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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669837/amino-acid-substitutions-within-hla-b-27-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-prevent-recognition-by-hepatitis-delta-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells
#1
Hadi Karimzadeh, Muthamia M Kiraithe, Anna D Kosinska, Manuel Glaser, Melanie Fiedler, Valerie Oberhardt, Elahe Salimi Alizei, Maike Hofmann, Juk Yee Mok, Melanie Nguyen, Wim J E van Esch, Bettina Budeus, Jan Grabowski, Maria Homs, Antonella Olivero, Hossein Keyvani, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, David Tabernero, Maria Buti, Andreas Heinold, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Tanja Bauer, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Bijan Raziorrouh, Daniel Hoffmann, Antonina Smedile, Mario Rizzetto, Heiner Wedemeyer, Jörg Timm, Iris Antes, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Ulrike Protzer, Michael Roggendorf
Virus-specific CD8 T-cell response seems to play a significant role in the outcome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection. However, the HDV-specific T-cell epitope repertoire and mechanisms of CD8 T-cell failure in HDV infection have merely been characterized. We therefore aimed to characterize HDV-specific CD8 T cell epitopes and the impact of viral mutations on immune escape. In this study, we predicted peptide epitopes binding the most frequent HLA types and assessed their HLA binding capacity. These epitopes were characterized in HDV-infected patients by intracellular IFN-γ staining...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663457/hepatitis-d-infection-in-brazil-prevalence-and-geographical-distribution-of-anti-delta-antibody
#2
Barbara V Lago, Francisco C A Mello, Tairine M Barros, Vinicius M Mello, Livia M Villar, Lia L Lewis-Ximenez, Maria Inês M C Pardini, Elisabeth Lampe
In Brazil, the Amazon Basin is endemic for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection; however, studies in other regions of the country are scarce. This study aims to map the seroepidemiological situation of anti-Delta antibodies in chronic hepatitis B carriers in all five Brazilian geographic regions. Serum samples from 1240 HBsAg positive individuals (55.4% men; mean age 43.1 ± 13.4 years) from 24 of 26 Brazilian states were tested for the presence of anti-Delta antibodies using a commercial immunoassay. Anti-Delta antibodies were detected in 40 samples (3...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663447/evolution-of-hbv-s-gene-in-the-backdrop-of-hdv-co-infection
#3
Samina Baig, Syed H Abidi, Zahid Azam, Shahid Majid, Saeed Khan, Muhammad R Khanani, Syed Ali
BACKGROUND: HBV-HDV co-infected people have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to those infected only with HBV. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate HBV genotypes and phylogeny among HBV mono-infected and HBV-HDV co-infected patients, as well as analyze mutations in the surface gene of HBV in mono-infected and co-infected patients. METHODS: A total of 100 blood samples (50 co-infected with HBV and HDV, and 50 mono-infected with HBV only) were collected for this study...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662142/the-hepatitis-delta-virus-accumulation-requires-paraspeckle-components-and-affects-neat1-level-and-psp1-localization
#4
Yasnee Beeharry, Gabrielle Goodrum, Christian J Imperiale, Martin Pelchat
The Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) relies mainly on host proteins for its replication. We previously identified that PSF and p54nrb associate with the HDV RNA genome during viral replication. Together with PSP1, these proteins are part of paraspeckles, which are subnuclear bodies nucleated by the long non-coding RNA NEAT1. In this work, we established the requirement for PSF, p54nrb and PSP1 in HDV replication using RNAi-mediated knockdown in HEK-293 cells replicating the HDV RNA genome. We determined that HDV replication induces the delocalization of PSP1 to cytoplasmic foci containing PABP and increases NEAT1 level causing an enlargement of NEAT1 foci...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644712/evolution-of-hbv-s-gene-in-the-backdrop-of-hdv-co-infection
#5
Samina Baig, Syed H Abidi, Zahid Azam, Shahid Majid, Saeed Khan, Muhammad R Khanani, Syed Ali
BACKGROUND: HBV-HDV co-infected people have a higher chance of developing cirrhosis, fulminant hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to those infected only with HBV. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to investigate HBV genotypes and phylogeny among HBV mono-infected and HBV-HDV co-infected patients, as well as analyze mutations in the surface gene of HBV in mono-infected and co-infected patients. METHODS: A total of 100 blood samples (50 co-infected with HBV and HDV, and 50 mono-infected with HBV only) were collected for this study...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602929/clinical-and-laboratory-characteristics-of-hepatitis-d-in-republic-of-sakha-yakutia
