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Novel motor learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647814/the-effects-of-variable-practice-on-locomotor-adaptation-to-a-novel-asymmetric-gait
#1
Jacob W Hinkel-Lipsker, Michael E Hahn
Very little is known about the effects of specific practice on motor learning of predictive balance control during novel bipedal gait. This information could provide an insight into how the direction and magnitude of predictive errors during acquisition of a novel gait task influence transfer of balance control, as well as yield a practice protocol for the restoration of balance for those with locomotor impairments. This study examined the effect of a variable practice paradigm on transfer of a novel asymmetric gait pattern in able-bodied individuals...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646563/cohesive-network-reconfiguration-accompanies-extended-training
#2
Qawi K Telesford, Arian Ashourvan, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human behavior is supported by flexible neurophysiological processes that enable the fine-scale manipulation of information across distributed neural circuits. Yet, approaches for understanding the dynamics of these circuit interactions have been limited. One promising avenue for quantifying and describing these dynamics lies in multilayer network models. Here, networks are composed of nodes (which represent brain regions) and time-dependent edges (which represent statistical similarities in activity time series)...
June 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638591/replicable-in-vivo-physiological-and-behavioral-phenotypes-of-the-shank3b-null-mutant-mouse-model-of-autism
#3
Sameer C Dhamne, Jill L Silverman, Chloe E Super, Stephen H T Lammers, Mustafa Q Hameed, Meera E Modi, Nycole A Copping, Michael C Pride, Daniel G Smith, Alexander Rotenberg, Jacqueline N Crawley, Mustafa Sahin
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a clinically and biologically heterogeneous condition characterized by social, repetitive, and sensory behavioral abnormalities. No treatments are approved for the core diagnostic symptoms of ASD. To enable the earliest stages of therapeutic discovery and development for ASD, robust and reproducible behavioral phenotypes and biological markers are essential to establish in preclinical animal models. The goal of this study was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes that are replicable between independent cohorts in a mouse model of ASD...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636677/contextual-imitation-of-intransitive-body-actions-in-a-beluga-whale-delphinapterus-leucas-a-do-as-other-does-study
#4
José Z Abramson, Mª Victoria Hernández-Lloreda, José-Antonio Esteban, Fernando Colmenares, Francisco Aboitiz, Josep Call
Cetaceans are remarkable for exhibiting group-specific behavioral traditions or cultures in several behavioral domains (e.g., calls, behavioral tactics), and the question of whether they can be acquired socially, for example through imitative processes, remains open. Here we used a "Do as other does" paradigm to experimentally study the ability of a beluga to imitate familiar intransitive (body-oriented) actions demonstrated by a conspecific. The participant was first trained to copy three familiar behaviors on command (training phase) and then was tested for her ability to generalize the learned "Do as the other does" command to a different set of three familiar behaviors (testing phase)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#5
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625547/contextual-fear-conditioning-is-enhanced-in-mice-lacking-functional-sphingosine-kinase-2
#6
Mona Lei, Adeena Shafique, Kani Shang, Timothy A Couttas, Hua Zhao, Anthony S Don, Tim Karl
The lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent neuroprotective signalling molecule that signals through its own family of five G-protein coupled receptors. S1P signalling enhances presynaptic glutamate release and is essential for neural development. S1P is synthesized by the enzymes sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and SphK2), of which SphK2 mRNA and activity is more abundant in the brain. In this study we investigated the consequences of global SphK2 knockout (SphK2(-/-)) on basic motor capabilities, anxiety, learning, and memory in mice, using a range of tests including the elevated plus maze, the cheeseboard, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and fear extinction...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623611/deferiprone-rescues-behavioral-deficits-induced-by-mild-iron-exposure-in-a-mouse-model-of-alpha-synuclein-aggregation
#7
Eleonora Carboni, Lars Tatenhorst, Lars Tönges, Elisabeth Barski, Vivian Dambeck, Mathias Bähr, Paul Lingor
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, and its causes remain unknown. A major hallmark of the disease is the increasing presence of aggregated alpha-synuclein (aSyn). Furthermore, there is a solid consensus on iron (Fe) accumulation in several regions of PD brains during disease progression. In our study, we focused on the interaction of Fe and aggregating aSyn in vivo in a transgenic mouse model overexpressing human aSyn bearing the A53T mutation (prnp.aSyn.A53T). We utilized a neonatal iron-feeding model to exacerbate the motor phenotype of the transgenic mouse model...
