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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774414/hepatitis-delta-infection-current-and-new-treatment-options
#1
REVIEW
Menashe Elazar, Christopher Koh, Jeffrey S Glenn
In humans, hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection only occurs in the presence of a concomitant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and induces the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. Even though HDV is spread worldwide and is endemic in some regions, screening and treatment has been often neglected in part due to the lack of an effective therapy. Moreover, HDV prevalence rates are increasing in many countries driven by immigration from areas of high endemicity. Currently, no FDA-approved anti-HDV therapy is available, although interferon (IFN) alpha therapy has demonstrated benefit in a minority of patients...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774413/management-of-hepatitis-b-in-special-populations
#2
REVIEW
Kali Zhou, Norah Terrault
Special populations infected with chronic HBV include those with decompensated cirrhosis, coinfections (HIV, HCV, HDV), hemodialysis and renal failure, immunosuppressed including transplant patients, children and women in pregnancy. These populations differ in their natural history and risk for liver-related complications, the indications for anti-HBV therapy as well as the recommendations regarding the HBV drugs used, duration of therapy and anticipated endpoints. Reflecting the special populations with substantive changes in management in recent years, this review focuses on HBV-HIV coinfected patients, immunosuppressed patients at risk for reactivation, liver transplant recipients and pregnant women...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763652/nox-nh3-n2o-and-pn-real-driving-emissions-from-a-euro-vi-heavy-duty-vehicle-impact-of-regulatory-on-road-test-conditions-on-emissions
#3
Pablo Mendoza-Villafuerte, Ricardo Suarez-Bertoa, Barouch Giechaskiel, Francesco Riccobono, Claudia Bulgheroni, Covadonga Astorga, Adolfo Perujo
Euro VI emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) introduced for the first time limits for solid particle number (PN) and NH3 emissions. EU regulation also includes a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) based test at type approval, followed by in-service conformity (ISC) testing. A comprehensive study on the real-time on-road emissions of NOx, NH3, N2O and PN from a Euro VI HDV equipped with a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a Diesel Particle Filter (DPF), a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system and an Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst (AMOX) is presented...
July 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750657/rapid-expression-and-purification-of-the-hepatitis-delta-virus-antigen-using-the-methylotropic-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#4
Stephanie P Cartwright, Roslyn M Bill, Bui Tien Sy, Hieu Tran-Van, Hung Minh Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: Patients with dual hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) virus infection are at an increased risk of progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma than patients with a single viral infection. Treatment of viral hepatitis due to dual HBV/HDV infection represents a challenge. Currently there is no vaccine against HDV. Recombinant production of HDV antigen (HDAg) is the first step towards a potential vaccine candidate and the development of assays for HDV detection...
July 27, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730878/investigational-drugs-in-development-for-hepatitis-d
#5
Mario Rizzetto
Treatment of chronic hepatitis D still relies on Interferon. To improve efficacy, new therapeutic strategies are in development which aim to deprive the Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) of functions of the Hepatitis B Virus and of the host required for its life-cycle. Areas covered: The therapeutic options are; 1) The inhibition of the farnesylation of the large HD-protein permissive of virion assembly with Lonafarnib, 2) The blocking of HBsAg entry into cells with Myrcludex B via the inhibition of the Sodium Taurocholate Cotransporting Receptor, to prevent the spreading of HDV to uninfected hepatocytes, 3) The reduction of subviral HBsAg particles by REP 2139, leading to diminished virion morphogenesis ...
July 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700067/acquired-hepatocerebral-degeneration-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-delta-virus-coinfection
#6
Viviane de Carvalho, Dessana Francis Chehuan, Marcia Melo Damian
Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration is a neurological syndrome with typical clinical (extrapyramidal and neuropsychiatric) symptoms and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings (high T1 signal in the globus pallidus). It occurs mainly in patients with advanced liver disease, such as in patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV). However, there are no reports relating HBV/HDV coinfection and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration. This report presents the case of a 49-year-old woman with characteristics of acquired hepatocerebral degeneration and liver cirrhosis due to HBV/HDV coinfection, and presents the main theories of the physiopathology of this condition...
May 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677645/hepatitis-delta-virus-replication-strategy-and-upcoming-therapeutic-options-for-a-neglected-human-pathogen
#7
REVIEW
Florian A Lempp, Stephan Urban
The human Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is unique among all viral pathogens. Encoding only one protein (Hepatitis Delta Antigen; HDAg) within its viroid-like self-complementary RNA, HDV constitutes the smallest known virus in the animal kingdom. To disseminate in its host, HDV depends on a helper virus, the human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which provides the envelope proteins required for HDV assembly. HDV affects an estimated 15-20 million out of the 240 million chronic HBV-carriers and disperses unequally in disparate geographical regions of the world...
