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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629395/early-experiences-from-one-of-the-first-treatment-programs-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa
#1
Hanna Aberra, Hailemichael Desalegn, Nega Berhe, Girmay Medhin, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is virtually absent in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we present early experiences from a pilot program for treatment of CHB in Ethiopia. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) with CHB were included in a cohort study at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, from February 2015. The baseline assessment included liver function tests, viral markers and transient elastography (Fibroscan 402, Echosense, France)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623307/both-interferon-alpha-and-lambda-can-reduce-all-intrahepatic-hdv-infection-markers-in-hbv-hdv-infected-humanized-mice
#2
Katja Giersch, Maria Homs, Tassilo Volz, Martina Helbig, Lena Allweiss, Ansgar W Lohse, Jörg Petersen, Maria Buti, Teresa Pollicino, Camille Sureau, Maura Dandri, Marc Lütgehetmann
Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and D virus (HDV) is associated with the most severe course of liver disease. Interferon represents the only treatment currently approved. However, knowledge about the impact of interferons on HDV in human hepatocytes is scant. Aim was to assess the effect of pegylated interferon alpha (peg-IFNα) and lambda (peg-IFNλ), compared to the HBV-polymerase inhibitor entecavir (ETV) on all HDV infection markers using human liver chimeric mice and novel HDV strand-specific qRT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays, which enable intrahepatic detection of HDV RNA species...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621670/analyses-of-a-whole-genome-inter-clade-recombination-map-of-hepatitis-delta-virus-suggest-a-host-polymerase-driven-and-viral-rna-structure-promoted-template-switching-mechanism-for-viral-rna-recombination
#3
Mei Chao, Tzu-Chi Wang, Chia-Chi Lin, Robert Yung-Liang Wang, Wen-Bin Lin, Shang-En Lee, Ying-Yu Cheng, Chau-Ting Yeh, Shan-Bei Iang
The genome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a 1.7-kb single-stranded circular RNA that folds into an unbranched rod-like structure and has ribozyme activity. HDV redirects host RNA polymerase(s) (RNAP) to perform viral RNA-directed RNA transcription. RNA recombination is known to contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of HDV, but its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we established a whole-genome HDV-1/HDV-4 recombination map using two cloned sequences coexisting in cultured cells. Our functional analyses of the resulting chimeric delta antigens (the only viral-encoded protein) and recombinant genomes provide insights into how recombination promotes the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of HDV...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611341/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-d-virus-in-saudi-arabia-a-single-center-study
#4
Ghazi A Jamjoom, Mai M El-Daly, Esam I Azhar, Hind I Fallatah, Hisham O Akbar, Mohammed Babatin, Abdullah S Alghamdi, Mohammed I Dgdgi, Mohamed A Hamid, Yousef A Qari, Sherif A El-Kafrawy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that is dependent on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for transmission and replication. HDV significance arises from the possibility of poor prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In Saudi Arabia, HDV prevalence varied from 8 to 32% before the HBV vaccination program and ranged from 0 to 14.7% after the vaccination program was started. The last study, performed in 2004, showed a prevalence of 8.6% in hospital-based HBV cases and 3...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548675/inducible-bcl-2-gene-rna-interference-mediated-by-aptamer-integrated-hdv-ribozyme-switch
#5
Yuanyuan Zhang, Jine Wang, Hui Cheng, Na Sun, Min Liu, Zhengyan Wu, Renjun Pei
The regulation of RNA interference (RNAi) could be a powerful method for the study of temporal and dose dependent effects of gene expression. In this study, we designed the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer as the sensor domain and the pri-miRNA of endogenous gene Bcl-2 as the effector domain to engineer an RNAi-regulatory device in MCF-7 cells. The system allowed us to control gene expression by adding theophylline into the culture media in a dose dependent fashion...
May 26, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535669/acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-but-not-d-is-still-prevalent-in-mongolia-a-time-trend-analysis
#6
Oidov Baatarkhuu, Hye Won Lee, Jacob George, Dashchirev Munkh-Orshikh, Baasankhuu Enkhtuvshin, Sosorbaram Ariunaa, Mohammed Eslam, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Do Young Kim
Background/Aims: Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. Methods: The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken...