#6
Vadim G Krivoshapkin, Sergei I Semenov, Svetlana S Maximova, Nadegda N Tihonova, Anna I Sivtseva, Snegana S Sleptsova
OBJECTIVE: Inrtroduction: The epidemiological situation for hepatitis D has changed significantly. Reduced population authors infection due to a sharp decline in hospitalizations from Central Asia regions, the Caucasus and Moldova, which are known to be endemic for hepatitis D. Currently, the incidence of chronic hepatitis D (HGD) in Russia is 1%, while in the countries of Central Asia, and in particular in Turkmenistan, the share of HGD among chronic viral hepatitis is 8%. The aim of research was to establish the clinical features, depending on the activity of the replication of hepatitis viruses B and D...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596839/hepatitis-d-diagnostics-utilization-and-testing-in-the-united-states
#7
Parham Safaie, Sanam Razeghi, Susan D Rouster, Isaac Privitera, Kenneth E Sherman
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection may accompany acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection. While HDV infection in the United States is thought to be uncommon, there are limited data regarding frequency of testing, and prevalence of HDV antibody and HDV RNA. We evaluated the use of HDV antibody testing using electronic medical record (EMR) data. Among 1007 HBsAg positive patients, only 121 ha d been tested for HDV antibody. Testing was performed primarily by gastroenterologists/hepatologists and limited testing was performed in identifiable high risk groups including those with HBV/HIV coinfection...
March 26, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589547/implication-of-b23-nucleophosmin-in-viral-infections-potential-uses-of-b23-npm1-inhibitors-as-antiviral-therapy
#8
Yadira Lobaina, Yasser Perera
BACKGROUND: B23/nucleophosmin (B23/NPM1) is an abundant multifunctional protein mainly located in the nucleolus but constantly shuttling between the nucleus and cytosol. As a consequence of its constitutive expression, intracellular dynamics and binding capacities, B23/NPM1 interacts with multiple cellular factors in different cellular compartments, but also with viral proteins from both DNA and RNA viruses. B23/NPM1 influences overall viral replication of viruses like HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HPV by playing functional roles in different stages of viral replication including nuclear import, viral genome transcription and assembly, as well as final particle formation...
March 27, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577518/quantification-of-serum-markers-of-hepatitis-b-hbv-and-delta-virus-hdv-infections-in-patients-with-chronic-hdv-infection
#9
Gabriele Ricco, Delia Codruta Popa, Daniela Cavallone, Speranta Iacob, Antonio Salvati, Daniela Tabacelia, Filippo Oliveri, Giovanni Mascolo, Ferruccio Bonino, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia, Liana Gheorghe, Maurizia Rossana Brunetto
The interplay between hepatitis B (HBV) and Delta (HDV) viruses is complex and not always characterized during chronic HDV infection. We assessed the clinical usefulness of new quantitative assays for HBV and HDV serum markers in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Sera obtained from 122 HDV-genotype-1 and HBV-genotype-D co-infected, anti-HIV-negative patients [71 males; median age 49.8 (21.7-66.9) years], recruited consecutively in two geographic areas (Italy 69 patients, Romania 53) with different HBV and HDV epidemiology, were tested for HBsAg, HBV-DNA, HBcrAg, total anti-HBc, HDV-RNA, IgM and total anti-HDV using quantitative assays...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568767/construction-and-characterization-of-a-recombinant-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-encoding-enhanced-green-fluorescence-protein-for-antiviral-drug-screening-assay
#10
Min Xu, Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Nan Jiang, Yuan-Bo Zheng, Yi-Fei Yan, Mei Zhang, Yan-Peng Zheng, Wu-Yang Zhu, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children and a major viral agent responsible for respiratory tract disease in immunosuppressed individuals and the elderly, but no vaccines and antiviral drugs are available. Herein the recombinant RSV (rRSV) encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP, rRSV-EGFP) was constructed and the potential for screening anti-RSV drugs was investigated. The recombinant plasmid of pBRATm-rRSV-EGFP, containing T7 transcription cassette composed of T7 promoter, RSV antigenomic cDNA with EGFP gene, HDV ribozyme ( δ ), and T7 terminator in the order of 5' to 3', was constructed and cotransfected into BHK/T7-9 cells together with helper plasmids encoding N, P, L, and M2-1 gene, respectively...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524530/hepatitis-d-virus-replication-is-sensed-by-mda5-and-induces-ifn-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-responses-in-hepatocytes
