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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054879/domain-specificity-of-oculomotor-learning-after-changes-in-sensory-processing
#1
Yuliy Tsank, Miguel P Eckstein
Humans visually process the world with varying spatial resolution and can program their eye movements optimally to maximize information acquisition for a variety of everyday tasks. Diseases such as macular degeneration can change visual sensory processing, introducing central vision loss (a scotoma). However, humans can learn to direct a new preferred retinal location to regions of interest for simple visual tasks. Whether such learned compensatory saccades are optimal and generalize to more complex tasks, which require integrating information across a large area of the visual field, is not well-understood...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030077/corticomuscular-coherence-reflects-somatosensory-feedback-gains-during-motor-adaptation
#2
Shoko Kasuga, Natsumi Momose, Junichi Ushiyama, Junichi Ushiba
Beta-band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) observed between the sensorimotor cortex activity and contracting muscle is declaratively described as a neurophysiological reflection of sensorimotor binding. However, much remains unknown about the functional meaning of 'sensorimotor binding.' The efficacy of information binding in the sensorimotor system is assumed to be influenced by the gain of the feedback controller, which is regulated through a process that may in part be implemented in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1)...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024667/parallel-but-dissociable-processing-in-discrete-corticostriatal-inputs-encodes-skill-learning
#3
David A Kupferschmidt, Konrad Juczewski, Guohong Cui, Kari A Johnson, David M Lovinger
Changes in cortical and striatal function underlie the transition from novel actions to refined motor skills. How discrete, anatomically defined corticostriatal projections function in vivo to encode skill learning remains unclear. Using novel fiber photometry approaches to assess real-time activity of associative inputs from medial prefrontal cortex to dorsomedial striatum and sensorimotor inputs from motor cortex to dorsolateral striatum, we show that associative and sensorimotor inputs co-engage early in action learning and disengage in a dissociable manner as actions are refined...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016656/behavioral-testing-of-minipigs-transgenic-for-the-huntington-gene-a-three-year-observational-study
#4
Verena Schuldenzucker, Robin Schubert, Lisa M Muratori, Frauke Freisfeld, Lorena Rieke, Tamara Matheis, Sarah Schramke, Jan Motlik, Nicole Kemper, Ute Radespiel, Ralf Reilmann
BACKGROUND: Large animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) may increase the reliability of translating preclinical findings to humans. Long live expectancy offers opportunities particularly for disease modifying approaches, but also challenges. The transgenic (tg) HD minipig model assessed in this study exhibits a high genetic homology with humans, similar body weight, and comparable brain structures. To test long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of novel therapeutic approaches in this model reliable assessments applicable longitudinally for several years are warranted for all phenotypical domains relevant in HD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980315/multicenter-clinical-assessment-of-improved-wearable-multimodal-convulsive-seizure-detectors
#5
Francesco Onorati, Giulia Regalia, Chiara Caborni, Matteo Migliorini, Daniel Bender, Ming-Zher Poh, Cherise Frazier, Eliana Kovitch Thropp, Elizabeth D Mynatt, Jonathan Bidwell, Roberto Mai, W Curt LaFrance, Andrew S Blum, Daniel Friedman, Tobias Loddenkemper, Fatemeh Mohammadpour-Touserkani, Claus Reinsberger, Simone Tognetti, Rosalind W Picard
OBJECTIVE: New devices are needed for monitoring seizures, especially those associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). They must be unobtrusive and automated, and provide false alarm rates (FARs) bearable in everyday life. This study quantifies the performance of new multimodal wrist-worn convulsive seizure detectors. METHODS: Hand-annotated video-electroencephalographic seizure events were collected from 69 patients at six clinical sites. Three different wristbands were used to record electrodermal activity (EDA) and accelerometer (ACM) signals, obtaining 5,928 h of data, including 55 convulsive epileptic seizures (six focal tonic-clonic seizures and 49 focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures) from 22 patients...
October 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976945/activation-of-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neurons-during-fear-extinction-prevents-the-renewal-of-fear
#6
Courtney A Bouchet, Megan A Miner, Esteban C Loetz, Adam J Rosberg, Holly S Hake, Caroline E Farmer, Mykola Ostrovskyy, Nathan Gray, Benjamin N Greenwood
Manipulations that increase dopamine (DA) signaling can enhance fear extinction, but the circuits involved remain unknown. DA neurons originating in the substantia nigra (SN) projecting to the dorsal striatum (DS) are traditionally viewed in the context of motor behavior, but growing data implicate this nigrostriatal circuit in emotion. Here we investigated the role of nigrostriatal DA in fear extinction. Activation of SN DA neurons with designer Gq-coupled receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (Gq-DREADD) during fear extinction had no effect on fear extinction acquisition, but enhanced fear extinction memory and blocked the renewal of fear in a novel context; a pattern of data paralleled by cFos expression in the central amygdala...
