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High fructose corn syrup

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118995/added-fructose-as-a-principal-driver-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-public-health-crisis
#1
EDITORIAL
James J DiNicolantonio, Ashwin M Subramonian, James H O'Keefe
Fatty liver disease affects up to one out of every two adults in the western world. Data from animal and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of fatty liver disease and its consequences. Added fructose in particular, as a component of added sugars, may pose the greatest risk for fatty liver disease. Considering that there is no requirement for added sugars in the diet, dietary guidelines should recommend reducing the intake of added sugars to just 5% of total calories in order to decrease the prevalence of fatty liver disease and its related consequences...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096730/updates-on-dietary-models-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-current-studies-and-insights
#2
Kristen Stephenson, Lindsey Kennedy, Laura Hargrove, Jennifer Demieville, Joanne Thomson, Gianfranco Alpini, Heather Francis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease of increasing interest as its prevalence is on the rise. NAFLD has been linked to metabolic syndrome, which is becoming more common due to the Western diet. Since NAFLD can lead to cirrhosis and related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma, the increasing prevalence is concerning and medical therapy aimed at treating NAFLD is of great interest. Researchers studying the effects of medical therapy on NAFLD use dietary mouse models. The two main types of mouse model diets are the methionine- and cholinedeficient (MCD) diet and Western-like Diet (WD)...
November 2, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069975/the-combination-of-escitalopram-and-aripiprazole-investigation-of-psychomotor-effects-in-rats
#3
Roger Hudson, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggests that the antidepressant efficacy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram can be enhanced by the dopamine and serotonin partial agonist aripiprazole. Given the range of possible neurochemical interactions between these drugs, the current study investigated whether aripiprazole alters the hedonic and psychomotor effects of escitalopram. Male Sprague Dawley rats ( n=116) received 10 mg/kg/day escitalopram (subcutaneous), 2 mg/kg/day aripiprazole (subcutaneous), or combined aripiprazole + escitalopram, and were tested for consumption of incentive nutritional stimuli (high-fructose corn syrup and chow), stereotypy and locomotor activity...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960144/blood-pressure-regulation-reviewing-evidence-for-interplay-between-common-dietary-sugars-and-table-salt
#4
Harry G Preuss, Dallas Clouatre, Anand Swaroop, Manashi Bagchi, Debasis Bagchi, Gilbert R Kaats
A popular concept is that the significant global progression in prevalence and intensification of elevated blood pressure (BP) levels is due in part to dietary indiscretions. Excess intake of several food sources causing overweight/obesity plays an important role in BP perturbations. However, certain nutrients are involved in ways other than via body fat accumulation, particularly table salt (sodium chloride) and popular refined carbohydrates like dietary sugars (sucrose, fructose, high fructose corn syrup)...
September 29, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944721/early-life-sugar-consumption-has-long-term-negative-effects-on-memory-function-in-male-rats
#5
Emily E Noble, Ted M Hsu, Joanna Liang, Scott E Kanoski
OBJECTIVES: Added dietary sugars contribute substantially to the diet of children and adolescents in the USA, and recent evidence suggests that consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during early life has deleterious effects on hippocampal-dependent memory function. Here, we test whether the effects of early-life sugar consumption on hippocampal function persist into adulthood when access to sugar is restricted to the juvenile/adolescent phase of development. METHODS: Male rats were given ad libitum access to an 11% weight-by-volume sugar solution (made with high fructose corn syrup-55) throughout the adolescent phase of development (post-natal day (PN) 26-56)...
September 25, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922262/sugar-in-infants-children-and-adolescents-a-position-paper-of-the-european-society-for-paediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-committee-on-nutrition
#6
Nataša Fidler Mis, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Cristina Campoy, Magnus Domellöf, Nicholas D Embleton, Iva Hojsak, Jessie Hulst, Flavia Indrio, Alexandre Lapillonne, Walter Mihatsch, Christian Molgaard, Rakesh Vora, Mary Fewtrell
The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916568/perspective-the-paradox-in-dietary-advanced-glycation-end-products-research-the-source-of-the-serum-and-urinary-advanced-glycation-end-products-is-the-intestines-not-the-food
#7
Luanne R DeChristopher
Inconsistent research results have impeded our understanding of the degree to which dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) contribute to chronic disease. Early research suggested that Western-style fast foods, including grilled and broiled meats and French fries, contain high levels of proinflammatory advanced glycation end products (AGEs). However, recent studies with state-of-the-art ultraperformance LC-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) found that there is no evidence that these foods have elevated levels of dAGEs relative to other foods...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899857/high-fat-high-fructose-high-cholesterol-feeding-causes-severe-nash-and-cecal-microbiota-dysbiosis-in-juvenile-ossabaw-swine
#8
Matthew R Panasevich, Grace M Meers, Melissa A Linden, Frank W Booth, James W Perfield, Kevin L Fritsche, Umesh D Wankhade, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, J A Ibdah, R Scott Rector
Pediatric obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are on the rise in industrialized countries, yet our ability to mechanistically examine this relationship is limited by the lack of a suitable higher animal model. Here, we examined the effects of high fat, high fructose corn syrup, high cholesterol Western style diet (WD)-induced obesity on NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine. Juvenile female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol) or low-fat diet (CON/lean; 10...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877432/distinguishing-biologically-relevant-hexoses-by-water-adduction-to-the-lithium-cationized-molecule
#9
Matthew T Campbell, Dazhe Chen, Nicholas J Wallbillich, Gary L Glish
A method to distinguish the four most common biologically relevant underivatized hexoses, d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, and d-fructose, using only mass spectrometry with no prior separation/derivatization step has been developed. Electrospray of a solution containing hexose and a lithium salt generates [Hexose+Li](+). The lithium-cationized hexoses adduct water in a quadrupole ion trap. The rate of this water adduction reaction can be used to distinguish the four hexoses. Additionally, for each hexose, multiple lithiation sites are possible, allowing for multiple structures of [Hexose+Li](+)...
