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High fructose corn syrup

Adriana Hernández, Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Jeffrey Lansdale, María Belén Salazar
Sweeteners are found in all types of foods, and their high consumption is associated with chronic degenerative diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, among others. A characterization was carried out of food products with sweeteners from the three biggest supermarkets at a national level; they were identified by the list of ingredients and classified according to caloric or non-caloric intake, and pursuant to their country of origin. A statistical interpretation of results was made using descriptive measures such as the number of times the sweeteners were found in the formulation of the products and how many of them were found in a product at the same time...
March 11, 2018: Nutrients
Matthew R Panasevich, Umesh D Wankhade, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, R Scott Rector
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome plays a critical role in the onset and progression of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, it is not well documented whether the cecal versus the fecal microbiome is more relevant when assessing its contribution to these diseases. Here, we amplified the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from cecal and fecal samples of female Ossabaw swine fed a low fat control diet (10.5% fat; n=4) or Western diet (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol; n=3) for 36 weeks...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Luc Tappy
Compared with other carbohydrates, fructose-containing caloric sweeteners (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, pure fructose and fructose-glucose mixtures) are characterized by: a sweet taste generally associated with a positive hedonic tone; specific intestinal fructose transporters, i.e. GLUT5; a two-step fructose metabolism, consisting of the conversion of fructose carbones into ubiquitous energy substrates in splanchnic organs where fructolytic enzymes are expressed, and secondary delivery of these substrates to extrasplanchnic tissues...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yeong-Jun Park, Byung Kwon Jung, Sung-Jun Hong, Gun-Seok Park, Jerald Conrad Ibal, HuyQuang Pham, Jae-Ho Shin
The enzyme xylose isomerase (EC, XI) is responsible for theconversion of an aldose to ketose, especially xylose to xylulose. Owing to the ability of XI to isomerize glucose to fructose, this enzyme is used in the food industry to prepare high-fructose corn syrup. Therefore, we studiedthe characteristics of XI from Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis G10, a thermophilic bacterium. First, a gene coding for XI (xylA) was insertedinto the pET-21a (+) expression vector and the construct was transformed into an Escherichia coli competent cell BL21 (DE3)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shengli Gao, Hideo Satsu, Toshiaki Makino
Bofutsushosan (BTS; fang feng tong sheng san in Chinese) is a formula in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese medicine comprising eighteen crude drugs, and is used to treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose is contained in refreshing beverages as high-fructose corn syrup, and is associated with obesity. Fructose is absorbed via glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) in the intestine. Therefore, the inhibition of GLUT5 is considered to be a target of obesity drugs. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of BTS extract and its constituents on fructose uptake using Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, i...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Thomas Jensen, Manal F Abdelmalek, Shelby Sullivan, Kristen J Nadeau, Melanie Green, Carlos Roncal, Takahiko Nakagawa, Masanari Kuwabara, Yuka Sato, Duk-Hee Kang, Dean R Tolan, Laura G Sanchez-Lozada, Hugo R Rosen, Miguel A Lanaspa, Anna Mae Diehl, Richard J Johnson
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and its rising prevalence parallels the rise in obesity and diabetes. Historically thought to result from overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle, recent evidence suggests that diets high in sugar (from sucrose and/or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) not only increases the risk for NAFLD, but also, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we review the experimental and clinical evidence that fructose precipitates fat accumulation in the liver, due to both increased lipogenesis and impaired fat oxidation...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
AnneMarie Levy, Stephen Daniels, Roger Hudson, Thomas Horman, Amanda Flynn, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Contrave® is an adjunct pharmacotherapy for obesity that contains bupropion (BUP) and naltrexone (NTX). To further explore the psychopharmacology of this drug combination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps releasing: 40 mg/kg/day BUP, 4 mg/kg/day NTX, or 40 + 4 mg/kg/day BUP and NTX (BN). During 12 days of exposure, the animals were tested on operant intraoral self-administration (IOSA) of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) on continuous (FR1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules, on home cage drinking of HFCS, and on HFCS taste reactivity...
February 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Baris Alten, Metin Yesiltepe, Arwa Al-Bayrakdar, Sadik Taskin Tas, Canan Kursungoz, Ana Martinez, Mehmet Yildirim Sara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Kameliya Bratoeva, George S Stoyanov, Albena Merdzhanova, Mariya Radanova
Introduction International studies show an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). It is assumed that the major components of MS - obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension - are linked to renal damage through the systemic release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, such as uric acid (UA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and generalized oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of kidney impairment and manifestations of dysfunction in rats with fructose-induced MS...
November 7, 2017: Curēus
Allison M Meyers, Devry Mourra, Jeff A Beeler
The contribution of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to metabolic disorder and obesity, independent of high fat, energy-rich diets, is controversial. While high-fat diets are widely accepted as a rodent model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and metabolic disorder, the value of HFCS alone as a rodent model of DIO is unclear. Impaired dopamine function is associated with obesity and high fat diet, but the effect of HFCS on the dopamine system has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test the effect of HFCS on weight gain, glucose regulation, and evoked dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
2017: PloS One
Lindsey Kennedy, Laura Hargrove, Jennifer Demieville, Jennifer Bailey, Wasim Dar, Kishore Polireddy, Qingzheng Chen, Moises I Nevah Rubin, Amelia Sybenga, Sharon DeMorrow, Fanyin Meng, Lindsey Stockton, Gianfranco Alpini, Heather Francis
Administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) coupled with sugar, mimicking a Western diet, causes fatty liver disease in mice. Histamine induces biliary proliferation and fibrosis, and regulates leptin signaling. Wild-type (WT) and l-histidine decarboxylase (Hdc-/-) mice were fed a control diet or a HFD coupled with a high fructose corn syrup equivalent. H&E and Oil Red O staining were performed to determine steatosis. Intrahepatic biliary mass and cholangiocyte proliferation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
Lakiea S Wright, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Emily Oken, Augusto A Litonjua, Diane R Gold
RATIONALE: Cross-sectional studies have linked intake of high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages with asthma in schoolchildren. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of maternal prenatal and early childhood intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fructose with current asthma in midchildhood (median age, 7.7 yr). METHODS: We assessed maternal pregnancy (first- and second-trimester average) and child (median age, 3.3 yr) intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and total fructose using food frequency questionnaires in 1,068 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a prospective prebirth cohort...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Stephen Daniels, Mick Pratt, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment self-report enhanced preferences for, and excessive consumption of, foods rich in sugar. However, it is unclear whether these are direct pharmacological effects of methadone or the consequences of metabolic dysfunctions induced by addiction to illicit opiates. Hence, the current study in drug-naïve male Sprague-Dawley rats explored the effects of steady-state methadone delivered by osmotic mini-pumps (13 days; 0, 10, 30 mg/kg/day) on consumption of rat chow and a palatable, sweet, liquid high fructose corn syrup solution...
