adams, Melanie N Brien, Stephanie L Burg, Carlos Morochz, J Patrick A Fairclough, Pete Vukusic, Simon J Martin, Scott Doak, Nicola J Nadeau
Iridescence is an optical phenomenon whereby colour changes with the illumination and viewing angle. It can be produced by thin film interference or diffraction. Iridescent optical structures are fairly common in nature, but relatively little is known about their production or evolution. Here we describe the structures responsible for producing blue-green iridescent colour in Heliconius butterflies. Overall the wing scale structures of iridescent and non-iridescent Heliconius species are very similar, both having longitudinal ridges joined by cross-ribs...
April 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623978/in-vitro-elucidation-of-the-role-of-pericellular-matrix-in-metastatic-extravasation-and-invasion-of-breast-carcinoma-cells
#3
Marie-Elena Brett, Heather E Bomberger, Geneva R Doak, Matthew A Price, James B McCarthy, David K Wood
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of altered hyaluronan metabolism to malignant progression of multiple tumor types, including breast carcinomas. Increased hyaluronan (HA) metabolism in the stroma of primary tumors promotes activation of oncogenic signaling pathways that impact tumor initiation, growth, and invasion. Carcinoma cell synthesis and assembly of HA-rich pericellular matrices induces a stromal-independent phenotype, which is associated with cancer progression. Although the pro-tumorigenic role of stromal HA is well established, a novel but unexplored hypothesis is that carcinoma cell-associated HA pericellular matrices promote metastasis of circulating tumor cells...
April 6, 2018: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609405/velocimetry-of-fast-microscopic-liquid-jets-by-nanosecond-dual-pulse-laser-illumination-for-megahertz-x-ray-free-electron-lasers
#4
Marie Luise Grünbein, Robert L Shoeman, R Bruce Doak
To conduct X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) measurements at megahertz (MHz) repetition rates, sample solution must be delivered in a micron-sized liquid free-jet moving at up to 100 m/s. This exceeds by over a factor of two the jet speeds measurable with current high-speed camera techniques. Accordingly we have developed and describe herein an alternative jet velocimetry based on dual-pulse nanosecond laser illumination. Three separate implementations are described, including a small laser-diode system that is inexpensive and highly portable...
March 19, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608728/insights-into-an-extensively-fragmented-eukaryotic-genome-de-novo-genome-sequencing-of-the-multinuclear-ciliate-uroleptopsis-citrina
#5
Weibo Zheng, Chundi Wang, Ying Yan, Feng Gao, Thomas G Doak, Weibo Song
Ciliated protists are a large group of single-celled eukaryotes with separate germline and somatic nuclei in each cell. The somatic genome is developed from the zygotic nucleus through a series of chromosomal rearrangements, including fragmentation, DNA elimination, de novo telomere addition, and DNA amplification. This unique feature makes them perfect models for research in genome biology and evolution. However, genomic research of ciliates has been limited to a few species, owing to problems with DNA contamination and obstacles in cultivation...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608068/impact-of-dynamically-exposed-polarity-on-permeability-and-solubility-of-chameleonic-drugs-beyond-the-rule-of-5
#6
Matteo Rossi Sebastiano, Bradley C Doak, Maria Backlund, Vasanthanathan Poongavanam, Björn Over, Giuseppe Ermondi, Giulia Caron, Pär Matsson, Jan Kihlberg
Conformational flexibility has been proposed to significantly affect drug properties outside rule-of-5 (Ro5) chemical space. Here, we investigated the influence of dynamically exposed polarity on cell permeability and aqueous solubility for a structurally diverse set of drugs and clinical candidates far beyond the Ro5, all of which populated multiple distinct conformations as revealed by X-ray crystallography. Efflux-inhibited (passive) Caco-2 cell permeability correlated strongly with the compounds' minimum solvent-accessible 3D polar surface areas (PSA), while aqueous solubility depended less on the specific 3D conformation...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491172/strong-linkages-between-depth-longevity-and-demographic-stability-across-marine-sessile-species
#7
I Montero-Serra, C Linares, D F Doak, J B Ledoux, J Garrabou
Understanding the role of the environment in shaping the evolution of life histories remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. We synthesize longevity patterns of marine sessile species and find strong positive relationships between depth and maximum lifespan across multiple sessile marine taxa, including corals, bivalves, sponges and macroalgae. Using long-term demographic data on marine sessile and terrestrial plant species, we show that extreme longevity leads to strongly dampened population dynamics...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486173/soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-and-intestinal-and-systemic-inflammation-in-schoolchildren
#8
Brechje de Gier, Gisela M Pita-Rodríguez, Maiza Campos-Ponce, Margot van de Bor, Chhoun Chamnan, Raquel Junco-Díaz, Colleen M Doak, Marion Fiorentino, Khov Kuong, Fidel Angel-Núñez, Megan E Parker, Marlene Perignon, Lázara Rojas-Rivero, Jacques Berger, Katja Polman, Frank T Wieringa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482105/wearer-and-non-wearer-dna-on-the-collars-and-cuffs-of-upper-garments-of-worn-clothing
#9
Alan M Magee, Michelle Breathnach, Stephen Doak, Fiona Thornton, Conor Noone, Louise G McKenna
During an investigation, the question of interest might be whether or not a person has worn a given garment. Wearer DNA studies have contributed to our knowledge and understanding of DNA transfer and persistence on items of worn clothing. However, there is currently no extensive dataset on DNA profiling outcomes from a variety of upper garments. Therefore we investigated the DNA profiling outcomes from the collars and/or cuffs of forty-four upper garments of worn clothing and determined the quantity of wearer and non-wearer DNA recovered...
