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Novel motor learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467693/sensorimotor-learning-during-a-marksmanship-task-in-immersive-virtual-reality
#1
Hrishikesh M Rao, Rajan Khanna, David J Zielinski, Yvonne Lu, Jillian M Clements, Nicholas D Potter, Marc A Sommer, Regis Kopper, Lawrence G Appelbaum
Sensorimotor learning refers to improvements that occur through practice in the performance of sensory-guided motor behaviors. Leveraging novel technical capabilities of an immersive virtual environment, we probed the component kinematic processes that mediate sensorimotor learning. Twenty naïve subjects performed a simulated marksmanship task modeled after Olympic Trap Shooting standards. We measured movement kinematics and shooting performance as participants practiced 350 trials while receiving trial-by-trial feedback about shooting success...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455676/evaluation-of-an-ophthalmoscopy-simulator-to-teach-funduscopy-skills-to-pediatric-residents
#2
Elizabeth Kouzmitcheva, Stephanie A Grover, Tara Berenbaum, Asim Ali, Adelle Atkinson, E Ann Yeh
BACKGROUND: Medical school and residency training in ophthalmoscopic evaluation is limited, reducing diagnostic accuracy. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of self-study using an ophthalmoscopy simulator to improve the technical motor skills involved in direct funduscopy in postgraduate pediatric residents. METHODS: In this randomized-controlled study, 17 pediatric residents (postgraduate years 1-3) were randomized to control (n=8) or intervention (n=9) groups...
February 19, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453101/can-higher-training-practice-dosage-with-treadmill-slip-perturbation-necessarily-reduce-risk-of-falls-following-overground-slip
#3
Anna Lee, Tanvi Bhatt, Xuan Liu, Yiru Wang, Yi-Chung Pai
BACKGROUND: Perturbation training is an emerging paradigm to reduce idiopathic falls (without clinical signs or symptoms) in older adults. While a higher threat dosage (intensity) in motor learning often directly relates to greater adaptation, retention, and generalization, little is known whether increasing the practice dosage (repetition) of slip-perturbation training would necessarily improve its outcomes. RESEARCH QUESTION: Can higher practice dosage of treadmill slip-perturbation training lead to greater generalization to an overground slip immediately after the training? METHODS: Forty-five community-dwelling older adults (73...
February 13, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432116/improved-prosthetic-control-based-on-myoelectric-pattern-recognition-via-wavelet-based-de-noising
#4
Julian Maier, Adam Naber, Max Ortiz-Catalan
Real-time inference of human motor volition has great potential for the intuitive control of robotic devices. Toward this end, myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) has shown promise in the control of prosthetic limbs. Interfering noise and susceptibility to motion artifacts have hindered the use of MPR outside controlled environments, and thus represent an obstacle for clinical use. Advanced signal processing techniques have been previously proposed to improve the robustness of MPR systems. However, the investigation of such techniques have been limited to offline implementations with long time windows, which makes real-time use unattainable...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406402/impaired-cognitive-performance-in-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-knock-out-mice-after-ischemic-stroke-a-pilot-study
#5
Shanshan Li, Yao Wang, Ze Jiang, Yaping Huai, James K Liao, Kaari A Lynch, Ross Zafonte, Lisa J Wood, Qing Mei Wang
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction and dementia are common following ischemic stroke. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been found to play an important role in neurological function and cognition. The purpose of the present study was to assess the specific role of eNOS in cognitive performance after stroke. DESIGN: Male wildtype (WT) and mice lacking eNOS (eNOS) underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham-surgery. Primary outcomes were repeated measures of neurological score, limb asymmetry, sensory/motor function and spatial memory/learning assessed at intervals up to 28-days post-surgery...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404634/neural-changes-associated-with-cerebellar-tdcs-studied-using-mr-spectroscopy
#6
Roya Jalali, Alimul Chowdhury, Martin Wilson, R Chris Miall, Joseph M Galea
Anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is known to enhance motor learning, and therefore, has been suggested to hold promise as a therapeutic intervention. However, the neural mechanisms underpinning the effects of cerebellar tDCS are currently unknown. We investigated the neural changes associated with cerebellar tDCS using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). 34 healthy participants were divided into two groups which received either concurrent anodal or sham cerebellar tDCS during a visuomotor adaptation task...
