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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651236/substrates-for-neuronal-cotransmission-with-neuropeptides-and-small-molecule-neurotransmitters-in-drosophila
#1
REVIEW
Dick R Nässel
It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649513/neurofeedback-control-of-the-human-gabaergic-system-using-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#2
Satoko Koganemaru, Yusuke Mikami, Hitoshi Maezawa, Satoshi Ikeda, Katsunori Ikoma, Tatsuya Mima
Neurofeedback has been a powerful method for self-regulating brain activities to elicit potential ability of human mind. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that can evaluate the GABAergic system within the primary motor cortex (M1) using paired-pulse stimuli, short intracortical inhibition (SICI). Herein we investigated whether neurofeedback learning using SICI enabled us to control the GABAergic system within the M1 area...
April 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644888/motor-skill-training-in-musculoskeletal-pain-a-case-report-in-chronic-low-back-pain
#3
Vanessa M Lanier, Catherine E Lang, Linda R Van Dillen
PURPOSE: Low back pain is a chronic condition that limits function. The chief reason individuals with low back pain seek care is difficulty performing functional activities. A novel approach to improving performance of painful and limited functional activities is motor skill training, defined as challenging practice of activities to learn or relearn a skill. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and application of a motor skill training intervention in a 26-year-old man with a 10-year history of low back pain...
April 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621152/taurine-administration-recovers-motor-and-learning-deficits-in-an-angelman-syndrome-mouse-model
#4
Sara Guzzetti, Luciano Calzari, Lucia Buccarello, Valentina Cesari, Ivan Toschi, Stefania Cattaldo, Alessandro Mauro, Francesca Pregnolato, Silvia Michela Mazzola, Silvia Russo
Angelman syndrome (AS, MIM 105830) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1:10-20,000 children. Patients show moderate to severe intellectual disability, ataxia and absence of speech. Studies on both post-mortem AS human brains and mouse models revealed dysfunctions in the extra synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors implicated in the pathogenesis. Taurine is a free intracellular sulfur-containing amino acid, abundant in brain, considered an inhibiting neurotransmitter with neuroprotective properties...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618046/draft-genome-assembly-of-the-bengalese-finch-lonchura-striata-domestica-a-model-for-motor-skill-variability-and-learning
#5
Bradley M Colquitt, David G Mets, Michael S Brainard
Background: Vocal learning in songbirds has emerged as a powerful model for sensorimotor learning. Neurobehavioral studies of Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) song, naturally more variable and plastic than songs of other finch species, have demonstrated the importance of behavioral variability for initial learning, maintenance, and plasticity of vocalizations. However, the molecular and genetic underpinnings of this variability and the learning it supports are poorly understood...
March 1, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601538/brain-computer-interface-spellers-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Aya Rezeika, Mihaly Benda, Piotr Stawicki, Felix Gembler, Abdul Saboor, Ivan Volosyak
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) provides a novel non-muscular communication method via brain signals. A BCI-speller can be considered as one of the first published BCI applications and has opened the gate for many advances in the field. Although many BCI-spellers have been developed during the last few decades, to our knowledge, no reviews have described the different spellers proposed and studied in this vital field. The presented speller systems are categorized according to major BCI paradigms: P300, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), and motor imagery (MI)...
March 30, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589817/neurophysiological-changes-in-the-visuomotor-network-after-practicing-a-motor-task
#7
James E Gehringer, David J Arpin, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson, Max J Kurz
Although it is well appreciated that practicing a motor task updates the associated internal model, it is still unknown how the cortical oscillations linked with the motor action change with practice. The present study investigates the short-term changes (e.g., fast motor learning) in the alpha and beta event related desynchronizations (ERD) associated with the production of a motor action. To this end, we utilized magnetoencephalography to identify changes in the alpha and beta ERD in healthy adults after participants practiced a novel isometric ankle plantarflexion target matching task...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588227/resting-state-functional-connectivity-predicts-the-ability-to-adapt-to-robot-mediated-force-fields
#8
Irene Faiman, Sara Pizzamiglio, Duncan L Turner
Motor deficits are common outcomes of neurological conditions such as stroke. In order to design personalised motor rehabilitation programmes such as robot-assisted therapy, it would be advantageous to predict how a patient might respond to such treatment. Spontaneous neural activity has been observed to predict differences in the ability to learn a new motor behaviour in both healthy and stroke populations. This study investigated whether spontaneous resting-state functional connectivity could predict the degree of motor adaptation of right (dominant) upper limb reaching in response to a robot-mediated force field...