October 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958801/large-scale-identification-of-clinical-and-genetic-predictors-of-motor-progression-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-parkinson-s-disease-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-and-validation
#7
Jeanne C Latourelle, Michael T Beste, Tiffany C Hadzi, Robert E Miller, Jacob N Oppenheim, Matthew P Valko, Diane M Wuest, Bruce W Church, Iya G Khalil, Boris Hayete, Charles S Venuto
BACKGROUND: Better understanding and prediction of progression of Parkinson's disease could improve disease management and clinical trial design. We aimed to use longitudinal clinical, molecular, and genetic data to develop predictive models, compare potential biomarkers, and identify novel predictors for motor progression in Parkinson's disease. We also sought to assess the use of these models in the design of treatment trials in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: A Bayesian multivariate predictive inference platform was applied to data from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study (NCT01141023)...
November 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952944/automated-evaluation-of-upper-limb-motor-function-impairment-using-fugl-meyer-assessment
#8
Seunghee Lee, Yang-Soo Lee, Jonghyun Kim
The Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) is the most popular instrument for evaluating upper extremity motor function in stroke patients. However, it is a labor-intensive and timeconsuming method. This paper proposes a novel automated FMA system to overcome these limitations of the FMA. For automation, we used Kinect v2 and force sensing resistor sensors owing to their convenient installation as compared with body-worn sensors. Based on the linguistic guideline of the FMA, a rule-based binary logic classification algorithm was developed to assign FMA scores using the extracted features obtained from the sensors...
September 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952183/children-show-limited-movement-repertoire-when-learning-a-novel-motor-skill
#9
Mei-Hua Lee, Ali Farshchiansadegh, Rajiv Ranganathan
Examining age differences in motor learning using real-world tasks is often problematic due to task novelty and biomechanical confounds. Here, we investigated how children and adults acquire a novel motor skill in a virtual environment. Participants of three different age groups (9-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults) learned to use their upper body movements to control a cursor on a computer screen. Results showed that 9-year-old and 12-year-old children showed poorer ability to control the cursor at the end of practice...
September 27, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919408/neural-oscillations-reflect-latent-learning-states-underlying-dual-context-sensorimotor-adaptation
#10
Justin M Fine, Dalton Moore, Marco Santello
Recent studies have suggested that individuals can form multiple motor memories when simultaneously adapting to multiple, but oppositely-oriented perturbations. These findings predict that individuals detect the change in learning context, allowing the selective initialization and update of motor memories. However, previous electrophysiological studies of sensorimotor adaptation have not identified a neural mechanism supporting the detection of a context switch and adaptation to separate contexts. Here, we tested the hypothesis that such a mechanism is identifiable through neural oscillations measured through EEG...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915298/the-effect-of-stimulus-variability-on-learning-and-generalization-of-reading-in-a-novel-script
#11
Jasmeen Adwan-Mansour, Tali Bitan
Purpose: The benefit of stimulus variability for generalization of acquired skills and knowledge has been shown in motor, perceptual, and language learning but has rarely been studied in reading. We studied the effect of variable training in a novel language on reading trained and untrained words. Method: Sixty typical adults received 2 sessions of training in reading an artificial script. Participants were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a variable training group practicing a large set of 24 words, and 2 nonvariable training groups practicing a smaller set of 12 words, with twice the number of repetitions per word...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906387/a-nearly-full-recovery-from-avm-hemorrhagic-stroke-17-years-after-insult-using-a-new-integrated-neurodevelopmental-approach-a-case-report
#12
Alberto J Friedmann
RATIONAL: With the prevalence of stroke increasing in the USA and the world along with increased survival and longevity due to medical advancements, it has become increasingly necessary to look at the chronic phase of stroke recovery. Previous paradigms of stroke treatment have proven ineffective when looking at 10, 15, or 20 years of survival post insult. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient, being a young man just out of high school, was concerned with his overall morbidity...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904086/cognitive-trajectories-over-4-years-among-hiv-infected-women-with-optimal-viral-suppression
#13
MULTICENTER STUDY
Leah H Rubin, Pauline M Maki, Gayle Springer, Lorie Benning, Kathryn Anastos, Deborah Gustafson, Maria C Villacres, Xiong Jiang, Adaora A Adimora, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, David E Vance, Hector Bolivar, Christine Alden, Eileen M Martin, Victor G Valcour
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persistent viral suppression alters cognitive trajectories among HIV-infected (HIV+) women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) by investigating performance longitudinally in uninfected (HIV-) and 3 groups of HIV+ women: those with consistent viral suppression after continuous cART use (VS), those without consistent virologic suppression despite continuous cART use (NVS), and those without consistent virologic suppression after intermittent cART use (Int NVS)...
