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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045794/allosteric-modulation-of-f-prausnitzii-hdv-like-ribozyme-by-glucosamine-6-phosphate-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-substrate-of-the-adjacent-gene-product
#1
Luiz F M Passalacqua, Randi M Jimenez, Jennifer Y Fong, Andrej Luptak
Self-cleaving ribozymes were discovered 30 years ago and have been found throughout nature, from bacteria to animals, but little is known about their biological functions and regulation, particularly how cofactors and metabolites alter their activity. An HDV-like self-cleaving ribozyme maps upstream of a phosphoglucosamine mutase (glmM) open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of the human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. The presence of a ribozyme in the untranslated region of glmM suggests a regulation mechanism of gene expression...
October 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029611/identification-of-15-candidate-structured-noncoding-rna-motifs-in-fungi-by-comparative-genomics
#2
Sanshu Li, Ronald R Breaker
BACKGROUND: With the development of rapid and inexpensive DNA sequencing, the genome sequences of more than 100 fungal species have been made available. This dataset provides an excellent resource for comparative genomics analyses, which can be used to discover genetic elements, including noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Bioinformatics tools similar to those used to uncover novel ncRNAs in bacteria, likewise, should be useful for searching fungal genomic sequences, and the relative ease of genetic experiments with some model fungal species could facilitate experimental validation studies...
October 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992360/genetic-diversity-and-worldwide-distribution-of-the-deltavirus-genus-a-study-of-2-152-clinical-strains
#3
Frédéric Le Gal, Ségolène Brichler, Tudor Drugan, Chakib Alloui, Dominique Roulot, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Paul Dény, Emmanuel Gordien
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is responsible for the most severe form of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. We previously proposed that the Deltavirus genus is composed of 8 major clades. However, few sequences were available to confirm this classification. Moreover, little is known about the structural and functional consequences of HDV variability. One practical consequence is the failure of most quantification assays to properly detect or quantify plasmatic HDV RNA. Between 2001 and 2014, 2,152 HDV strains were prospectively collected and genotyped in our reference laboratory by means of nucleotide sequencing and extensive phylogenetic analyses of a 400-nucleotide region of the genome (R0) from nucleotide 889 to 1289 encompassing the 3' end of the delta protein-coding gene...
October 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988126/quantitative-characterization-of-hepatitis-delta-virus-genome-edition-by-next-generation-sequencing
#4
Sara Sopena, Cristina Godoy, David Tabernero, Maria Homs, Josep Gregori, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Alicia Ruiz, Rafael Esteban, Maria Buti, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías
AIM: To determine the capacity of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for quantifying edited and unedited HDV populations, and to confirm if edition is a general phenomenon taking place along the entire HDV region analyzed, as we previously reported (HomsM et al. PLoS One 2016;11:e0158557). METHODS: Four serum samples from 4 patients with chronic HDV/HBV infection were included in the study. The region selected for analysis covered 360 nucleotides (nt), positions 910 to 1270 of the HDV genome, which included the HDAg ORF editing site (nt 1014 within codon 196)...
October 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981470/telomere-dynamics-in-immune-senescence-and-exhaustion-triggered-by-chronic-viral-infection
#5
REVIEW
Marcia Bellon, Christophe Nicot
The progressive loss of immunological memory during aging correlates with a reduced proliferative capacity and shortened telomeres of T cells. Growing evidence suggests that this phenotype is recapitulated during chronic viral infection. The antigenic volume imposed by persistent and latent viruses exposes the immune system to unique challenges that lead to host T-cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired T-cell functions. These dysfunctional memory T cells lack telomerase, the protein capable of extending and stabilizing chromosome ends, imposing constraints on telomere dynamics...
October 5, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980394/hepatitis-delta-virus-infection-in-a-large-cohort-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-ethiopia
#6
Hanna Aberra, Emmanuel Gordien, Hailemichael Desalegn, Nega Berhe, Girmay Medhin, Bitsatab Mekasha, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Athenaïs Gerber, Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Joakim Øverbø, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D Virus (HDV)-infection is associated with a more severe outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB); however, little is known about the presence of HDV in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HDV-infection, as well as its clinical, biological and virological characteristics, in a large CHB cohort in Ethiopia. METHODS: In total, 1267 HIV-negative CHB patients at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa were screened for anti-HDV antibodies using ELISA assays...
