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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337138/motor-skill-learning-in-an-insect-inspired-neuro-computational-control-system
#1
Eleonora Arena, Paolo Arena, Roland Strauss, Luca Patané
In nature, insects show impressive adaptation and learning capabilities. The proposed computational model takes inspiration from specific structures of the insect brain: after proposing key hypotheses on the direct involvement of the mushroom bodies (MBs) and on their neural organization, we developed a new architecture for motor learning to be applied in insect-like walking robots. The proposed model is a nonlinear control system based on spiking neurons. MBs are modeled as a nonlinear recurrent spiking neural network (SNN) with novel characteristics, able to memorize time evolutions of key parameters of the neural motor controller, so that existing motor primitives can be improved...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336323/m1-muscarinic-activation-induces-long-lasting-increase-in-intrinsic-excitability-of-striatal-projection-neurons
#2
Xiaohui Lv, Jonathan W Dickerson, Jerri M Rook, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Zixiu Xiang
The dorsolateral striatum is critically involved in movement control and motor learning. Striatal function is regulated by a variety of neuromodulators including acetylcholine. Previous studies have shown that cholinergic activation excites striatal principal projection neurons, medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and this action is mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine subtype 1 receptors (M1) through modulating multiple potassium channels. In the present study, we used electrophysiology techniques in conjunction with optogenetic and pharmacological tools to determine the long-term effects of striatal cholinergic activation on MSN intrinsic excitability...
March 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335394/motor-function-evaluation-of-hemiplegic-upper-extremities-using-data-fusion-from-wearable-inertial-and-surface-emg-sensors
#3
Yanran Li, Xu Zhang, Yanan Gong, Ying Cheng, Xiaoping Gao, Xiang Chen
Quantitative evaluation of motor function is of great demand for monitoring clinical outcome of applied interventions and further guiding the establishment of therapeutic protocol. This study proposes a novel framework for evaluating upper limb motor function based on data fusion from inertial measurement units (IMUs) and surface electromyography (EMG) sensors. With wearable sensors worn on the tested upper limbs, subjects were asked to perform eleven straightforward, specifically designed canonical upper-limb functional tasks...
March 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324696/online-neural-monitoring-of-statistical-learning
#4
Laura J Batterink, Ken A Paller
The extraction of patterns in the environment plays a critical role in many types of human learning, from motor skills to language acquisition. This process is known as statistical learning. Here we propose that statistical learning has two dissociable components: (1) perceptual binding of individual stimulus units into integrated composites and (2) storing those integrated representations for later use. Statistical learning is typically assessed using post-learning tasks, such that the two components are conflated...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321188/explicit-action-switching-interferes-with-the-context-specificity-of-motor-memories-in-older-adults
#5
Carly J Sombric, Harrison M Harker, Patrick J Sparto, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo
Healthy aging impairs the ability to adapt movements to novel situations and to switch choices according to the context in cognitive tasks, indicating resistance to changes in motor and cognitive behaviors. Here we examined if this lack of "flexibility" in old subjects observed in motor and cognitive domains were related. To this end, we evaluated subjects' performance in a motor task that required switching walking patterns and its relation to performance in a cognitive switching task. Specifically, a group of old (>73 years old) and young subjects learned a new locomotor pattern on a split-belt treadmill, which drives the legs at different speeds...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320670/bci-use-and-its-relation-to-adaptation-in-cortical-networks
#6
Kaitlyn Casimo, Kurt E Weaver, Jeremiah Wander, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) carry great potential in the treatment of motor impairments. As a new motor output, BCIs interface with the native motor system, but acquisition of BCI proficiency requires a degree of learning to integrate this new function. In this review, we discuss how BCI designs often take advantage of the brain's motor system infrastructure as sources of command signals. We highlight a growing body of literature examining how this approach leads to changes in activity across cortex, including beyond motor regions, as a result of learning the new skill of BCI control...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293760/effects-of-partial-absence-of-visual-feedback-information-on-gait-symmetry
#7
Seung-Jae Kim, Marie Aimee Kayitesi, Amy Chan, Kimberli Graham
The incorporation of real-time visual feedback during gait rehabilitation can improve the efficacy of training. Our prior work demonstrated that the imposed distortion of simple visual feedback information of step lengths entails an unintentional adaptive process in the subjects' spatial gait pattern, thereby suggesting the important role of implicit learning in the context of gait rehabilitation that employs visual feedback. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the removal of a portion of visual feedback information-after it had initially been provided-had any impact on gait symmetry...
