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Novel motor learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#1
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077513/cognitive-control-structures-in-the-imitation-learning-of-spatial-sequences-and-rhythms-an-fmri-study
#2
Katrin Sakreida, Satomi Higuchi, Cinzia Di Dio, Michael Ziessler, Martine Turgeon, Neil Roberts, Stefan Vogt
Imitation learning involves the acquisition of novel motor patterns based on action observation (AO). We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the imitation learning of spatial sequences and rhythms during AO, motor imagery (MI), and imitative execution in nonmusicians and musicians. While both tasks engaged the fronto-parietal mirror circuit, the spatial sequence task recruited posterior parietal and dorsal premotor regions more strongly. The rhythm task involved an additional network for auditory working memory...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070599/organophosphate-neurotoxicity-to-the-voluntary-motor-system-on-the-trail-of-environment-caused-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-the-known-the-misknown-and-the-unknown
#3
Samantha J Merwin, Teresa Obis, Yanelli Nunez, Diane B Re
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset paralytic disorder. It is characterized by progressive degeneration of the motor neurons controlling voluntary movement. The underlying mechanisms remain elusive, a fact that has precluded development of effective treatments. ALS presents as a sporadic condition 90-95% of the time, i.e., without familial history or obvious genetic mutation. This suggests that ALS has a strong environmental component. Organophosphates (OPs) are prime candidate neurotoxicants in the etiology of ALS, as exposure to OPs was linked to higher ALS incidence among farmers, soccer players, and Gulf War veterans...
January 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067279/impaired-novelty-acquisition-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-congenital-hyperammonemia-caused-by-hepatic-glutamine-synthetase-deficiency
#4
Aisa N Chepkova, Olga A Sergeeva, Boris Görg, Helmut L Haas, Nikolaj Klöcker, Dieter Häussinger
Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064022/stimulus-uncertainty-enhances-long-term-potentiation-like-plasticity-in-human-motor-cortex
#5
Martin V Sale, Abbey S Nydam, Jason B Mattingley
Plasticity can be induced in human cortex using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which repeatedly and predictably pairs a peripheral electrical stimulus with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral motor region. Many studies have reported small or inconsistent effects of PAS. Given that uncertain stimuli can promote learning, the predictable nature of the stimulation in conventional PAS paradigms might serve to attenuate plasticity induction. Here, we introduced stimulus uncertainty into the PAS paradigm to investigate if it can boost plasticity induction...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062251/opioid-suppression-of-conditioned-anticipatory-brain-responses-to-breathlessness
#6
Anja Hayen, Vishvarani Wanigasekera, Olivia K Faull, Stewart F Campbell, Payashi S Garry, Simon J M Raby, Josephine Robertson, Ruth Webster, Richard G Wise, Mari Herigstad, Kyle T S Pattinson
Opioid painkillers are a promising treatment for chronic breathlessness, but are associated with potentially fatal side effects. In the treatment of breathlessness, their mechanisms of action are unclear. A better understanding might help to identify safer alternatives. Learned associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g. stairs) and repeated breathlessness induce an anticipatory threat response that may worsen breathlessness, contributing to the downward spiral of decline seen in clinical populations...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060276/the-rodent-psychomotor-vigilance-test-rpvt-a-method-for-assessing-neurobehavioral-performance-in-rats-and-mice
#7
Catherine M Davis, Peter G Roma, Robert D Hienz
The human Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is a widely used procedure for measuring changes in fatigue and sustained attention. The present article describes a rodent version of the PVT-termed the "rPVT"-that measures similar aspects of attention (i.e., performance accuracy, motor speed, premature responding, and lapses in attention). Data are presented that demonstrate both the short- and long-term usefulness of the rPVT when employed with laboratory rats. Rats easily learn the rPVT, and learning to perform the basic procedure takes less than two weeks of training...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052734/motor-timing-intraindividual-variability-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-cognitively-intact-elders-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Christina D Kay, Michael Seidenberg, Sally Durgerian, Kristy A Nielson, J Carson Smith, John L Woodard, Stephen M Rao
