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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822578/improving-rhinology-skills-with-simulation
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Y Lee, Marvin P Fried, Marc Gibber
The convergence of technology and medicine has led to many advances in surgical training. Novel surgical simulators have led to significantly improved skills of graduating surgeons, leading to decreased time to proficiency, improved efficiency, decreased errors, and improvement in patient safety. Endoscopic sinus surgery poses a steep learning curve given the complex 3-dimensional anatomy of the nasal and paranasal cavities, and the necessary visual-spatial motor skills and bimanual dexterity. This article focuses on surgical simulation in rhinological training and how innovative high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulators can maximize resident training and improve procedural skills before operating in the live environment...
August 16, 2017: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813990/a-learning-based-agent-for-home-neurorehabilitation
#2
Andreas Lydakis, Yuanliang Meng, Christopher Munroe, Yi-Ning Wu, Momotaz Begum
This paper presents the iterative development of an artificially intelligent system to promote home-based neurorehabilitation. Although proper, structured practice of rehabilitation exercises at home is the key to successful recovery of motor functions, there is no home-program out there which can monitor a patient's exercise-related activities and provide corrective feedback in real time. To this end, we designed a Learning from Demonstration (LfD) based home-rehabilitation framework that combines advanced robot learning algorithms with commercially available wearable technologies...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813903/let-s-do-this-together-bi-manu-interact-a-novel-device-for-studying-human-haptic-interactive-behavior
#3
Ekaterina Ivanova, Axel Krause, Marie Schalicke, Franziska Schellhardt, Natalie Jankowski, Josy Achner, Henning Schmidt, Michael Joebges, Jorg Kruger
Our area of interest is robotic-based rehabilitation after stroke, and our goal is to help patients achieve optimal motor learning during high-intensity repetitive movement training through the assistance of robots. It is important, that the robotic assistance is adapted to the patients' abilities, thereby ensuring that the device is only supporting the patient as necessary ("assist-as-needed"). We hypothesize that natural and learning-effective human-machine interaction can be achieved by programming the robot's control, so that it emulates how a physiotherapist adaptively supports the patients' limb movement during stroke rehabilitation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813792/there-is-plenty-of-room-for-motor-learning-at-the-bottom-of-the-fugl-meyer-acquisition-of-a-novel-bimanual-wheelchair-skill-after-chronic-stroke-using-an-unmasking-technology
#4
Yasemin Sarigul-Klijn, Joan Lobo-Prat, Brendan W Smith, Sage Thayer, Daniel Zondervan, Vicky Chan, Oliver Stoller, David J Reinkensmeyer
Many people with a stroke have a severely paretic arm, and it is often assumed that they are unable to learn novel, skilled behaviors that incorporate use of that arm. Here, we show that a group of people with chronic stroke (n = 5, upper extremity Fugl-Meyer scores: 31, 30, 26, 22, 8) learned to use their impaired arm to propel a novel, yoked-clutch lever drive wheelchair. Over six daily training sessions, each involving about 134 training movements with their "useless" arm, the users gradually achieved a 3-fold increase in wheelchair speed on average, with a 4-6 fold increase for three of the participants...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800631/lack-of-spacing-effects-during-piano-learning
#5
Melody Wiseheart, Annalise A D'Souza, Jacey Chae
Spacing effects during retention of verbal information are easily obtained, and the effect size is large. Relatively little evidence exists on whether motor skill retention benefits from distributed practice, with even less evidence on complex motor skills. We taught a 17-note musical sequence on a piano to individuals without prior formal training. There were five lags between learning episodes: 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-min. After a 5-min retention interval, participants' performance was measured using three criteria: accuracy of note playing, consistency in pressure applied to the keys, and consistency in timing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777743/origami-based-earthworm-like-locomotion-robots
#6
Hongbin Fang, Yetong Zhang, Kon-Well Wang
Inspired by the morphology characteristics of the earthworms and the excellent deformability of origami structures, this research creates a novel earthworm-like locomotion robot through exploiting the origami techniques. In this innovation, appropriate actuation mechanisms are incorporated with origami ball structures into the earthworm-like robot 'body', and the earthworm's locomotion mechanism is mim-icked to develop a gait generator as the robot 'centralized controller'. The origami ball, which is a peri-odic repetition of waterbomb units, could output significant bidirectional (axial and radial) deformations in an antagonistic way similar as the earthworm's body segment...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757242/mental-workload-and-motor-performance-dynamics-during-practice-of-reaching-movements-under-various-levels-of-task-difficulty
#7
Isabelle M Shuggi, Hyuk Oh, Patricia A Shewokis, Rodolphe J Gentili
The assessment of mental workload can inform attentional resource allocation during task performance that is essential for understanding the underlying principles of human cognitive-motor behavior. While many studies have focused on mental workload in relation to human performance, a modest body of work has examined it in a motor practice/learning context without considering individual variability. Thus, this work aimed to examine mental workload by employing the NASA TLX as well as the changes in motor performance resulting from the practice of a novel reaching task...