September 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757536/comparison-of-anti-obesity-effect-between-two-types-of-syrup-containing-rare-sugars-in-wistar-rats
#10
Masaru Ochiai, Kohei Misaki, Takako Yamada, Tetsuo Iida, Kazuhiro Okuma, Tatsuhiro Matsuo
D-Allulose-containing rare sugar sweeteners have been categorized into two types, rare sugar syrup (RSS), consisting of 4 rare monosaccharides, and modified glucose syrup (MGS), rich in D-allulose, which was previously referred to D-psicose. The anti-obesity effect of RSS and D-allulose has been already clarified, but that of rare monosaccharides other than D-allulose in RSS has not yet been well understood. Here, we investigated and compared the anti-obesity effect of RSS and MGS in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 dietary groups: a high-sucrose control diet group (S), a high-fructose corn syrup diet group (HFCS), an RSS diet group (RSS), and an MGS diet group (MGS)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703963/comparing-the-effects-of-sucrose-and-high-fructose-corn-syrup-on-lipid-metabolism-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-male-rats
#11
Joanna Sadowska, Magda Bruszkowska
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare, in an animal model, the effect of different sugar types (sucrose vs. high-fructose corn syrup 55%) consumed as 10% by weight of the diet (11.6% of daily caloric intake) on the amount of food consumed, body weight, fatty tissue deposits, concentrations of selected lipids, and atherogenic indices of blood plasma. Material and method. The experiment was carried out on 30 5-month-old Wistar male rats, fed three differ- ent diets, containing, amongst other foods, (1) ground unrefined cereal grains, (2) sucrose, (3) high-fructose corn syrup...
April 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676578/impact-of-the-north-american-free-trade-agreement-on-high-fructose-corn-syrup-supply-in-canada-a-natural-experiment-using-synthetic-control-methods
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Sanjay Basu, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. METHODS: We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA...
July 4, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650789/effects-of-cola-flavored-beverages-and-caffeine-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-and-metabolic-activity
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Roger P Dotsey, Elizabeth A S Moser, George J Eckert, Richard L Gregory
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of cola-flavored beverages and caffeine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. This study was designed to determine if carbonated beverages or caffeine can increase S. mutans growth and biofilm formation and metabolic activity in vitro, potentially leading to increased S. mutans-associated cariogenicity in children that consume them. STUDY DESIGN: Six different cola-flavored products, plus pure caffeine, and pure high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), at different concentrations similar to those in the beverages were tested...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649143/sugar-price-supports-and-taxation-a-public-health-policy-paradox
#14
Abby Dilk, Dennis A Savaiano
Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity...
May 2017: Nutrition Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632197/toxic-age-tage-theory-for-the-pathophysiology-of-the-onset-progression-of-nafld-and-ald
#15
REVIEW
Masayoshi Takeuchi, Jun-Ichi Takino, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Takanobu Takata, Mikihiro Tsutsumi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA), while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA) in the liver...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629187/suppression-of-ghrelin-exacerbates-hfcs-induced-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#16
Xiaojun Ma, Ligen Lin, Jing Yue, Chia-Shan Wu, Cathy A Guo, Ruitao Wang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Sridevi Devaraj, Peter Murano, Zheng Chen, Yuxiang Sun
High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is widely used as sweetener in processed foods and soft drinks in the United States, largely substituting sucrose (SUC). The orexigenic hormone ghrelin promotes obesity and insulin resistance; ghrelin responds differently to HFCS and SUC ingestion. Here we investigated the roles of ghrelin in HFCS- and SUC-induced adiposity and insulin resistance. To mimic soft drinks, 10-week-old male wild-type (WT) and ghrelin knockout (Ghrelin(-/-)) mice were subjected to ad lib. regular chow diet supplemented with either water (RD), 8% HFCS (HFCS), or 10% sucrose (SUC)...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507007/perspective-a-historical-and-scientific-perspective-of-sugar-and-its-relation-with-obesity-and-diabetes
#17
Richard J Johnson, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Peter Andrews, Miguel A Lanaspa
Fructose-containing added sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup, have been experimentally, epidemiologically, and clinically shown to be involved in the current epidemics of obesity and diabetes. Here we track this history of intake of sugar as it relates to these epidemics. Key experimental studies that have identified mechanisms by which fructose causes obesity and diabetes are reviewed, as well as the evidence that the uricase mutation that occurred in the mid-Miocene in ancestral humans acted as a "thrifty gene" that increases our susceptibility for fructose-associated obesity today...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447343/impact-of-perinatal-exposure-to-sucrose-or-high-fructose-corn-syrup-hfcs-55-on-adiposity-and-hepatic-lipid-composition-in-rat-offspring
#18
Carla R Toop, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Kerin O'Dea, Sheridan Gentili
KEY POINTS: Fructose-containing sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), have been implicated in the epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Few studies have evaluated the impact of perinatal exposure to these sugars on metabolic and physiological outcomes in the offspring. Using a rat model, offspring exposed to a maternal sucrose or HFCS diet during the prenatal and/or suckling periods were found to have altered adiposity and liver fat content and composition at weaning...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445436/irritable-bowel-syndrome-clinical-manifestations-dietary-influences-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Ronald Ikechi, Bradford D Fischer, Joshua DeSipio, Sangita Phadtare
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS...
April 26, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445389/fructose-glucocorticoids-and-adipose-tissue-implications-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Balázs Legeza, Paola Marcolongo, Alessandra Gamberucci, Viola Varga, Gábor Bánhegyi, Angiolo Benedetti, Alex Odermatt
The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
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