February 13, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467721/a-microfluidics-and-agent-based-modeling-framework-for-investigating-spatial-organization-in-bacterial-colonies-the-case-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-h1-type-vi-secretion-interactions
#10
Jared L Wilmoth, Peter W Doak, Andrea Timm, Michelle Halsted, John D Anderson, Marta Ginovart, Clara Prats, Xavier Portell, Scott T Retterer, Miguel Fuentes-Cabrera
The factors leading to changes in the organization of microbial assemblages at fine spatial scales are not well characterized or understood. However, they are expected to guide the succession of community development and function toward specific outcomes that could impact human health and the environment. In this study, we put forward a combined experimental and agent-based modeling framework and use it to interpret unique spatial organization patterns of H1-Type VI secretion system (T6SS) mutants of P . aeruginosa under spatial confinement...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364525/intestinal-parasites-associations-with-intestinal-and-systemic-inflammation
#11
G A Zavala, O P García, M Camacho, D Ronquillo, M Campos-Ponce, C Doak, K Polman, J L Rosado
The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. Plasma concentrations of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and count of stool leukocytes as marker of intestinal inflammation in 291 children (6-10 years). Intestinal parasitic infection was measured by stool examination. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the odds of having high inflammatory markers for each parasite or group of parasites as compared to parasite-free children while adjusting for sex, age, mother's educational level and percentage of body fat...
April 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307375/a-three-dimensional-in-vitro-hepg2-cells-liver-spheroid-model-for-genotoxicity-studies
#12
Ume-Kulsoom Shah, Jefferson de Oliveira Mallia, Neenu Singh, Katherine E Chapman, Shareen H Doak, Gareth J S Jenkins
The liver's role in metabolism of chemicals makes it an appropriate tissue for toxicity testing. Current testing protocols, such as animal testing and two-dimensional liver cell systems, offer limited resemblance to in vivo liver cell behaviour, in terms of gene expression profiles and metabolic competence; thus, they do not always accurately predict human toxicology. In vitro three-dimensional liver cell models offer an attractive alternative. This study reports on the development of a 3D liver model, using HepG2 cells, by a hanging-drop technique, with a focus on evaluating spheroid growth characteristics and suitability for genotoxicity testing...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306639/skin-tissue-engineering-using-3d-bioprinting-an-evolving-research-field
#13
REVIEW
Sam P Tarassoli, Zita M Jessop, Ayesha Al-Sabah, Neng Gao, Sairan Whitaker, Shareen Doak, Iain S Whitaker
BACKGROUND: Commercially available tissue engineered skin remains elusive despite extensive research because the multi-stratified anisotropic structure is difficult to replicate in vitro using traditional tissue engineering techniques. Bioprinting, involving computer-controlled deposition of cells and scaffolds into spatially controlled patterns, is able to control not only the macro but also micro and nanoarchitecture and could offer the potential to more faithfully replicate native skin...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284748/aridity-weakens-population-level-effects-of-multiple-species-interactions-on-hibiscus-meyeri
#14
Allison M Louthan, Robert M Pringle, Jacob R Goheen, Todd M Palmer, William F Morris, Daniel F Doak
Predicting how species' abundances and ranges will shift in response to climate change requires a mechanistic understanding of how multiple factors interact to limit population growth. Both abiotic stress and species interactions can limit populations and potentially set range boundaries, but we have a poor understanding of when and where each is most critical. A commonly cited hypothesis, first proposed by Darwin, posits that abiotic factors (e.g., temperature, precipitation) are stronger determinants of range boundaries in apparently abiotically stressful areas ("stress" indicates abiotic factors that reduce population growth), including desert, polar, or high-elevation environments, whereas species interactions (e...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231920/two-colour-serial-femtosecond-crystallography-dataset-from-gadoteridol-derivatized-lysozyme-for-mad-phasing
#15
Alexander Gorel, Koji Motomura, Hironobu Fukuzawa, R Bruce Doak, Marie Luise Grünbein, Mario Hilpert, Ichiro Inoue, Marco Kloos, Gabriela Nass Kovács, Eriko Nango, Karol Nass, Christopher M Roome, Robert L Shoeman, Rie Tanaka, Kensuke Tono, Lutz Foucar, Yasumasa Joti, Makina Yabashi, So Iwata, Kiyoshi Ueda, Thomas R M Barends, Ilme Schlichting