March 14, 2017: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288551/repetitive-closed-head-impact-model-of-engineered-rotational-acceleration-induces-long-term-cognitive-impairments-with-persistent-astrogliosis-and-microgliosis-in-mice
#8
Huazhen Chen, Abhishek Desai, Hee-Yong Kim
Repeated mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) has been identified as a high-risk factor for dementia at a later stage by epidemiology. The animal models to replicate complex features of human rmTBI and/or to evaluate long-term effects on brain function have not been established. In this study, we used a novel Closed-Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration (CHIMERA) to investigate long-term neuropathological and cognitive functional consequences of rmTBI. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to CHIMERA for three consecutive days 24 h apart...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285823/input-specific-plasticity-and-homeostasis-at-the-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junction
#9
Zachary L Newman, Adam Hoagland, Krishan Aghi, Kurtresha Worden, Sabrina L Levy, Jun Ho Son, Luke P Lee, Ehud Y Isacoff
Synaptic connections undergo activity-dependent plasticity during development and learning, as well as homeostatic re-adjustment to ensure stability. Little is known about the relationship between these processes, particularly in vivo. We addressed this with novel quantal resolution imaging of transmission during locomotive behavior at glutamatergic synapses of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction. We find that two motor input types, Ib and Is, provide distinct forms of excitatory drive during crawling and differ in key transmission properties...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284106/have-i-grooved-to-this-before-discriminating-practised-and-observed-actions-in-a-novel-context
#10
Dilini K Sumanapala, Laurel A Fish, Alex L Jones, Emily S Cross
Learning a new motor skill typically requires converting actions observed from a third-person perspective into fluid motor commands executed from a first-person perspective. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that during motor learning, the ability to discriminate between actions that have been observed and actions that have been executed is associated with learning aptitude, as assessed by a general measure of physical performance. Using a multi-day dance-training paradigm with a group of dance-naïve participants, we investigated whether actions that had been regularly observed could be discriminated from similar actions that had been physically practised over the course of three days, or a further set of similar actions that remained untrained...
March 8, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282746/motor-expertise-interacts-with-physical-enactment-to-enhance-action-memory
#11
Jieyu Peng, Anmin Li, Qin Zhu
Previous research on action memory showed the advantage for performing the action in memorising the action phrases. We tested if performing the action would help participants with or without motor expertise to memorise the novel action poses. Thirty novel action poses performed by an expert were photographed to constitute memory and interference stimuli. Eighty college students observed to remember the randomly displayed stimuli; however, half were asked to perform the displayed stimuli. Both free-recall and recognition tests were administered immediately and 24 h after the memory task...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269423/evaluation-of-a-mixed-controller-that-amplifies-spatial-errors-while-reducing-timing-errors
#12
Laura Marchal-Crespo, Tanja Baumann, Daniela Fichmann, Steve Maassen, Jaime E Duarte, Robert Riener
Previous results suggest that haptic guidance enhances learning of the timing components of motor tasks, whereas error amplification is better for learning the spatial components. In this paper we evaluate a novel mixed guidance controller that combines haptic guidance and error amplification to simultaneously promote learning of the timing and spatial components. The controller is realized using a saddle-like force field around the desired movement position. This force field has a stable manifold tangential to the trajectory that guides subjects in velocity related aspects...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264978/deletion-of-the-fractalkine-receptor-cx3cr1-improves-endogenous-repair-axon-sprouting-and-synaptogenesis-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#13
Camila M Freria, Jodie C E Hall, Ping Wei, Zhen Guan, Dana M McTigue, Phillip G Popovich
Impaired signaling via CX3CR1, the fractalkine receptor, promotes recovery after traumatic spinal contusion injury in mice, a benefit achieved in part by reducing macrophage-mediated injury at the lesion epicenter. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CX3CR1-dependent changes in microglia and macrophage functions also will enhance neuroplasticity, at and several segments below the injury epicenter. New data show that in the presence of inflammatory stimuli, CX3CR1-deficient (CX3CR1(-/-)) microglia and macrophages adopt a reparative phenotype and increase expression of genes that encode neurotrophic and gliogenic proteins...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243728/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-primary-motor-cortex-does-not-enhance-the-learning-benefits-of-self-controlled-feedback-schedules
#14
Michael J Carter, Victoria Smith, Anthony N Carlsen, Diane M Ste-Marie