#11
Zhenfeng Zhang, Christina Filzmayer, Yi Ni, Holger Sültmann, Pascal Mutz, Marie-Sophie Hiet, Florian W R Vondran, Ralf Bartenschlager, Stephan Urban
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and D virus (HDV) co-infections cause the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV induces an innate immune response, but it is unknown how the host cell senses HDV and if this defense affects HDV replication. We aim to characterize interferon (IFN) activation by HDV, identify the responsible sensor and evaluate the effect of IFN on HDV replication. METHODS: HDV and HBV susceptible hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were used for infection studies...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516244/molecular-characterization-of-the-full-length-genome-sequences-of-hdv-strains-circulating-in-tunisia
#12
Lamia Yacoubi, Ségolène Brichler, Frédéric Le Gal, Henda Triki, Emmanuel Gordien
While Tunisia is endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV), a recent large-scale retrospective study, revealed a very low prevalence (2%) of hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) (Yacoubi et al. in J Clin Virol 72:126-132, 2015). All strains were classified within the genotype 1 (HDV-1) as assessed by nucleotide sequencing of the so-called 'R0' region of the genome described previously. In this study, we aimed to determine the full-length genome sequence of HDV isolates in order to fully characterize the HDV strains spreading in Tunisia...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499947/delineation-of-the-exact-transcription-termination-signal-for-type-3-polymerase-iii
#13
Zongliang Gao, Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout
Type 3 Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used for expression of small RNAs, including short hairpin RNA for RNAi applications and guide RNA in CRISPR genome-editing platforms. RNA polymerase III uses a T-stretch as termination signal, but the exact properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we systematically measured the in vivo termination efficiency and the actual site of termination for different T-stretch signals in three commonly used human Pol III promoters (U6, 7SK, and H1). Both the termination efficiency and the actual termination site depend on the T-stretch signal...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491739/biology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-retrotransposons-from-an-enzymatic-to-a-structural-point-of-view
#14
Francisco Macías, Raquel Afonso-Lehmann, Manuel C López, Inmaculada Gómez, M Carmen Thomas
Introduction: An important portion of the Trypanosoma cruzi genome is composed of mobile genetic elements, which are interspersed with genes on all chromosomes. The L1Tc non-LTR retrotransposon and its truncated version NARTc are the most highly represented and best studied of these elements. L1Tc is actively transcribed in all three forms of the Trypanosoma parasite and encodes the proteins that enable it to autonomously mobilize. This mini review discusses the enzymatic properties of L1Tc that enable its mobilization and possibly the mobilization of other non-autonomous retrotransposons in Trypanosoma...
February 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486716/characterization-of-hepatitis-b-and-delta-coinfection-in-israel
#15
Rachel Shirazi, Daniela Ram, Aviya Rakovsky, Efrat Bucris, Yael Gozlan, Yaniv Lustig, Pninit Shaked-Mishan, Orit Picard, Yonat Shemer-Avni, Haim Ben-Zvi, Ora Halutz, Yoav Lurie, Ella Veizman, Matthias Carlebach, Marius Braun, Michal Cohen- Naftaly, Amir Shlomai, Rifaat Safadi, Ella Mendelson, Ella H Sklan, Ziv Ben-Ari, Orna Mor
BACKGROUND: Characteristics of hepatitis B (HBV) and delta (HDV) coinfection in various geographical regions, including Israel, remain unclear. Here we studied HDV seroprevalence in Israel, assessed HDV/HBV viral loads, circulating genotypes and hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) conservation. METHODS: Serological anti HDV IgG results from 8969 HBsAg positive individuals tested in 2010-2015 were retrospectively analyzed to determine HDV seroprevalence. In a cohort of HBV/HDV coinfected (n=58) and HBV monoinfected (n=27) patients, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and sequencing were performed to determine viral loads, genotypes and hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) protein sequence...