October 4, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977829/analyses-of-a-whole-genome-inter-clade-recombination-map-of-hepatitis-delta-virus-suggest-a-host-polymerase-driven-and-viral-rna-structure-promoted-template-switching-mechanism-for-viral-rna-recombination
#7
Mei Chao, Tzu-Chi Wang, Chia-Chi Lin, Robert Yung-Liang Wang, Wen-Bin Lin, Shang-En Lee, Ying-Yu Cheng, Chau-Ting Yeh, Shan-Bei Iang
The genome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a 1.7-kb single-stranded circular RNA that folds into an unbranched rod-like structure and has ribozyme activity. HDV redirects host RNA polymerase(s) (RNAP) to perform viral RNA-directed RNA transcription. RNA recombination is known to contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of HDV, but its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we established a whole-genome HDV-1/HDV-4 recombination map using two cloned sequences coexisting in cultured cells. Our functional analyses of the resulting chimeric delta antigens (the only viral-encoded protein) and recombinant genomes provide insights into how recombination promotes the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of HDV...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977233/chronic-hepatitis-b-and-d-prognosis-according-to-child-pugh-score
#8
Marcelo Siqueira de Oliveira, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva, Suiane da Costa Negreiros do Valle, Elisabeth Níglio de Figueiredo, Dayana Fram
Objective: compare chronic hepatitis B patients to those superinfected with hepatitis D virus, according to Child-Pugh score regarding disease severity. Method: retrospective descriptive study, performed with 59 patients followed in the ambulatory, of which 22 (37.3%) were chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (Group HBV) and 37 (62.7%) superinfected with Delta virus (Group HBV+HDV); variables of sex, age and items of Child-Pugh score were collected by consulting medical records...
September 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964701/safety-and-efficacy-of-rep-2139-and-pegylated-interferon-alfa-2a-for-treatment-naive-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-and-hepatitis-d-virus-co-infection-rep-301-and-rep-301-ltf-a-non-randomised-open-label-phase-2-trial
#9
Michel Bazinet, Victor Pântea, Valentin Cebotarescu, Lilia Cojuhari, Pavlina Jimbei, Jeffrey Albrecht, Peter Schmid, Frédéric Le Gal, Emmanuel Gordien, Adalbert Krawczyk, Hrvoje Mijočević, Hadi Karimzadeh, Michael Roggendorf, Andrew Vaillant
BACKGROUND: REP 2139 clears circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), enhancing the restoration of functional control of HBV infection by immunotherapy. We assessed the safety and efficacy of REP 2139 and pegylated interferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic HBV and hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection. METHODS: In this open-label, non-randomised, phase 2 trial, patients aged 18-55 years, who were treatment naive, hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] negative, anti-hepatitis D antigen [HDAg] positive, and HDV RNA positive, with serum HBsAg concentrations of more than 1000 IU/mL, and a history of HDV infection for 6 months or more before treatment, were recruited at Toma Ciorbă Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Chișinău, Moldova...
September 27, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963781/clinical-and-virological-heterogeneity-of-hepatitis-delta-in-different-regions-world-wide-the-hepatitis-delta-international-network-hdin
#10
Anika Wranke, Lourdes M Pinheiro Borzacov, Raymundo Parana, Cirley Lobato, Saeed Hamid, Emanoil Ceausu, George N Dalekos, Mario Rizzetto, Adela Turcanu, Grazia A Niro, Farheen Lubna, Minaam Abbas, Patrick Ingiliz, Maria Buti, Peter Ferenci, Thomas Vanwolleghem, Tonya Hayden, Naranjargal Dashdorj, Adriana Motoc, Markus Cornberg, Zaigham Abbas, Cihan Yurdaydin, Michael P Manns, Heiner Wedemeyer, Svenja Hardtke
Chronic hepatitis D (delta) is a major global health burden. Clinical and virological characteristics of patients with hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection and treatment approaches in different regions world-wide are poorly defined. METHODS: The Hepatitis Delta International Network (HDIN) registry was established in 2011 with centres in Europe, Asia, North- and South America. Here, we report on clinical/ virological characteristics of the first 1576 patients with ongoing or past HDV infection included in the database until October 2016 and performed a retrospective outcome analysis...
September 29, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949917/a-potent-human-neutralizing-antibody-fc-dependently-reduces-established-hbv-infections
#11
Dan Li, Wenhui He, Ximing Liu, Sanduo Zheng, Yonghe Qi, Huiyu Li, Fengfeng Mao, Juan Liu, Yinyan Sun, Lijing Pan, Kaixin Du, Keqiong Ye, Wenhui Li, Jianhua Sui
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem. Currently-available therapies are ineffective in curing chronic HBV infection. HBV and its satellite hepatitis D virus (HDV) infect hepatocytes via binding of the preS1 domain of its large envelope protein to sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP). Here, we developed novel human monoclonal antibodies that block the engagement of preS1 with NTCP and neutralize HBV and HDV with high potency. One antibody, 2H5-A14, functions at picomolar level and exhibited neutralization-activity-mediated prophylactic effects...
September 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928961/recent-advances-in-managing-hepatitis-d
#12
REVIEW
Cihan Yurdaydin
Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection leads to the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis and requires the attention of a liver specialist. In this review, I will recapitulate recent advances in the management of HDV, present background information on HDV infection as well as current chronic hepatitis D treatment, briefly examine the HDV life cycle and discuss new management strategies.
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903779/hepatitis-delta-virological-and-clinical-aspects
#13
REVIEW
Luan Felipo Botelho-Souza, Mariana Pinheiro Alves Vasconcelos, Alcione de Oliveira Dos Santos, Juan Miguel Villalobos Salcedo, Deusilene Souza Vieira
There are an estimated 400 million chronic carriers of HBV worldwide; between 15 and 20 million have serological evidence of exposure to HDV. Traditionally, regions with high rates of endemicity are central and northern Africa, the Amazon Basin, eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, the Middle East and parts of Asia. There are two types of HDV/HBV infection which are differentiated by the previous status infection by HBV for the individual. Individuals with acute HBV infection contaminated by HDV is an HDV/HBV co-infection, while individuals with chronic HBV infection contaminated by HDV represent an HDV/HBV super-infection...