February 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Mostafa Ibrahim, Susan Bonfiglio, Mathias Schlögl, Karyne L Vinales, Paolo Piaggi, Colleen Venti, Mary Walter, Jonathan Krakoff, Marie S Thearle
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to understand how the dietary source of carbohydrates, either high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or complex carbohydrates, affects energy expenditure (EE) measures, appetitive sensations, and hormones during 24 hours of overfeeding. METHODS: Seventeen healthy participants with normal glucose regulation had 24-hour EE measures and fasting blood and 24-hour urine collection during four different 1-day diets, including an energy-balanced diet, fasting, and two 75% carbohydrate diets (5% fat) given at 200% of energy requirements with either HFCS or whole-wheat foods as the carbohydrate source...
January 2018: Obesity
Armagan Aytug Yuruk, Reyhan Nergiz-Unal
BACKGROUND: Maternal dietary choices throughout preconception, pregnancy, and lactation irreversibly affect the development of fetal tissues and organs, known as fetal programming. Recommendations tend to emphasize reducing added sugars. However, the impact of maternal dietary free or bound fructose in added sugars on developmental programming of lipogenesis is unknown. METHODS: Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats were given feed and plain water (control) or water containing maltodextrin (vehicle), fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) containing 55% fructose, sucrose (20% w/v) for 12 weeks before mating and throughout the pregnancy and lactation periods...
December 1, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
T Dylan Olver, Zachary Ian Grunewald, Thomas J Jurrissen, Rebecca Ek MacPherson, Paul J LeBlanc, Teagan R Schnurbusch, Alana M Czajkowski, Maurice Harold Laughlin, R Scott Rector, Shawn B Bender, Eric M Walters, Craig A Emter, Jaume Padilla
BACKGROUND: Impaired microvascular insulin signaling may develop prior to overt indices of microvascular endothelial dysfunction and represent an early pathological feature of adolescent obesity. Using a translational porcine model of juvenile obesity, we tested the hypotheses that in the early stages of obesity development, impaired insulin signaling manifests in skeletal muscle (triceps), brain (prefrontal cortex) and corresponding vasculatures, and that depressed insulin-induced vasodilation is reversible with acute inhibition of protein kinase C beta (PKCβ)...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
James J DiNicolantonio, Ashwin M Subramonian, James H O'Keefe
Fatty liver disease affects up to one out of every two adults in the western world. Data from animal and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of fatty liver disease and its consequences. Added fructose in particular, as a component of added sugars, may pose the greatest risk for fatty liver disease. Considering that there is no requirement for added sugars in the diet, dietary guidelines should recommend reducing the intake of added sugars to just 5% of total calories in order to decrease the prevalence of fatty liver disease and its related consequences...
2017: Open Heart
Kristen Stephenson, Lindsey Kennedy, Laura Hargrove, Jennifer Demieville, Joanne Thomson, Gianfranco Alpini, Heather Francis
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease of increasing interest as its prevalence is on the rise. NAFLD has been linked to metabolic syndrome, which is becoming more common due to the Western diet. Since NAFLD can lead to cirrhosis and related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma, the increasing prevalence is concerning and medical therapy aimed at treating NAFLD is of great interest. Researchers studying the effects of medical therapy on NAFLD use dietary mouse models. The two main types of mouse model diets are the methionine- and cholinedeficient (MCD) diet and Western-like Diet (WD)...
November 2, 2017: Gene Expression
Roger Hudson, Yan Zhou, Francesco Leri
Pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggests that the antidepressant efficacy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram can be enhanced by the dopamine and serotonin partial agonist aripiprazole. Given the range of possible neurochemical interactions between these drugs, the current study investigated whether aripiprazole alters the hedonic and psychomotor effects of escitalopram. Male Sprague Dawley rats ( n=116) received 10 mg/kg/day escitalopram (subcutaneous), 2 mg/kg/day aripiprazole (subcutaneous), or combined aripiprazole + escitalopram, and were tested for consumption of incentive nutritional stimuli (high-fructose corn syrup and chow), stereotypy and locomotor activity...
December 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Harry G Preuss, Dallas Clouatre, Anand Swaroop, Manashi Bagchi, Debasis Bagchi, Gilbert R Kaats
A popular concept is that the significant global progression in prevalence and intensification of elevated blood pressure (BP) levels is due in part to dietary indiscretions. Excess intake of several food sources causing overweight/obesity plays an important role in BP perturbations. However, certain nutrients are involved in ways other than via body fat accumulation, particularly table salt (sodium chloride) and popular refined carbohydrates like dietary sugars (sucrose, fructose, high fructose corn syrup)...
November 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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