INTRODUCTION: Intraindividual variability (IIV) in motor performance has been shown to predict future cognitive decline. The apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4) allele is also a well-established risk factor for memory decline. Here, we present novel findings examining the influence of the APOE-ε4 allele on the performance of asymptomatic healthy elders in comparison to individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI) on a fine motor synchronization, paced finger-tapping task (PFTT). METHOD: Two Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk groups, individuals with aMCI (n = 24) and cognitively intact APOE-ε4 carriers (n = 41), and a control group consisting of cognitively intact APOE-ε4 noncarriers (n = 65) completed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and the PFTT, which requires index finger tapping in synchrony with a visual stimulus (interstimulus interval = 333 ms)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029056/ultrasound-in-dysphagia-rehabilitation-a-novel-approach-following-partial-glossectomy
#9
Katrina M Blyth, Patricia McCabe, Catherine Madill, Kirrie J Ballard
PURPOSE: While the presence of dysphagia following partial glossectomy has been widely reported, there is insufficient quality evidence to guide clinical decision making about the treatment of this disorder. This study investigated a novel dysphagia rehabilitation approach using ultrasound tongue imaging for patient training. METHOD: Initially, a pilot study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound visual feedback during swallow tasks. The protocol was then replicated using a single-case experimental designed study to investigate therapeutic effect...
December 28, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018170/mrna-transcriptomics-of-galectins-unveils-heterogeneous-organization-in-mouse-and-human-brain
#10
Sebastian John, Rashmi Mishra
Background: Galectins, a family of non-classically secreted, β-galactoside binding proteins is involved in several brain disorders; however, no systematic knowledge on the normal neuroanatomical distribution and functions of galectins exits. Hence, the major purpose of this study was to understand spatial distribution and predict functions of galectins in brain and also compare the degree of conservation vs. divergence between mouse and human species. The latter objective was required to determine the relevance and appropriateness of studying galectins in mouse brain which may ultimately enable us to extrapolate the findings to human brain physiology and pathologies...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005989/action-video-game-playing-is-reflected-in-enhanced-visuomotor-performance-and-increased-corticospinal-excitability
#11
Olivier Morin-Moncet, Jean-Marc Therrien-Blanchet, Marie C Ferland, Hugo Théoret, Greg L West
Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game players (nonVGPs). Further, we assessed if actionVGPs and nonVGPs displayed differences in procedural motor learning as measured by the SRTT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990245/feedback-error-learning-controller-for-functional-electrical-stimulation-assistance-in-a-hybrid-robotic-system-for-reaching-rehabilitation
#12
Francisco Resquín, Jose Gonzalez-Vargas, Jaime Ibáñez, Fernando Brunetti, José Luis Pons
Hybrid robotic systems represent a novel research field, where functional electrical stimulation (FES) is combined with a robotic device for rehabilitation of motor impairment. Under this approach, the design of robust FES controllers still remains an open challenge. In this work, we aimed at developing a learning FES controller to assist in the performance of reaching movements in a simple hybrid robotic system setting. We implemented a Feedback Error Learning (FEL) control strategy consisting of a feedback PID controller and a feedforward controller based on a neural network...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988346/experiencing-a-reaching-task-passively-with-one-arm-while-adapting-to-a-visuomotor-rotation-with-the-other-can-lead-to-substantial-transfer-of-motor-learning-across-the-arms
#13
Shancheng Bao, Yuming Lei, Jinsung Wang
The extent of transfer following visuomotor adaptation across the arms is typically limited as compared to that within the same arm. However, we have demonstrated that interlimb transfer can occur nearly completely if one arm performs reaching movements associated with a desired trajectory repeatedly and actively during an initial training session in which the other arm adapts to a novel visuomotor adaptation. Based on that finding, we argued that the absence of instances associated with specific motor effectors is the major reason for limited interlimb transfer...