May 2, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533779/cytomegalovirus-driven-adaptive-like-natural-killer-cell-expansions-are-unaffected-by-concurrent-chronic-hepatitis-virus-infections
#7
David F G Malone, Sebastian Lunemann, Julia Hengst, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Michael P Manns, Johan K Sandberg, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer, Niklas K Björkström
Adaptive-like expansions of natural killer (NK) cell subsets are known to occur in response to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. These expansions are typically made up of NKG2C(+) NK cells with particular killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) expression patterns. Such NK cell expansion patterns are also seen in patients with viral hepatitis infection. Yet, it is not known if the viral hepatitis infection promotes the appearance of such expansions or if effects are solely attributed to underlying CMV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530097/total-particle-number-emissions-from-modern-diesel-natural-gas-and-hybrid-heavy-duty-vehicles-during-on-road-operation
#8
Tianyang Wang, David C Quiros, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Saroj Pradhan, Shaohua Hu, Tao Huai, Eon S Lee, Yifang Zhu
Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#9
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV- and HBV-replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV) (AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492419/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-and-antigens-against-hepatitis-a-e-viruses-in-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-in-germany-in-2015
#10
Alexandra Jablonka, Philipp Solbach, Michael Wöbse, Michael P Manns, Reinhold E Schmidt, Heiner Wedemeyer, Markus Cornberg, Georg M N Behrens, Svenja Hardtke
BACKGROUND: Migration because of miscellaneous political crises in countries in the Middle East and Africa is a global challenge for whole Europe from an economic, social, and public health view. There is an urgent need to generate comprehensive, evidence-based data to expedite further screening and vaccination strategies. METHODS: A total of 604 individuals ranging in age from 2 to 68 years who enrolled at a single reception center were tested for the prevalence of serologic markers for hepatitis virus types A, B, C, D, and E (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV), respectively...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483682/intrahepatic-cd206-macrophages-contribute-to-inflammation-in-advanced-viral-related-liver-disease
#11
Alfonso Tan-Garcia, Lu-En Wai, Dahai Zheng, Erica Ceccarello, Juandy Jo, Nasirah Banu, Atefeh Khakpoor, Adeline Chia, Christine Y L Tham, Anthony T Tan, Michelle Hong, Choong Tat Keng, Laura Rivino, Kai Chah Tan, Kang Hoe Lee, Seng Gee Lim, Evan W Newell, Norman Pavelka, Jinmiao Chen, Florent Ginhoux, Qingfeng Chen, Antonio Bertoletti, Charles-Antoine Dutertre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver inflammation is central to the progression of chronic viral hepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The magnitude of viral replication and the specific anti-viral immune responses should govern the degree of inflammation, but a direct correlation is not consistently found in chronic viral hepatitis patients. We aim to better define the mechanisms that contribute to chronic liver inflammation. METHODS: Intrahepatic CD14(+) myeloid cells from healthy donors (n=19) and patients with viral-related liver cirrhosis (HBV, HBV/HDV or HCV; n=15) were subjected to detailed phenotypic, molecular and functional characterisation...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479902/low-sero-prevalence-of-hepatitis-delta-antibodies-in-hiv-hepatitis-b-co-infected-patients-attending-an-urban-hiv-clinic-in-uganda
#12
Elizabeth Katwesigye, Emmanuel Seremba, Fred Semitala, Ponsiano Ocama
BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in developing countries and it aggressively accelerates progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and other complications. There is scarcity of data on HDV in sub-Saharan Africa .We investigated the sero-prevalence and factors associated with HDV antibody among HIV/HBV co-infected patients attending a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. METHODS: We screened 189 HIV/HBV co-infected individuals for anti-HDV immunoglobulin G (IgG) and performed logistic regression to determine the associated factors...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475945/emerging-concepts-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-delta
#13
REVIEW
Menashe Elazar, Jeffrey S Glenn
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis and is associated with a higher risk of cirrhosis, liver decompensation and liver cancer. Interferon alpha is the only agent that has demonstrated efficacy to date, although response rates are low and it is associated with significant side effects. A better understanding of the relevant molecular virology has resulted in the identification of new candidate targets. Future therapeutic options are rapidly evolving as several new agents have entered clinical development, including the entry inhibitor myrcludex-B, the nucleic acid polymer REP2139-Ca inhibiting HBV surface antigen secretion, the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib that targets virus assembly, and a better tolerated interferon-interferon lambda...