July 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676076/prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-delta-according-to-hiv-type-a-multi-country-cross-sectional-survey-in-west-africa
#8
Patrick A Coffie, Boris K Tchounga, Guillaume Bado, Mathieu Kabran, Daouda K Minta, Gilles Wandeler, Geoffrey S Gottlieb, François Dabis, Serge P Eholie, Didier K Ekouevi
BACKGROUND: In West Africa where HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-circulate, the co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is not well described. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection according to HIV types and risk factors for HBV infection among West African HIV-infected patients. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the IeDEA West Africa cohort from March to December 2012 in Côte d'Ivoire (three sites), Burkina Faso and Mali (one site each)...
July 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675280/-is-there-hope-for-hepatitis-delta
#9
Stefano Guglielmi, Jean-Louis Frossard, Francesco Negro
Hepatitis D or delta is a chronic liver disease globally reaching 15‑20M people. Its agent, hepatitis D virus (HDV) requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to complete its life cycle. It represents one of the most severe forms of viral hepatitis. Current therapy with pegylated interferon alpha leads to viral eradication only in 25 % of cases. New treatments targeting the virus life cycle are sought. For example Myrcludex-B, which inhibits the entry into hepatocytes, lonafarnib which prevents the assemblage of the viral particle and the molecule REP 2139 which, among other unclear mechanisms, impedes the exit of the virus...
August 31, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655984/bacterial-load-and-cytokine-profile-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-following-therapy-with-proton-pump-inhibitors-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Christos Triantos, Maria Kalafateli, Panagiota I Spantidea, Dimitrios Goukos, Efstratios Koutroumpakis, Christos Konstantakis, Stelios F Assimakopoulos, Charalambos Gogos, Athanasia Mouzaki, Georgios Daikos, Konstantinos Thomopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the presence of bacterial products and the cytokine profile in outpatients with cirrhosis before and after short-term (4-8 weeks) administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: Seventeen patients with cirrhosis-male/female: 12/5; age: median 59.2 years (49-65); etiology: HBV±HDV 23.5%, HCV 17.7%, alcohol 41.2%, other 17.6%; Child-Pugh score: median 7.5 (5-12); Model for End-stage Liver Disease: 10.5 (7-21); ascites (%): 3 (17...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629395/early-experiences-from-one-of-the-first-treatment-programs-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
Hanna Aberra, Hailemichael Desalegn, Nega Berhe, Girmay Medhin, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is virtually absent in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we present early experiences from a pilot program for treatment of CHB in Ethiopia. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) with CHB were included in a cohort study at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, from February 2015. The baseline assessment included liver function tests, viral markers and transient elastography (Fibroscan 402, Echosense, France)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623307/both-interferon-alpha-and-lambda-can-reduce-all-intrahepatic-hdv-infection-markers-in-hbv-hdv-infected-humanized-mice
#12
Katja Giersch, Maria Homs, Tassilo Volz, Martina Helbig, Lena Allweiss, Ansgar W Lohse, Jörg Petersen, Maria Buti, Teresa Pollicino, Camille Sureau, Maura Dandri, Marc Lütgehetmann
Co-infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and D virus (HDV) is associated with the most severe course of liver disease. Interferon represents the only treatment currently approved. However, knowledge about the impact of interferons on HDV in human hepatocytes is scant. Aim was to assess the effect of pegylated interferon alpha (peg-IFNα) and lambda (peg-IFNλ), compared to the HBV-polymerase inhibitor entecavir (ETV) on all HDV infection markers using human liver chimeric mice and novel HDV strand-specific qRT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays, which enable intrahepatic detection of HDV RNA species...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621670/analyses-of-a-whole-genome-inter-clade-recombination-map-of-hepatitis-delta-virus-suggest-a-host-polymerase-driven-and-viral-rna-structure-promoted-template-switching-mechanism-for-viral-rna-recombination
#13
Mei Chao, Tzu-Chi Wang, Chia-Chi Lin, Robert Yung-Liang Wang, Wen-Bin Lin, Shang-En Lee, Ying-Yu Cheng, Chau-Ting Yeh, Shan-Bei Iang
The genome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a 1.7-kb single-stranded circular RNA that folds into an unbranched rod-like structure and has ribozyme activity. HDV redirects host RNA polymerase(s) (RNAP) to perform viral RNA-directed RNA transcription. RNA recombination is known to contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of HDV, but its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we established a whole-genome HDV-1/HDV-4 recombination map using two cloned sequences coexisting in cultured cells. Our functional analyses of the resulting chimeric delta antigens (the only viral-encoded protein) and recombinant genomes provide insights into how recombination promotes the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of HDV...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611341/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-d-virus-in-saudi-arabia-a-single-center-study