July 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733711/a-brief-history-of-neurological-botulinum-toxin-therapy-in-germany
#8
REVIEW
Dirk Dressler, Peter Roggenkaemper
Botulinum toxin (BT) has long been infamous in food safety and biological warfare. In the early 1970s, Alan B Scott of San Francisco invented its therapeutic use originally in extraocular eye muscles to treat strabismus using a therapeutic BT type A preparation provided by Edward J Schantz and Eric A Johnson. Subsequently a large number of medical indications based on motor and glandular hyperactivity and-most recently-chronic migraine are now treated by BT therapy. BT's highly specific and elaborate mechanism of action represents a completely novel therapeutic principle which will have consequences far beyond existing indications...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729951/young-children-do-not-require-perceptual-motor-feedback-to-solve-aesop-s-fable-tasks
#9
Rachael Miller, Sarah A Jelbert, Elsa Loissel, Alex H Taylor, Nicola S Clayton
Aesop's Fable tasks-in which subjects drop objects into a water-filled tube to raise the water level and obtain out-of-reach floating rewards -have been used to test for causal understanding of water displacement in both young children and non-human animals. However, a number of alternative explanations for success on these tasks have yet to be ruled out. One hypothesis is that subjects may respond to perceptual-motor feedback: repeating those actions that bring the reward incrementally closer. Here, we devised a novel, forced-choice version of the Aesop's Fable task to assess whether subjects can solve water displacement tasks when this type of feedback is removed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729730/a-selective-inhibitor-of-histone-deacetylase-3-prevents-cognitive-deficits-and-suppresses-striatal-cag-repeat-expansions-in-huntington-s-disease-mice
#10
Nuria Suelves, Lucy Kirkham-McCarthy, Robert S Lahue, Silvia Ginés
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder whose major symptoms include progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive decline is a critical quality of life concern for HD patients and families. The enzyme histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) appears to be important in HD pathology by negatively regulating genes involved in cognitive functions. Furthermore, HDAC3 has been implicated in the aberrant transcriptional patterns that help cause disease symptoms in HD mice. HDAC3 also helps fuel CAG repeat expansions in human cells, suggesting that HDAC3 may power striatal expansions in the HTT gene thought to drive disease progression...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692658/temporal-specificity-of-the-initial-adaptive-response-in-motor-adaptation
#11
Wilsaan M Joiner, Gary C Sing, Maurice A Smith
Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure of the initial adaptive response is, in fact, stereotyped and non-specific...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690001/synergistic-interaction-between-dexmedetomidine-and-ulinastatin-against-vincristine-induced-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#12
Bilin Nie, Subo Zhang, Zhuxi Huang, Jingxiu Huang, Xiaodi Chen, Yaochao Zheng, Xiaohui Bai, Weian Zeng, Handong Ouyang
Antimicrotubulin chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine (VCR), often induce peripheral neuropathic pain. It is usually permanent and seriously harmful to cancer patients' quality of life and can result in the hampering of clinical treatments. Currently, there is no definitive therapy, and many of the drugs approved for the treatment of other neuropathic pain have shown little or no analgesic effect. It is therefore vital to find new and novel therapeutic strategies for patients suffering from chemotherapeutic agent-induced neuropathic pain to improve patients' quality of life...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685651/successful-transfer-of-a-motor-learning-strategy-to-a-novel-sport
#13
Philip E Kearney, Phil Judge
This study investigated whether secondary school students who were taught a motor learning strategy could transfer their knowledge of the strategy to learning a novel task. Twenty adolescents were randomly allocated to a strategy or control group. The strategy group was taught Singer's five-step learning strategy, while the control group received information on the evolution and biomechanics of the basketball free throw. Both groups received three 1-hour practice sessions on a modified basketball shooting task...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668553/the-recovery-response-to-a-novel-unannounced-laboratory-induced-slip-the-first-trial-effect-in-older-adults
#14
Xuan Liu, Sasha Reschechtko, Shuaijie Wang, Yi-Chung Clive Pai