October 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899743/ctbs-disruption-of-the-supplementary-motor-area-perturbs-cortical-sequence-representation-but-not-behavioural-performance
#14
Oleg Solopchuk, Andrea Alamia, Laurence Dricot, Julie Duque, Alexandre Zénon
Neuroimaging studies have repeatedly emphasized the role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in motor sequence learning, but interferential approaches have led to inconsistent findings. Here, we aimed to test the role of the SMA in motor skill learning by combining interferential and neuroimaging techniques. Sixteen subjects were trained on simple finger movement sequences for 4 days. Afterwards, they underwent two neuroimaging sessions, in which they executed both trained and novel sequences. Prior to entering the scanner, the subjects received inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the SMA or a control site...
September 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874909/identification-of-anisomerous-motor-imagery-eeg-signals-based-on-complex-algorithms
#15
Rensong Liu, Zhiwen Zhang, Feng Duan, Xin Zhou, Zixuan Meng
Motor imagery (MI) electroencephalograph (EEG) signals are widely applied in brain-computer interface (BCI). However, classified MI states are limited, and their classification accuracy rates are low because of the characteristics of nonlinearity and nonstationarity. This study proposes a novel MI pattern recognition system that is based on complex algorithms for classifying MI EEG signals. In electrooculogram (EOG) artifact preprocessing, band-pass filtering is performed to obtain the frequency band of MI-related signals, and then, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) combined with wavelet threshold denoising (WTD) is used for EOG artifact preprocessing...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874680/prenatal-noise-stress-impairs-hpa-axis-and-cognitive-performance-in-mice
#16
Zahra Jafari, Jogender Mehla, Bryan E Kolb, Majid H Mohajerani
Noise stress is a common environmental pollutant whose adverse effect on offspring performance has been less studied. This study was novel in terms of using "noise" as a prenatal stress compared with physical stress to explore the effect of stress during gestation on HPA axis activation, cognitive performance, and motor coordination, as well as in investigating the effect of behavioral assessments on the corticosterone (CORT) levels. Three groups of C57BL/6 mice with a gestational history of either noise stress (NS), physical stress (PS), or no stress were examined in several behavioral tests...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872105/using-a-split-belt-treadmill-to-evaluate-generalization-of-human-locomotor-adaptation
#17
Erin V L Vasudevan, Rami J Hamzey, Eileen M Kirk
Understanding the mechanisms underlying locomotor learning helps researchers and clinicians optimize gait retraining as part of motor rehabilitation. However, studying human locomotor learning can be challenging. During infancy and childhood, the neuromuscular system is quite immature, and it is unlikely that locomotor learning during early stages of development is governed by the same mechanisms as in adulthood. By the time humans reach maturity, they are so proficient at walking that it is difficult to come up with a sufficiently novel task to study de novo locomotor learning...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856241/structural-learning-in-a-visuomotor-adaptation-task-is-explicitly-accessible
#18
Krista M Bond, Jordan A Taylor
Structural learning is a phenomenon characterized by faster learning in a new situation that shares features of previously experienced situations. One prominent example within the sensorimotor domain is that human participants are faster to counter a novel rotation following experience with a set of variable visuomotor rotations. This form of learning is thought to occur implicitly through the updating of an internal forward model, which predicts the sensory consequences of motor commands. However, recent work has shown that much of rotation learning occurs through an explicitly accessible process, such as movement re-aiming...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854939/weight-supported-training-of-the-upper-extremity-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-motor-learning-study
#19
Jeffrey W Keller, Hubertus J A van Hedel
BACKGROUND: Novel neurorehabilitation technologies build upon treatment principles derived from motor learning studies. However, few studies have investigated motor learning with assistive devices in children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with CP who trained with weight support in a playful, virtual environment would improve upper extremity task performance (i.e. skill acquisition), transfer, and retention, three aspects that indicate whether motor learning might have occurred or not...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854061/lassoing-skill-through-learner-choice
#20
Gabriele Wulf, Takehiro Iwatsuki, Brittney Machin, Jessica Kellogg, Clint Copeland, Rebecca Lewthwaite
The authors examined several issues related to the motor learning benefits resulting from giving learners choices. In 2 experiments, participants practiced a novel task, throwing a lasso. In Experiment 1, giving learners a choice ostensibly irrelevant to performance (color of mat under target) resulted in enhanced learning relative to a control group. The choice group also reported more positive affect. Experiment 2 compared the effectiveness of task-irrelevant (mat color) versus task-relevant (video demonstrations of the skill) choices...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
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