February 5, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374536/cognitive-flexibility-deficits-following-6-ohda-lesions-of-the-rat-dorsomedial-striatum
#7
Gena M Grospe, Phillip M Baker, Michael E Ragozzino
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by severe motor deficits and reduced striatal dopamine levels. PD patients also commonly exhibit cognitive flexibility impairments, e.g. probabilistic reversal learning deficits that limit daily living. However, less is known about how decreased striatal dopamine signaling affects cognitive flexibility. Past studies indicate that the rat dorsomedial striatum is a striatal subregion that supports cognitive flexibility. Because PD patients exhibit probabilistic reversal learning deficits, the present experiment investigated whether the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the dorsomedial striatum of male Long-Evans rats affects the acquisition and/or reversal learning of a spatial discrimination using a probabilistic learning procedure (80/20)...
January 24, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372883/brain-repair-by-hematopoietic-growth-factors-in-the-subacute-phase-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Gentian Toshkezi, Michele Kyle, Sharon L Longo, Lawrence S Chin, Li-Ru Zhao
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of long-term disability and death in young adults. The lack of pharmaceutical therapy for post-acute TBI recovery remains a crucial medical challenge. Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which are 2 key hematopoietic growth factors, have shown neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in experimental stroke. The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment (SCF + G-CSF) in subacute TBI...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360489/voluntary-exercise-impact-on-cognitive-impairments-in-sleep-deprived-intact-female-rats
#9
Mohammad Amin Rajizadeh, Khadijeh Esmaeilpour, Yaser Masomi-Ardakani, Mohammad Abbas Bejeshk, Mohammad Shabani, Nouzar Nakhaee, Mohammad Pour Ranjbar, Fatemeh Mohtashami Borzadaran, Vahid Sheibani
Sleep loss is a common problem in modern societies affecting different aspects of individuals' lives. Many studies have reported that sleep deprivation (SD) leads to impairments in various types of learning and memory. Physical exercise has been suggested to attenuate the cognitive impairments induced by sleep deprivation in male rats. Our previous studies have shown that forced exercise by treadmill improved learning and memory impairments following SD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of voluntary exercise by running wheel on cognitive, motor and anxiety-like behavior functions of female rats following 72h SD...
January 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357477/emergent-coordination-underlying-learning-to-reach-to-grasp-with-a-brain-machine-interface
#10
Mukta Vaidya, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Joshua Southerland, Islam Badreldin, Ahmed Eleryan, Kelsey Shattuck, Suchin Gururangan, Marc W Slutzky, Leslie C Osborne, Andrew H Fagg, Karim G Oweiss, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The development of coordinated reach to grasp has been well-studied in infants and children (Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Stolze, Jöhnk, Boczek-Funcke, & Illert, 1998; von Hofsten, 1984a). However, the role of motor cortex during this development is unclear because it is difficult to study in humans. We took the approach using a brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm in rhesus macaques with prior therapeutic amputations to examine the emergence of novel, coordinated reach-to-grasp. Previous research has shown that after amputation, the cortical area previously involved in the control of the lost limb undergoes reorganization (Qi, Stepniewska, & Kaas, 2000; Schieber & Deuel, 1997; Wu & Kaas, 1999), but prior BMI work has largely relied on finding neurons that already encode specific movement-related information...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327266/social-targets-improve-body-based-and-environment-based-strategies-during-spatial-navigation
#11
Esther Kuehn, Xiaoli Chen, Pia Geise, Jan Oltmer, Thomas Wolbers
Encoding the position of another person in space is vital for everyday life. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific navigational strategies associated with encoding the position of another person in the wider spatial environment. We asked two groups of participants to learn the location of a target (person or object) during active navigation, while optic flow information, a landmark, or both optic flow information and a landmark were available in a virtual environment. Whereas optic flow information is used for body-based encoding, such as the simulation of motor movements, landmarks are used to form an abstract, disembodied representation of the environment...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324862/taking-two-to-tango-fmri-analysis-of-improvised-joint-action-with-physical-contact
#12
Léa A S Chauvigné, Michel Belyk, Steven Brown
Many forms of joint action involve physical coupling between the participants, such as when moving a sofa together or dancing a tango. We report the results of a novel two-person functional MRI study in which trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, and in which the two alternated between being the leader and the follower of joint improvised movements. Leading showed a general pattern of self-orientation, being associated with brain areas involved in motor planning, navigation, sequencing, action monitoring, and error correction...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309897/brain-state-flexibility-accompanies-motor-skill-acquisition
#13
Pranav G Reddy, Marcelo G Mattar, Andrew C Murphy, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Danielle S Bassett
Learning requires the traversal of inherently distinct cognitive states to produce behavioral adaptation. Yet, tools to explicitly measure these states with non-invasive imaging - and to assess their dynamics during learning - remain limited. Here, we describe an approach based on a distinct application of graph theory in which points in time are represented by network nodes, and similarities in brain states between two different time points are represented as network edges. We use a graph-based clustering technique to identify clusters of time points representing canonical brain states, and to assess the manner in which the brain moves from one state to another as learning progresses...