#14
Ghazi A Jamjoom, Mai M El-Daly, Esam I Azhar, Hind I Fallatah, Hisham O Akbar, Mohammed Babatin, Abdullah S Alghamdi, Mohammed I Dgdgi, Mohamed A Hamid, Yousef A Qari, Sherif A El-Kafrawy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that is dependent on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for transmission and replication. HDV significance arises from the possibility of poor prognosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In Saudi Arabia, HDV prevalence varied from 8 to 32% before the HBV vaccination program and ranged from 0 to 14.7% after the vaccination program was started. The last study, performed in 2004, showed a prevalence of 8.6% in hospital-based HBV cases and 3...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548675/inducible-bcl-2-gene-rna-interference-mediated-by-aptamer-integrated-hdv-ribozyme-switch
#15
Yuanyuan Zhang, Jine Wang, Hui Cheng, Na Sun, Min Liu, Zhengyan Wu, Renjun Pei
The regulation of RNA interference (RNAi) could be a powerful method for the study of temporal and dose dependent effects of gene expression. In this study, we designed the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer as the sensor domain and the pri-miRNA of endogenous gene Bcl-2 as the effector domain to engineer an RNAi-regulatory device in MCF-7 cells. The system allowed us to control gene expression by adding theophylline into the culture media in a dose dependent fashion...
May 26, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535669/acute-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-but-not-d-is-still-prevalent-in-mongolia-a-time-trend-analysis
#16
Oidov Baatarkhuu, Hye Won Lee, Jacob George, Dashchirev Munkh-Orshikh, Baasankhuu Enkhtuvshin, Sosorbaram Ariunaa, Mohammed Eslam, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Do Young Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. METHODS: The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken...
June 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533779/cytomegalovirus-driven-adaptive-like-natural-killer-cell-expansions-are-unaffected-by-concurrent-chronic-hepatitis-virus-infections
#17
David F G Malone, Sebastian Lunemann, Julia Hengst, Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren, Michael P Manns, Johan K Sandberg, Markus Cornberg, Heiner Wedemeyer, Niklas K Björkström
Adaptive-like expansions of natural killer (NK) cell subsets are known to occur in response to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. These expansions are typically made up of NKG2C(+) NK cells with particular killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) expression patterns. Such NK cell expansion patterns are also seen in patients with viral hepatitis infection. Yet, it is not known if the viral hepatitis infection promotes the appearance of such expansions or if effects are solely attributed to underlying CMV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530097/total-particle-number-emissions-from-modern-diesel-natural-gas-and-hybrid-heavy-duty-vehicles-during-on-road-operation
#18
Tianyang Wang, David C Quiros, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Saroj Pradhan, Shaohua Hu, Tao Huai, Eon S Lee, Yifang Zhu
Particle emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) have significant environmental and public health impacts. This study measured total particle number emission factors (PNEFs) from six newly certified HDVs powered by diesel and compressed natural gas totaling over 6800 miles of on-road operation in California. Distance-, fuel- and work-based PNEFs were calculated for each vehicle. Distance-based PNEFs of vehicles equipped with original equipment manufacturer (OEM) diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in this study have decreased by 355-3200 times compared to a previous retrofit DPF dynamometer study...
June 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#19
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV; AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492419/seroprevalence-of-antibodies-and-antigens-against-hepatitis-a-e-viruses-in-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-in-germany-in-2015
#20
Alexandra Jablonka, Philipp Solbach, Michael Wöbse, Michael P Manns, Reinhold E Schmidt, Heiner Wedemeyer, Markus Cornberg, Georg M N Behrens, Svenja Hardtke
BACKGROUND: Migration because of miscellaneous political crises in countries in the Middle East and Africa is a global challenge for whole Europe from an economic, social, and public health view. There is an urgent need to generate comprehensive, evidence-based data to expedite further screening and vaccination strategies. METHODS: A total of 604 individuals ranging in age from 2 to 68 years who enrolled at a single reception center were tested for the prevalence of serologic markers for hepatitis virus types A, B, C, D, and E (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV), respectively...
August 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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