February 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471567/targeting-hepatitis-d
#16
Mario Rizzetto
New therapeutic strategies to treat chronic hepatitis D are directed to deprive the hepatitis D virus (HDV) of functions necessary to complete its life cycle that are provided by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and by the host. Current options are (1) the block by the synthetic peptide Myrcludex B of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) entry into cells through the inhibition of the sodium taurocholate cotransporting receptor; (2) the inhibition with lonafarnib of the farnesylation of the large HD antigen, required for virion assembly; (3) the presumed reduction by the nucleic acid polymer REP 2139 of the release of the HBsAg and subviral HBV particles necessary for HD virion morphogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453472/prevalence-of-hepatitis-d-among-patients-with-hepatitis-b-viral-infection-attending-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-nepal
#17
Kiran Regmi, Jeetendra Kaji Shrestha, Sudhamshu Kc, Bikash Jaishi, Niyanta Karki, Dipendra Khadka, Sandip Khadka
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide there is variation in prevalence of Hepatitis D viral infection. Superinfection and co infection with hepatitis B viral infection is known to occur in 15-20 million people. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital based study carried out in NAMS, Bir hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from period of January 2017 to June 2017. Consecutive patients of chronic hepatitis B viral infection of HBsAg positive with more than two-time upper normal limit of ALT were enrolled and tested for HDV IgG...
October 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432880/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-d-virus-coinfection-in-western-burkina-faso-and-molecular-characterization-of-the-detected-virus-strains
#18
Armel M Sanou, Kenza Benkirane, Bachirou Tinto, Assana Cissé, Tani Sagna, Abdoul Kader Ilboudo, Claire Dording, Zekiba Tarnagda, Claude P Muller, Judith M Hübschen
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we monitored the seroprevalence of HBV-HDV co-infection in different population groups in the Western part of Burkina Faso, and described the genetic diversity of the detected virus strains. METHODS: Between October 2013 and December 2014, venous blood samples were collected from different cohorts (blood donors, pregnant women, outpatients) in the western region of Burkina Faso. Samples were tested for HBsAg and total anti-HDV antibodies...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406571/a-comprehensive-bioinformatic-analysis-of-hepatitis-d-virus-full-length-genomes
#19
C M Delfino, C S Cerrudo, M Biglione, J R Oubiña, P D Ghiringhelli, V L Mathet
In association with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a subviral agent that may promote severe acute and chronic forms of liver disease. Based on the percentage of nucleotide identity of the genome, HDV was initially classified into three genotypes. However, since 2006, the original classification has been further expanded into eight clades/genotypes. The intergenotype divergence may be as high as 35%-40% over the entire RNA genome, whereas sequence heterogeneity among the isolates of a given genotype is <20%; furthermore, HDV recombinants have been clearly demonstrated...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404459/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-modeling-of-lonafarnib-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-delta-virus-infection
#20
Laetitia Canini, Christopher Koh, Scott J Cotler, Susan L Uprichard, Mark A Winters, Ma Ai Thanda Han, David E Kleiner, Ramazan Idilman, Cihan Yurdaydin, Jeffrey S Glenn, Theo Heller, Harel Dahari
The prenylation inhibitor lonafarnib (LNF) is a potent antiviral agent providing a breakthrough for the treatment of hepatitis delta virus (HDV). The current study used a maximum likelihood approach to model LNF pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters and predict the dose needed to achieve 99% efficacy using data from 12 patients chronically infected with HDV and treated with LNF 100 mg twice daily (bid) (group 1) or 200 mg bid (group 2) for 28 days. The LNF-PK model predicted average steady-state LNF concentrations of 860 ng/mL and 1,734 ng/mL in groups 1 and 2, respectively, with an LNF absorption rate ka = 0...
June 2017: Hepatology Communications
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