December 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973592/using-optimal-control-to-disambiguate-the-effect-of-depression-on-sensorimotor-motivational-and-goal-setting-functions
#14
He Huang, Katia Harlé, Javier Movellan, Martin Paulus
Differentiating the ability from the motivation to act is of central importance to psychiatric disorders in general and depression in particular. However, it has been difficult to develop quantitative approaches to relate depression to poor motor performance in goal-directed tasks. Here, we use an inverse optimal control approach to provide a computational framework that can be used to infer and factorize performance deficits into three components: sensorimotor speed, goal setting and motivation. Using a novel computer-simulated driving experiment, we found that (1) severity of depression is associated with both altered sensorimotor speed and motivational function; (2) moderately to severely depressed individuals show an increased distance from the stop sign indicating aversive learning affecting goal setting functions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943323/i-executive-control-in-early-childhood
#15
C A C Clark, N Chevalier, J M Nelson, T D James, J P Garza, H-J Choi, K A Espy
Executive control (EC) is a central construct in developmental science, although measurement limitations have hindered understanding of its nature and development in young children, relation to social risk, and prediction of important outcomes. Disentangling EC from the foundational cognitive abilities it regulates and that are inherently required for successful executive task completion (e.g., language, visual/spatial perception, and motor abilities) is particularly challenging at preschool age, when these foundational abilities are still developing and consequently differ substantially among children...
December 2016: Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927951/effects-of-the-selective-%C3%AE-5-gabaar-antagonist-s44819-on-excitability-in-the-human-brain-a-tms-emg-and-tms-eeg-phase-i-study
#16
Ghazaleh Darmani, Carl M Zipser, Gabriele M Böhmer, Karine Deschet, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Paolo Belardinelli, Matthias Schwab, Ulf Ziemann
: Alpha-5 gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (α5-GABAARs) are located extrasynaptically, regulate neuronal excitability through tonic inhibition, and are fundamentally important for processes such as plasticity and learning. For example, pharmacological blockade of α5-GABAAR in mice with ischemic stroke improved recovery of function by normalizing exaggerated perilesional α5-GABAAR-dependent tonic inhibition. S44819 is a novel competitive selective antagonist of the α5-GABAAR at the GABA-binding site...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925591/kinesthetic-feedback-during-2dof-wrist-movements-via-a-novel-mr-compatible-robot
#17
Andrew Erwin, Marcia O'Malley, David Ress, Fabrizio Sergi
We demonstrate the interaction control capabilities of the MR-SoftWrist, a novel MR-compatible robot capable of applying accurate kinesthetic feedback to wrist pointing movements executed during fMRI. The MR-SoftWrist, based on a novel design that combines parallel piezoelectric actuation with compliant force feedback, is capable of delivering 1.5 N·m of torque to the wrist of an interacting subject about the flexion/extension and radial/ulnar axes. The robot workspace, defined by admissible wrist rotation angles, fully includes a circle with a 20 deg radius...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916362/effectiveness-of-a-mental-skills-curriculum-to-reduce-novices-stress
#18
Nicholas E Anton, Lisa D Howley, Manuel Pimentel, Cameron K Davis, Charles Brown, Dimitrios Stefanidis
BACKGROUND: Stress has been shown to negatively impact surgical performance, and surgical novices are particularly susceptible to its effects. Mental skills are psychological strategies designed to enhance performance and reduce the impact of stress to consistently facilitate the ideal mental conditions that enable performers to perform their best. Mental skills have been used routinely in other high-stress domains (e.g., with Navy SEALs, military pilots, elite athletes, and so forth) to facilitate optimal performance in challenging situations...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911808/exploration-of-joint-redundancy-but-not-task-space-variability-facilitates-supervised-motor-learning
#19
Puneet Singh, Sumitash Jana, Ashitava Ghosal, Aditya Murthy
The number of joints and muscles in a human arm is more than what is required for reaching to a desired point in 3D space. Although previous studies have emphasized how such redundancy and the associated flexibility may play an important role in path planning, control of noise, and optimization of motion, whether and how redundancy might promote motor learning has not been investigated. In this work, we quantify redundancy space and investigate its significance and effect on motor learning. We propose that a larger redundancy space leads to faster learning across subjects...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#20
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
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