June 16, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622637/children-benefit-differently-from-night-and-day-time-sleep-in-motor-learning
#8
Jin H Yan
Motor skill acquisition occurs while practicing (on-line) and when asleep or awake (off-line). However, developmental questions still remain about whether children of various ages benefit similarly or differentially from night- and day-time sleeping. The likely circadian effects (time-of-day) and the possible between-test-interference (order effects) associated with children's off-line motor learning are currently unknown. Therefore, this study examines the contributions of over-night sleeping and mid-day napping to procedural skill learning...
June 13, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599953/naps-improve-new-walkers-locomotor-problem-solving
#9
Sarah E Berger, Anat Scher
In this first study of the impact of sleep on infants' problem solving of a locomotor task, 28 newly walking infants who were within a week of having given up crawling trained to navigate a shoulder-height tunnel to reach a caregiver waiting at the end. During the transitional window between crawling and walking, infants are reluctant to return to crawling, making this task uniquely challenging. Infants were randomly assigned to either nap or stay awake during a delay between training and a later test session...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587561/short-term-motor-learning-and-retention-during-visually-guided-walking-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Kayla McGowan, Shaila M Gunn, Galina Vorobeychik, Daniel S Marigold
BACKGROUND: The ability to adapt, a form of short-term motor learning, and retain this adaptation, is essential for rehabilitation and for day-to-day living. Yet little research is available on this topic in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), particularly in relation to complex walking tasks. OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of PwMS to learn and retain a novel relationship between visual input and motor output-or visuomotor map-during visually guided walking...
June 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577066/comparison-of-the-psychopharmacological-effects-of-tiletamine-and-ketamine-in-rodents
#11
Piotr Popik, Małgorzata Hołuj, Tomasz Kos, Gabriel Nowak, Tadeusz Librowski, Kinga Sałat
The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine (KET) produces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in patients. Tiletamine (TIL; 2-ethylamino-2-thiophen-2-yl-cyclohexan-1-one) is another uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, used in a medical (veterinary) setting as an anesthetic tranquilizer. Here, we compared the behavioral actions of KET and TIL in a variety of tests, focusing on antidepressant-like and dissociative-like effects in mice and rats. The minimum effective doses of KET and TIL were 10 mg/kg to reduce mouse forced swim test immobility and 15 mg/kg to reduce marble-burying behavior...
June 2, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576309/bndf-heterozygosity-is-associated-with-memory-deficits-and-alterations-in-cortical-and-hippocampal-eeg-power
#12
Phillip A Geist, Brooke N Dulka, Abigail Barnes, Michael Totty, Subimal Datta
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in structural plasticity, learning, and memory. Electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power in the cortex and hippocampus has also been correlated with learning and memory. In this study, we investigated the effect of globally reduced BDNF levels on learning behavior and EEG power via BDNF heterozygous (KO) rats. We employed several behavioral tests that are thought to depend on cortical and hippocampal plasticity to varying degrees: novel object recognition, a test that is reliant on a variety of cognitive systems; contextual fear, which is highly hippocampal-dependent; and cued fear, which has been shown to be amygdala-dependent...