September 13, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899424/clade-homogeneity-and-low-rate-of-delta-virus-despite-hyperendemicity-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-ethiopia
#14
Yeshambel Belyhun, Uwe Gerd Liebert, Melanie Maier
BACKGROUND: Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic and heterogeneous in its genetic diversity in Ethiopia, little is known about hepatitis D virus (HDV) circulating genotypes and molecular diversity. METHODS: A total of 321 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positives (125 HIV co-infected, 102 liver disease patients and 94 blood donors) were screened for anti-HDV antibody. The anti-HDV positive sera were subjected to Real time PCR for HDV-RNA confirmation...
September 12, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884240/the-serological-markers-of-acute-infection-with-hepatitis-a-b-c-d-e-and-g-viruses-revisited
#15
REVIEW
Robério Amorim de Almeida Pondé
Viral hepatitis is a liver infection caused by one of the six hepatitis viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, and G virus (HAV to HEV and HGV). These agents differ in their biological, immunological, pathological and epidemiological characteristics. They cause infections that, when symptomatic, lead to clinical manifestations and laboratory findings that are not specific to a particular virus, often making differential diagnosis difficult, especially when no knowledge is available regarding the patient's medical history or the epidemiological background...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858692/modeling-hepatitis-virus-infections-and-treatment-strategies-in-humanized-mice
#16
REVIEW
Dina Kremsdorf, Helene Strick-Marchand
Hepatitis viruses cause chronic liver diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas that are difficult to treat and constitute a global health problem. Species-specific viral tropism has limited the usefulness of small animal models to study the impact of viral hepatitis. Immunodeficient mice grafted with human hepatocytes are susceptible to hepatitis viruses B, C, D and E (HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV), developing full viral life cycles, and delivering a means to investigate virus-host interactions and antiviral treatments...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856286/hepatitis-d-b-and-c-virus-hdv-hbv-hcv-coinfection-as-a-diagnostic-problem-and-therapeutic-challenge
#17
Beata Lorenc, Katarzyna Sikorska, Piotr Stalke, Krzysztof Bielawski, Dominik Ziętkowski
Coinfection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in chronic hepatitis B is associated with more rapid progression to liver cirrhosis. We present two cases of infection with hepatitis D, B and C viruses. Both male patients were primarily diagnosed as infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), HBsAg-positive and anti-HCV-positive. The first patient was treated with interferon, lamivudine and pegylated interferon. A full virological and biochemical response was achieved. The second patient was treated with interferon and ribavirin, lamivudine and twice with pegylated interferon...
March 2017: Clin Exp Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854102/seroprevalence-of-hepatitis-b-and-delta-viruses-among-hiv-infected-population-attending-antiretroviral-clinic-in-selected-health-facilities-in-abuja-nigeria
#18
I M Ifeorah, A S Bakarey, J A Adeniji, F N Onyemelukwe
INTRODUCTION: Tri- infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis D virus (HDV) is rare. There is limited data on the seroprevalence of HIV/HBV/HDV tri-infection especially in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalences of HBsAg and HDV among HIV infected individuals attending Anti-retroviral (ARV) clinics in Abuja, Nigeria. METHODS: In this cohort study, blood samples were collected from 1102 (Male = 450; Female = 652) age ranged <20 to ≥51 years (Mean age = 34...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834623/hepatitis-b-virus-hepatitis-d-virus-mother-to-child-co-transmission-a-retrospective-study-in-a-developed-country
#19
Pierre Sellier, Sarah Maylin, Ségolène Brichler, Béatrice Berçot, Amanda Lopes, Dorothée Chopin, Manuela Pogliaghi, Anne-Lise Munier, Véronique Delcey, Guy Simoneau, John Evans, Emmanuel Gordien, François Simon, Jean-François Bergmann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA during chronic infection can reach levels at which mother-to-child (MTC) transmission frequently occurs despite passive-active immunization of newborns. Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) RNA can reach high levels, we assessed HBV/HDV MTC co-transmission. METHODS: Monocentric retrospective study (registered in ClinicalTrials. gov (NCT02044055)), after informed consent in HBV/HDV co-infected women pregnant between 01/01/2004 and 01/01/2015 in Paris, France...
August 23, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774414/hepatitis-delta-infection-current-and-new-treatment-options
#20
REVIEW
Menashe Elazar, Christopher Koh, Jeffrey S Glenn
In humans, hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection only occurs in the presence of a concomitant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and induces the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. Even though HDV is spread worldwide and is endemic in some regions, screening and treatment has been often neglected in part due to the lack of an effective therapy. Moreover, HDV prevalence rates are increasing in many countries driven by immigration from areas of high endemicity. Currently, no FDA-approved anti-HDV therapy is available, although interferon (IFN) alpha therapy has demonstrated benefit in a minority of patients...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
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