A distinct learning advantage has been shown when participants control their knowledge of results (KR) scheduling during practice compared to when the same KR schedule is imposed on the learner without choice (i.e., yoked schedules). Although the learning advantages of self-controlled KR schedules are well-documented, the brain regions contributing to these advantages remain unknown. Identifying key brain regions would not only advance our theoretical understanding of the mechanisms underlying self-controlled learning advantages, but would also highlight regions that could be targeted in more applied settings to boost the already beneficial effects of self-controlled KR schedules...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242793/coupled-decision-processes-update-and-maintain-saccadic-priors-in-a-dynamic-environment
#15
Timothy Doyeon Kim, Mohammad Kabir, Joshua I Gold
Much of what we know about how the brain forms decisions comes from studies of saccadic eye movements. However, saccadic decisions are often studied in isolation, which limits the insights they can provide about real-world decisions with complex interdependencies. Here we use a serial reaction-time (RT) task to show that prior expectations affect RTs via interdependent, normative decision processes that operate within and across saccades. We found that human subjects performing the task generated saccades that were governed by a rise-to-threshold decision process with a starting point that reflected expected state-dependent transition probabilities...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235671/scn3a-deficiency-associated-with-increased-seizure-susceptibility
#16
Tyra Lamar, Carlos G Vanoye, Jeffrey Calhoun, Jennifer C Wong, Stacey B B Dutton, Benjamin S Jorge, Milen Velinov, Andrew Escayg, Jennifer A Kearney
Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels expressed highly in the brain (SCN1A, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN8A) are responsible for an increasing number of epilepsy syndromes. In particular, mutations in the SCN3A gene, encoding the pore-forming Nav1.3 α subunit, have been identified in patients with focal epilepsy. Biophysical characterization of epilepsy-associated SCN3A variants suggests that both gain- and loss-of-function SCN3A mutations may lead to increased seizure susceptibility. In this report, we identified a novel SCN3A variant (L247P) by whole exome sequencing of a child with focal epilepsy, developmental delay, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227667/evaluation-of-a-mixed-controller-that-amplifies-spatial-errors-while-reducing-timing-errors
#17
Laura Marchal-Crespo, Tanja Baumann, Daniela Fichmann, Steve Maassen, Jaime E Duarte, Robert Riener, Laura Marchal-Crespo, Tanja Baumann, Daniela Fichmann, Steve Maassen, Jaime E Duarte, Robert Riener, Robert Riener, Steve Maassen, Tanja Baumann, Laura Marchal-Crespo, Daniela Fichmann, Jaime E Duarte
Previous results suggest that haptic guidance enhances learning of the timing components of motor tasks, whereas error amplification is better for learning the spatial components. In this paper we evaluate a novel mixed guidance controller that combines haptic guidance and error amplification to simultaneously promote learning of the timing and spatial components. The controller is realized using a saddle-like force field around the desired movement position. This force field has a stable manifold tangential to the trajectory that guides subjects in velocity related aspects...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196142/moderate-injury-in-motor-sensory-cortex-causes-behavioral-deficits-accompanied-by-electrophysiological-changes-in-mice-adulthood
#18
Wei Ouyang, Qichao Yan, Yu Zhang, Zhiheng Fan
Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children often happen when there's a sudden blow to the frontal bone, end with long unconscious which can last for hours and progressive cognitive deficits. However, with regard to the influences of moderate TBI during children adulthood, injury-induced alterations of locomotive ability, long-term memory performance, and hippocampal electrophysiological firing changes have not yet been fully identified. In this study, lateral fluid percussion (LFP) method was used to fabricate moderate TBI in motor and somatosensory cortex of the 6-weeks-old mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167615/the-familial-dysautonomia-disease-gene-ikbkap-elp1-is-required-in-the-developing-and-adult-central-nervous-system
#19
Marta Chaverra, Lynn George, Marc Mergy, Hannah Waller, Katharine Kujawa, Connor Murnion, Ezekiel Sharples, Julian Thorne, Nathaniel Podgajny, Andrea Grindeland, Yumi Ueki, Steven Eiger, Cassie Cusick, A Michael Babcock, George A Carlson, Frances Lefcort
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs) are a genetically and clinically diverse group of disorders defined by peripheral nervous system (PNS) dysfunction. HSAN Type III, Familial Dysautonomia (FD), results from a single base mutation in the gene IKBKAP that encodes a scaffolding unit for a multi-subunit complex Elongator. Since mutations in other Elongator subunits (ELP2-4) are associated with central nervous system (CNS) disorders, the goal of this study was to investigate a potential CNS requirement for Ikbkap/Elp1 The sensory and autonomic pathophysiology of FD is fatal, with the majority of patients dying by age 40...
February 6, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161208/acquisition-of-basic-microsurgery-skills-using-home-based-simulation-training-a%C3%A2-randomised-control-study
#20
Mohsan M Malik, Nadine Hachach-Haram, Muaaz Tahir, Musab Al-Musabi, Dhalia Masud, Pari-Naz Mohanna
INTRODUCTION: Acquisition of fine motor skills required in microsurgery can be challenging in the current training system. Therefore, there is an increased demand for novel training and assessment methods to optimise learning outside the clinical setting. Here, we present a randomised control trial of three microsurgical training models, namely laboratory tabletop training microscope (Laboratory Microscope, LM), low-cost jewellers microscope (Home Microscope, HM) and iPad trainer (Home Tablet, HT)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
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