May 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566463/functional-connectivity-between-somatosensory-and-motor-brain-areas-predicts-individual-differences-in-motor-learning-by-observing
#13
Heather R McGregor, Paul L Gribble
Action observation can facilitate the acquisition of novel motor skills, however, there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which observation promotes motor learning. Here we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in brain function or structure can predict subsequent observation-related gains in motor learning. Subjects underwent an anatomical MRI scan and resting-state fMRI scans to assess pre-observation grey matter volume and pre-observation resting-state functional connectivity (FC), respectively...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560254/unravelling-socio-motor-biomarkers-in-schizophrenia
#14
Piotr Słowiński, Francesco Alderisio, Chao Zhai, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Catherine Bortolon, Delphine Capdevielle, Laura Cohen, Mahdi Khoramshahi, Aude Billard, Robin Salesse, Mathieu Gueugnon, Ludovic Marin, Benoit G Bardy, Mario di Bernardo, Stephane Raffard, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova
We present novel, low-cost and non-invasive potential diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia. They are based on the 'mirror-game', a coordination task in which two partners are asked to mimic each other's hand movements. In particular, we use the patient's solo movement, recorded in the absence of a partner, and motion recorded during interaction with an artificial agent, a computer avatar or a humanoid robot. In order to discriminate between the patients and controls, we employ statistical learning techniques, which we apply to nonverbal synchrony and neuromotor features derived from the participants' movement data...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555185/molecular-determinants-of-cephalopod-muscles-and-their-implication-in-muscle-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Letizia Zullo, Sara M Fossati, Pamela Imperadore, Marie-Therese Nödl
The ability to regenerate whole-body structures has been studied for many decades and is of particular interest for stem cell research due to its therapeutic potential. Several vertebrate and invertebrate species have been used as model systems to study pathways involved in regeneration in the past. Among invertebrates, cephalopods are considered as highly evolved organisms, which exhibit elaborate behavioral characteristics when compared to other mollusks including active predation, extraordinary manipulation, and learning abilities...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555104/tdcs-over-the-motor-cortex-shows-differential-effects-on-action-and-object-words-in-associative-word-learning-in-healthy-aging
#16
Meret Branscheidt, Julia Hoppe, Nils Freundlieb, Pienie Zwitserlood, Gianpiero Liuzzi
Healthy aging is accompanied by a continuous decline in cognitive functions. For example, the ability to learn languages decreases with age, while the neurobiological underpinnings for the decline in learning abilities are not known exactly. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in combination with appropriate experimental paradigms, is a well-established technique to investigate the mechanisms of learning. Based on previous results in young adults, we tested the suitability of an associative learning paradigm for the acquisition of action- and object-related words in a cohort of older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545630/the-role-of-motor-imagery-in-learning-via-instructions
#17
Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
Learning via instructions and learning through physical practice are complementary pathways to obtain skilled performance. Whereas an initial task representation can be formed on the basis of instructions, physically practicing novel instructions leads to a shift in processing mode from controlled processing toward more automatic processing. This shift in processing mode is supposedly caused by the formation of a pragmatic task representation, which includes task parameters needed to attain skilled task execution...
May 23, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532464/neurorehabilitation-in-upper-limb-amputation-understanding-how-neurophysiological-changes-can-affect-functional-rehabilitation
#18
REVIEW
Lewis A Wheaton
BACKGROUND: Significant advances have been made in developing new prosthetic technologies with the goal of restoring function to persons that suffer partial or complete loss of the upper limb. Despite these technological advances, many challenges remain in understanding barriers in patient adoption of technology, and what critical factors should be of focus in prosthetics development from a motor control perspective. This points to a potential opportunity to improve our understanding of amputation using neurophysiology and plasticity, and integrate this knowledge into the development of prosthetics technology in novel ways...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#19
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530229/deep-sleep-maintains-learning-efficiency-of-the-human-brain
#20
Sara Fattinger, Toon T de Beukelaar, Kathy L Ruddy, Carina Volk, Natalie C Heyse, Joshua A Herbst, Richard H R Hahnloser, Nicole Wenderoth, Reto Huber
It is hypothesized that deep sleep is essential for restoring the brain's capacity to learn efficiently, especially in regions heavily activated during the day. However, causal evidence in humans has been lacking due to the inability to sleep deprive one target area while keeping the natural sleep pattern intact. Here we introduce a novel approach to focally perturb deep sleep in motor cortex, and investigate the consequences on behavioural and neurophysiological markers of neuroplasticity arising from dedicated motor practice...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
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