March 24, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582075/using-smartphones-and-machine-learning-to-quantify-parkinson-disease-severity-the-mobile-parkinson-disease-score
#9
Andong Zhan, Srihari Mohan, Christopher Tarolli, Ruth B Schneider, Jamie L Adams, Saloni Sharma, Molly J Elson, Kelsey L Spear, Alistair M Glidden, Max A Little, Andreas Terzis, E Ray Dorsey, Suchi Saria
Importance: Current Parkinson disease (PD) measures are subjective, rater-dependent, and assessed in clinic. Smartphones can measure PD features, yet no smartphone-derived rating score exists to assess motor symptom severity in real-world settings. Objectives: To develop an objective measure of PD severity and test construct validity by evaluating the ability of the measure to capture intraday symptom fluctuations, correlate with current standard PD outcome measures, and respond to dopaminergic therapy...
March 26, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569729/a-single-exercise-bout-and-locomotor-learning-after-stroke-physiological-behavioral-and-computational-outcomes
#10
Charalambos C Charalambous, Carolina C Alcantara, Margaret A French, Xin Li, Kathleen S Matt, Hyosub E Kim, Susanne M Morton, Darcy S Reisman
Acute high-intensity exercise coupled with motor practice improves the retention of motor learning in neurologically intact adults. However, whether exercise could improve the retention of locomotor learning after stroke is still unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of exercise intensity and timing on the retention of a novel locomotor learning task (i.e. split-belt treadmill walking) after stroke. Thirty-seven people post-stroke participated in two sessions, 24-hours apart, and were allocated to: active control (CON), treadmill walking (TMW), or total body exercise on a cycle ergometer (TBE)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555564/neurogenesis-in-the-postnatal-cerebellum-after-injury
#11
REVIEW
Julia P Andreotti, Pedro H D M Prazeres, Luiz A V Magno, Marco A Romano-Silva, Akiva Mintz, Alexander Birbrair
The cerebellum plays major role in motor coordination and learning. It contains half of the neurons in the brain. Thus, deciphering the mechanisms by which cerebellar neurons are generated is essential to understand the cerebellar functions and the pathologies associated with it. In a recent study, Wojcinski et al. (2017) by using in vivo Cre/loxP technologies reveal that Nestin-expressing progenitors repopulated the external granular cell layer after injury. Depletion of postnatal external granular cell layer is not sufficient to induce motor behavior defects in adults, as the cerebellum recovers these neurons...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547485/use-of-an-errorless-learning-approach-in-a-person-with-concomitant-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-and-brain-injury-a-case-report
#12
Annie Hartmann, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos
: Individuals with concomitant spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury have cognitive deficits that may limit the ability to learn novel motor tasks necessary for functional independence. Errorless learning has been shown to improve cognitive task performance in persons with brain injury but little is known about its usefulness for improving novel motor task learning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old man with traumatic spinal cord and brain injuries from a motor vehicle accident was admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537915/accelerating-locomotor-savings-in-learning-compressing-four-training-days-to-one
#13
Kevin A Day, Kristan A Leech, Ryan T Roemmich, Amy J Bastian
Acquiring new movements requires the capacity of the nervous system to remember previously experienced motor patterns. The phenomenon of faster re-learning after initial learning is termed 'savings'. Here we studied how savings of a novel walking pattern develops over several days of practice, and how this process can be accelerated. We introduced participants to a split-belt treadmill adaptation paradigm for 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days. After 5 training days, participants were able to produce near-perfect performance when switching between split and tied-belt environments...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511943/proactive-behavior-but-not-inhibitory-control-predicts-repeated-innovation-by-spotted-hyenas-tested-with-a-multi-access-box
#14
Lily Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe Johnson-Ulrich, Kay Holekamp
Innovation is widely linked to cognitive ability, brain size, and adaptation to novel conditions. However, successful innovation appears to be influenced by both cognitive factors, such as inhibitory control, and non-cognitive behavioral traits. We used a multi-access box (MAB) paradigm to measure repeated innovation, the number of unique innovations learned across trials, by 10 captive spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). Spotted hyenas are highly innovative in captivity and also display striking variation in behavioral traits, making them good model organisms for examining the relationship between innovation and other behavioral traits...