May 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442239/roadmap-to-control-hbv-and-hdv-epidemics-in-china
#14
Ashish Goyal, John M Murray
PURPOSE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in China. Almost 10% of HBV infected individuals are also infected with hepatitis D virus (HDV) which has a 5-10 times higher mortality rate than HBV mono-infection. The aim of this manuscript is to devise strategies that can not only control HBV infections but also HDV infections in China under the current health care budget in an optimal manner. METHODS: Using a mathematical model, an annual budget of $10billion was optimally allocated among five interventions namely, testing and HBV adult vaccination, treatment for mono-infected and dually-infected individuals, second line treatment for HBV mono-infections, and awareness programs...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425079/outcome-of-patients-with-septic-shock-and-high-dose-vasopressor-therapy
#15
Thomas Auchet, Marie-Alix Regnier, Nicolas Girerd, Bruno Levy
BACKGROUND: Despite the dissemination of international guidelines, mortality from septic shock remains high. Norepinephrine is recommended as first-line vasopressor therapy with a target mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg. High-dose vasopressor (HDV) may also be required. This study aimed to assess survival in patients with septic shock requiring HDV. We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted between January 2008 and December 2013 to a 13-bed ICU for septic shock and receiving high-dose vasopressor therapy (defined by a dose >1 µg/kg/min)...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403190/prevalence-and-genotype-distribution-of-hepatitis-delta-virus-among-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers-in-central-vietnam
#16
Hung Minh Nguyen, Bui Tien Sy, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Nghiem Xuan Hoan, Heiner Wedemeyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan, C-Thomas Bock
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection plays an important role in liver diseases. However, the molecular epidemiology and impact of HDV infection in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remain uncertain in Vietnam. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of HDV among HBsAg-positive patients in Central Vietnam. 250 CHB patients were tested for HDV using newly established HDV-specific RT-PCR techniques. HDV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing. Of the 250 patients 25 (10%) had detectable copies of HDV viral RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362065/alcohol-use-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis-among-hiv-positive-persons-in-west-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Antoine Jaquet, Gilles Wandeler, Marcellin Nouaman, Didier K Ekouevi, Judicaël Tine, Akouda Patassi, Patrick A Coffie, Aristophane Tanon, Moussa Seydi, Alain Attia, François Dabis
INTRODUCTION: Liver fibrosis is often the first stage of liver disease in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in industrialized countries. However, little is known about liver fibrosis and its correlates among PLWHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The study was undertaken in three HIV referral clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal and Togo. Enrolled PLWHIV underwent a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis combining liver stiffness measure (LSM) with transient elastography and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359844/sequencing-of-the-hepatitis-d-virus-rna-who-international-standard
#18
M T Pyne, M A Mallory, H B Xie, Y Mei, R Schlaberg, D R Hillyard
BACKGROUND: Well-characterized, stable calibration materials are essential to standardize quantitative viral reporting. The preferred calibration materials are the WHO International Standards and secondary standards derived from them. In 2013, the 1st WHO International Standard for Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) RNA became available. During the course of assay development in our laboratory, differences between the published sequence (GenBank ID: HQ005371) and sequence we generated from the WHO HDV Standard were identified...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353446/decline-and-changing-profile-of-hepatitis-delta-among-injection-drug-users-in-spain
#19
Antonio Aguilera, Rocio Trastoy, Pablo Barreiro, José Javier Costa, Carmen de Mendoza, Jose M Peña, Vicente Soriano
BACKGROUND: Roughly 15 million people worldwide have hepatitis delta, the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis that often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Injection drug users (IDUs) are the largest HDV reservoir. Their resurgence in North America and Europe may represent a new opportunity for HDV widespread. METHODS: We examined all consecutive active IDUs seen for the first time and enrolled in detoxification programs at two clinics in Spain during two periods (1993-1996 and 2011-2014, respectively)...
March 29, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331807/transmission-of-hepatitis-d-virus-between-spouses-a-longitudinal-study-of-the-first-reported-canadian-case
#20
Carla Osiowy, Anton Andonov, Kevin Fonseca, Ken Swidinsky, Elizabeth Giles, Andrew Mason, Carla S Coffin
In chronic hepatitis B (CHB), hepatitis D virus (HDV) superinfection can lead to acute liver failure. The incidence of HDV superinfection is unknown, but is often detected in immigrants from HDV endemic countries. In this report, we characterize long-term clinical and virological outcomes in a hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected carrier before and after HDV superinfection, acquired from their spouse having HBV/HDV co-infection. A 38 year-old Mongolian male with CHB on anti-HBV therapy developed acute liver failure following HDV superinfection...
2017: IDCases
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