BACKGROUND: After a single slip, older adults rapidly make adaptive changes to avoid or eliminate further backward loss of balance or a fall. This rapid adaptation has been termed the "single trial effect". The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the motor errors subjects experienced upon a novel slip and the selection and execution of corrective response by which they modified their ongoing gait pattern and turned it into a protective step. METHODS: A forward slip was induced in the laboratory among 145 community-living older (≥65year old) adults who were protected by an overhead full body harness system...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668279/the-influence-of-high-intensity-exercise-and-the-val66met-polymorphism-on-circulating-bdnf-and-locomotor-learning
#15
Erin E Helm, Kathleen S Matt, Kenneth F Kirschner, Ryan T Pohlig, Dave Kohl, Darcy S Reisman
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been directly related to exercise-enhanced motor performance in the neurologically injured animal model; however literature concerning the role of BDNF in the enhancement of motor learning in the human population is limited. Previous studies in healthy subjects have examined the relationship between intensity of an acute bout of exercise, increases in peripheral BDNF and motor learning of a simple isometric upper extremity task. The current study examined the role of high intensity exercise on upregulation of peripheral BDNF levels as well as the role of high intensity exercise in mediation of motor learning and retention of a novel locomotor task in neurologically intact adults...
June 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659467/motor-learning-in-a-complex-balance-task-and-associated-neuroplasticity-a-comparison-between-endurance-athletes-and-non-athletes
#16
Oliver Seidel, Daniel Carius, Rouven Kenville, Patrick Ragert
Studies suggested that motor expertise is associated with functional and structural brain alterations, which positively affect sensorimotor performance and learning capabilities. The purpose of the present study was to unravel differences in motor skill learning and associated functional neuroplasticity between endurance athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA). For this purpose, participants had to perform a multimodal balance task (MBT) training on two sessions which were separated by one week. Before and after MBT-training, a static balance task (SBT) had to be performed...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655043/the-impact-of-feedback-frequency-on-performance-in-a-novel-speech-motor-learning-task
#17
Mara Steinberg Lowe, Adam Buchwald
Purpose: This study investigated whether whole nonword accuracy, phoneme accuracy, and acoustic duration measures were influenced by the amount of feedback speakers without impairment received during a novel speech motor learning task. Method: Thirty-two native English speakers completed a nonword production task across 3 time points: practice, short-term retention, and long-term retention. During practice, participants received knowledge of results feedback according to a randomly assigned schedule (100%, 50%, 20%, or 0%)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655042/a-novel-investigation-of-generalized-motor-program-theory-syllable-stress-as-a-motor-class-variable
#18
Kimberly M Meigh
Purpose: This experiment evaluated syllable-stress position as a motor class directed by a syllable-sized generalized motor program. Reaction times were predicted to be slower for stimuli with untrained stress patterns outside the trained motor class. Furthermore, reaction times were predicted to be stable for untrained stimuli within the same motor class regardless of phonetic similarity. Method: Twenty-three young adults with typical speech and hearing participated in a motor-learning study comprised of motor-class training and a judgment task...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647814/the-effects-of-variable-practice-on-locomotor-adaptation-to-a-novel-asymmetric-gait
#19
Jacob W Hinkel-Lipsker, Michael E Hahn
Very little is known about the effects of specific practice on motor learning of predictive balance control during novel bipedal gait. This information could provide an insight into how the direction and magnitude of predictive errors during acquisition of a novel gait task influence transfer of balance control, as well as yield a practice protocol for the restoration of balance for those with locomotor impairments. This study examined the effect of a variable practice paradigm on transfer of a novel asymmetric gait pattern in able-bodied individuals...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646563/cohesive-network-reconfiguration-accompanies-extended-training
#20
Qawi K Telesford, Arian Ashourvan, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human behavior is supported by flexible neurophysiological processes that enable the fine-scale manipulation of information across distributed neural circuits. Yet, approaches for understanding the dynamics of these circuit interactions have been limited. One promising avenue for quantifying and describing these dynamics lies in multilayer network models. Here, networks are composed of nodes (which represent brain regions) and time-dependent edges (which represent statistical similarities in activity time series)...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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