March 6, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510495/age-related-changes-in-the-behavior-of-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice
#15
Dasha Fuentes, Nidia Fernández, Yenela García, Teidy García, Ana Ruth Morales, Roberto Menéndez
The knockout mouse model, B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc is homozygotic for the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deletion; thus, it is capable of developing hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis but ApoE is also a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system, so these animals could also be models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to determine age-related changes in spontaneous behavior and in learning and memory of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Spontaneous behavioral measurements included sleeping pattern, motor coordination and balance by rotarod and open field activity, whereas learning and memory tests included forced alternation in Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance conditioning...
March 3, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506316/hand-gestures-support-word-learning-in-patients-with-hippocampal-amnesia
#16
Caitlin Hilverman, Susan Wagner Cook, Melissa C Duff
Co-speech hand gesture facilitates learning and memory, yet the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting this remain unclear. One possibility is that motor information in gesture may engage procedural memory representations. Alternatively, iconic information from gesture may contribute to declarative memory representations mediated by the hippocampus. To investigate these alternatives, we examined gesture's effects on word learning in patients with hippocampal damage and declarative memory impairment, with intact procedural memory, and in healthy and in brain-damaged comparison groups...
March 5, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500490/investigating-grounded-conceptualization-motor-system-state-dependence-facilitates-familiarity-judgments-of-novel-tools
#17
Heath E Matheson, Ariana M Familiar, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Theories of embodied cognition propose that we recognize tools in part by reactivating sensorimotor representations of tool use in a process of simulation. If motor simulations play a causal role in tool recognition then performing a concurrent motor task should differentially modulate recognition of experienced vs. non-experienced tools. We sought to test the hypothesis that an incompatible concurrent motor task modulates conceptual processing of learned vs. non-learned objects by directly manipulating the embodied experience of participants...
March 2, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494670/dissociable-effects-of-practice-variability-on-learning-motor-and-timing-skills
#18
Baptiste Caramiaux, Frédéric Bevilacqua, Marcelo M Wanderley, Caroline Palmer
Motor skill acquisition inherently depends on the way one practices the motor task. The amount of motor task variability during practice has been shown to foster transfer of the learned skill to other similar motor tasks. In addition, variability in a learning schedule, in which a task and its variations are interweaved during practice, has been shown to help the transfer of learning in motor skill acquisition. However, there is little evidence on how motor task variations and variability schedules during practice act on the acquisition of complex motor skills such as music performance, in which a performer learns both the right movements (motor skill) and the right time to perform them (timing skill)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494185/age-differences-in-episodic-associative-learning
#19
Rachel Clark, Eliot Hazeltine, Michael Freedberg, Michelle W Voss
Compared with young adults, older adults demonstrate difficulty forming and retrieving episodic memories. One proposed mechanism is that older adults are impaired at binding information into nonoverlapping representations, which is a key function of the hippocampus. The current experiments evaluate age differences in acquiring new memories using a novel episodic associative learning (EAL) task designed to tap hippocampal-dependent binding. The task involved repeated exposure of stimuli pairs and required the formation of new representations of each stimulus pair, as each pair was mapped to a unique keypress response...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467693/sensorimotor-learning-during-a-marksmanship-task-in-immersive-virtual-reality
#20
Hrishikesh M Rao, Rajan Khanna, David J Zielinski, Yvonne Lu, Jillian M Clements, Nicholas D Potter, Marc A Sommer, Regis Kopper, Lawrence G Appelbaum
Sensorimotor learning refers to improvements that occur through practice in the performance of sensory-guided motor behaviors. Leveraging novel technical capabilities of an immersive virtual environment, we probed the component kinematic processes that mediate sensorimotor learning. Twenty naïve subjects performed a simulated marksmanship task modeled after Olympic Trap Shooting standards. We measured movement kinematics and shooting performance as participants practiced 350 trials while receiving trial-by-trial feedback about shooting success...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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