January 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305534/the-role-of-human-primary-motor-cortex-in-the-production-of-skilled-finger-sequences
#14
Atsushi Yokoi, Spencer A Arbuckle, Jörn Diedrichsen
Human primary motor cortex (M1) is essential for producing dexterous hand movements. While distinct subpopulations of neurons are activated during single finger movements, it remains unknown whether M1 also represents sequences of multiple finger movements. Using novel multivariate fMRI analysis techniques and combining evidence from both 3T and 7T fMRI data, we found that after 5 days of intense practice, premotor and parietal areas encoded the different movement sequences. There was little or no evidence for a sequence representation in M1...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287744/a-spherical-treadmill-system-to-train-head-fixed-adult-rats
#15
Anabel M M Miguelez Fernández, Ariel Burman, Alfredo I Martínez Cáceres, Camilo J Mininni, B Silvano Zanutto, Sergio E Lew
BACKGROUND: While spherical treadmills are widely used in mouse models, there are only a few experimental setups suitable for adult rats, and none of them include head-fixation. NEW METHOD: We introduce a novel spherical treadmill apparatus for head-fixed rats that allows a wide repertory of natural responses. The rat is secured to a frame and placed on a freely rotating sphere. While being head-fixed, it can walk in any direction and perform different motor tasks...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281317/changes-in-movement-transitions-across-a-practice-period-in-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#16
Maria I Grigos, Julie Case
This study examined changes in speech motor control across a movement transition between sounds within a motor learning task in children with apraxia of speech (CAS) and typical development (TD). It was investigated whether oral articulator movement was refined with practice and whether practice gains generalized to words not included in the practice session. A total of 16 children (ages 5-6) with CAS (n = 8) and TD (n = 8) participated in this study. Novel and real word tokens were produced at three time points...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277652/transient-synchronization-of-hippocampo-striato-thalamo-cortical-networks-during-sleep-spindle-oscillations-induces-motor-memory-consolidation
#17
Arnaud Boutin, Basile Pinsard, Arnaud Boré, Julie Carrier, Stuart M Fogel, Julien Doyon
Sleep benefits motor memory consolidation. This mnemonic process is thought to be mediated by thalamo-cortical spindle activity during NREM-stage2 sleep episodes as well as changes in striatal and hippocampal activity. However, direct experimental evidence supporting the contribution of such sleep-dependent physiological mechanisms to motor memory consolidation in humans is lacking. In the present study, we combined EEG and fMRI sleep recordings following practice of a motor sequence learning (MSL) task to determine whether spindle oscillations support sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation by transiently synchronizing and coordinating specialized cortical and subcortical networks...
December 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276976/behavioural-phenotypes-in-mice-after-prenatal-and-early-postnatal-exposure-to-intermediate-frequency-magnetic-fields
#18
Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Capstick Myles, Naarala Jonne, Viluksela Matti, Tanila Heikki, Juutilainen Jukka
Electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer, and induction heating cooking hobs. However, there are limited data on possible health effects of exposure to IF magnetic fields (MF). In the present study, we set out to assess cognitive and behavioural effects of IF MF in mice exposed during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Pregnant female mice were exposed continuously to 7...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249942/secretin-modulates-the-postnatal-development-of-mouse-cerebellar-cortex-via-pka-and-erk-dependent-pathways
#19
Lei Wang, Li Zhang, Billy K C Chow
Postnatal development of the cerebellum is critical for its intact function such as motor coordination and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that deprivation of secretin (SCT) from cerebellar Purkinje neurons impaired motor coordination and motor learning function, while leaving the potential role of SCT in cerebellar development to be determined. SCT and its receptor (SCTR) were constitutively expressed in the postnatal cerebellum in a temporal and cell-specific manner...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247674/developmental-exposure-to-low-level-ambient-ultrafine-particle-air-pollution-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#20
D A Cory-Slechta, J L Allen, K Conrad, E Marvin, M Sobolewski
Developmental exposures to ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) can produce multiple neuropathological and neurochemical changes that might contribute to persistent alterations in cognitive-type functions. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that developmental UFP exposure produced impairments in learning, memory and impulsive-like behaivors and to determine whether these were selective and thus independent of deficits in other behavioral domains such as motor activity or motivation...
December 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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