We provide a detailed description of a gadoteridol-derivatized lysozyme (gadolinium lysozyme) two-colour serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) dataset for multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) structure determination. The data was collected at the Spring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA) facility using a two-colour double-pulse beam to record two diffraction patterns simultaneously in one diffraction image. Gadolinium lysozyme was chosen as a well-established model system that has a very strong anomalous signal...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222574/improving-hearing-aid-self-efficacy-and-utility-through-revising-a-hearing-aid-user-guide-a-pilot-study
#16
Alexandra McMullan, Rebecca J Kelly-Campbell, Kim Wise
Purpose: This pilot study aimed to investigate whether revising a hearing aid user guide (HAUG) is associated with improved hearing aid self-efficacy and utility performance. Method: In Part 1, an HAUG was evaluated using the Suitability Assessment of Material (SAM) and readability formulas (Flesch Reading Ease [Flesch, 1943], Flesch-Kincaid Readability Formula [Kincaid, Fishburne, Rogers, & Chissom, 1957], and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook [McLaughlin, 1969])...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155464/both-life-history-plasticity-and-local-adaptation-will-shape-range-wide-responses-to-climate-warming-in-the-tundra-plant-silene-acaulis
#17
Megan L Peterson, Daniel F Doak, William F Morris
Many predictions of how climate change will impact biodiversity have focused on range shifts using species-wide climate tolerances, an approach that ignores the demographic mechanisms that enable species to attain broad geographic distributions. But these mechanisms matter, as responses to climate change could fundamentally differ depending on the contributions of life-history plasticity vs. local adaptation to species-wide climate tolerances. In particular, if local adaptation to climate is strong, populations across a species' range-not only those at the trailing range edge-could decline sharply with global climate change...
April 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110037/a-novel-integrated-in-vitro-carcinogenicity-test-to-identify-genotoxic-and-non-genotoxic-carcinogens-using-human-lymphoblastoid-cells
#18
Eleanor C Wilde, Katherine E Chapman, Leanne M Stannard, Anna L Seager, Katja Brüsehafer, Ume-Kulsoom Shah, James A Tonkin, M Rowan Brown, Jatin R Verma, Ann T Doherty, George E Johnson, Shareen H Doak, Gareth J S Jenkins
Human exposure to carcinogens occurs via a plethora of environmental sources, with 70-90% of cancers caused by extrinsic factors. Aberrant phenotypes induced by such carcinogenic agents may provide universal biomarkers for cancer causation. Both current in vitro genotoxicity tests and the animal-testing paradigm in human cancer risk assessment fail to accurately represent and predict whether a chemical causes human carcinogenesis. The study aimed to establish whether the integrated analysis of multiple cellular endpoints related to the Hallmarks of Cancer could advance in vitro carcinogenicity assessment...
February 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079797/multi-wavelength-anomalous-diffraction-de-novo-phasing-using-a-two-colour-x-ray-free-electron-laser-with-wide-tunability
#19
Alexander Gorel, Koji Motomura, Hironobu Fukuzawa, R Bruce Doak, Marie Luise Grünbein, Mario Hilpert, Ichiro Inoue, Marco Kloos, Gabriela Kovácsová, Eriko Nango, Karol Nass, Christopher M Roome, Robert L Shoeman, Rie Tanaka, Kensuke Tono, Yasumasa Joti, Makina Yabashi, So Iwata, Lutz Foucar, Kiyoshi Ueda, Thomas R M Barends, Ilme Schlichting
Serial femtosecond crystallography at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) offers unprecedented possibilities for macromolecular structure determination of systems prone to radiation damage. However, de novo structure determination, i.e., without prior structural knowledge, is complicated by the inherent inaccuracy of serial femtosecond crystallography data. By its very nature, serial femtosecond crystallography data collection entails shot-to-shot fluctuations in X-ray wavelength and intensity as well as variations in crystal size and quality that must be averaged out...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078245/-antiembolic-stockings-great-effects-in-edoxaban-approval-studies
#20
Knut Kroeger, Peter Kujath
In this age of evidence-based medicine, the use of medical thrombosis prophylaxis stockings (AES) as a physical strategy for the prevention of lower limb venous thrombosis has been questioned. The current German S3 guidelines even state that their non-application is, in the vast majority of cases, explicitly covered by the recommendations of this guideline. Low molecular weight heparins (NMH) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOAK) have received approval for thrombosis prophylaxis in elective knee and hip joint replacement, but the use of AES is absent from these approval studies...
October 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
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